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Zinc Nutritional Status, Androgens, and Growth Retardation

Zinc Nutritional Status, Androgens, and Growth Retardation Abstract • Zinc levels were measured in hair and serum of boys with constitutional growth delay and familial short stature and in several boys before and after oral administration of methyltestosterone. These results show the following: (1) zinc levels in boys beyond stage 3 of genital development are significantly higher than in stage 1 and 2; (2) there is a linear relationship between zinc levels and serum testosterone concentration (up to 250 ng/dL); and (3) methyltestosterone administration raised the zinc concentration in serum and hair, especially in boys with constitutional growth delay. Therefore, increased endogenous production or exogenous supply of testosterone are associated with increased zinc levels. We speculate that the relative testosterone deficiency and hypogonadotropism seen in constitutional growth delay may result in decreased zinc levels, which in turn could cause a further delay in the appearance of secondary sexual characteristics and greater growth retardation. (Am J Dis Child 1981;135:322-325) References 1. Underwood EJ: Trace Elements in Human and Animal Nutrition . New York, Academic Press Inc, 1977, pp 214-216. 2. Prasad AS, Miale A, Farid Z, et al: Zinc metabolism in normals and patients with syndrome of iron deficiency, anemia, hypogonadism and dwarfism . J Lab Clin Med 1963;61:537-549. 3. Prasad AS, Schulert AR, Miale A, et al: Zinc and iron deficiencies in male subjects with dwarfism but without ancyclostomiasis, schistosomiasis or severe anemia . Am J Clin Nutr 1963; 12:437-444. 4. Abbasi AA, Prasad AS, Ortega J, et al: Gonadal function abnormalities in sickle cell anemia . Ann Intern Med 1976;85:601-605.Crossref 5. Antoniou LD, Sudhakar T, Shalhoub RJ, et al: Reversal of uremic impotence by zinc . Lancet 1977;2:895-898.Crossref 6. McClain CJ, Van Thiel DH, Parker S, et al: Alterations in zinc, vitamin A and retinol-binding protein in chronic alcoholics: A possible mechanism for night blindness and hypogonadism . Alcoholism Clin Exp Res 1979;3:135-141.Crossref 7. Hartoma RJ, Nahoul K, Netter A: Zinc, plasma androgens and male sterility . Lancet 1977;2:1125-1126.Crossref 8. Sandstead HH, Prasad AS, Schulert AR, et al: Human zinc deficiency: Endocrine manifestations and response to treatment . Am J Clin Nutr 1967;20:422-442. 9. Bayley N, Gordon GS, Lisser H: Long term experiences with methyltestosterone on a growth stimulant in short immature boys . Pediatr Clin North Am 1957;4:819-825. 10. Sharma RK, Collipp PJ, Thomas J, et al: Methyltestosterone in constitutional growth delay and familial short stature . NY State J Med 1973;73-2235-2239. 11. Marti-Henneberg C, Niirianen AK, Rappaport P: Oxandrolone treatment of constitutional short stature in boys during adolescence: Effect on linear growth bone age, pubic hair and testicular development . J Pediatr 1975;86:783-788.Crossref 12. de Lange WE, Snoep MC, Doorenbox H: The effect of short-term testosterone treatment in boys with delayed puberty . Acta Endocrinol 1979;91:177-183. 13. Greulich WW, Pyle ST: Radiographic Atlas of Skeletal Development of Hands, Wrists , ed 2. Stanford, Calif, Stanford University Press, 1959. 14. Dufay ML, Catt KJ, Tsuruhara T, et al: Radioimmunoassay of plasma testosterone . Clin Chim Acta 1972;37:109-116.Crossref 15. Tanner JM: Growth at Adolescence , ed 2. Oxford, England, Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1962. 16. Marshall WA, Tanner JM: Variations in the pattern of pubertal changes in boys . Arch Dis Child 1970;45:13-23.Crossref 17. Winter JSD, Faiman C: Pituitary-gonadal relations in male children and adolescents . Pediatr Res 1972;6:126-135.Crossref 18. Hidiroglou M, Williams CJ, Ho SK, et al: Zinc and manganese in accessory genital glands of male sheep: Distribution, uptake and effect of testosterone . Am J Vet Res 1979;40:103-107. 19. Mawson CA, Fischer MI: The occurrence of zinc in the human prostate gland . Can J Med Sci 1952;30:336-339. 20. Mawson CA, Fischer MI: Zinc and carbonic anhydrase in human semen . Biochem J 1953; 55:696-699. 21. Millar MJ, Elcoate PV, Manson CA: Sex hormone control of the zinc content of the prostate . Can J Biochem Physiol 1957;35:865-868.Crossref 22. Prout CR, Sierp M, Whitmore WF: Radioactive zinc in the prostate . JAMA 1959;169:1703-1710.Crossref 23. Prasad AS: Metabolism of zinc and its deficiency in human subjects , in Prasad AS (ed): Zinc Metabolism . Springfield, Ill, Charles C Thomas Publisher, 1966, pp 250-301. 24. Lindeman RD, Clark ML, Colmore JP: Influence of age and sex on plasma and red-cell zinc concentrations . J Gerontol 1971;26:358-363.Crossref 25. Lei KY, Abbasi A, Prasad AS: Function of pituitary-gonadal axis in zinc-deficient rats . Am J Physiol 1976;230:1730-1732. 26. Root WA, Duckett G, Sweetland M, et al: Effects of zinc deficiency upon pituitary function in sexually mature and immature male rats . J Nutr 1979;109:958-964. 27. Grumbach MM, Roth JC, Kaplan SL, et al: Hypothalamic-pituitary regulation of puberty in man: Evidence and concepts derived from clinical research , in Grumbach MM, Grave ED, Mayer FE (eds): The Control of the Onset of Puberty . New York, John Wiley & Sons Inc, 1974, pp 115-181. 28. Kulin HE, Reiter ED: Delayed sexual maturation with special emphasis on the occurrence of the syndrome in the male , in Grumbach MM, Grave ED, Mayer FE (eds): The Control of the Onset of Puberty . New York, John Wiley & Sons Inc, 1974, pp 238-257. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png American Journal of Diseases of Children American Medical Association

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1981 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0002-922X
DOI
10.1001/archpedi.1981.02130280012005
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Abstract

Abstract • Zinc levels were measured in hair and serum of boys with constitutional growth delay and familial short stature and in several boys before and after oral administration of methyltestosterone. These results show the following: (1) zinc levels in boys beyond stage 3 of genital development are significantly higher than in stage 1 and 2; (2) there is a linear relationship between zinc levels and serum testosterone concentration (up to 250 ng/dL); and (3) methyltestosterone administration raised the zinc concentration in serum and hair, especially in boys with constitutional growth delay. Therefore, increased endogenous production or exogenous supply of testosterone are associated with increased zinc levels. We speculate that the relative testosterone deficiency and hypogonadotropism seen in constitutional growth delay may result in decreased zinc levels, which in turn could cause a further delay in the appearance of secondary sexual characteristics and greater growth retardation. (Am J Dis Child 1981;135:322-325) References 1. Underwood EJ: Trace Elements in Human and Animal Nutrition . New York, Academic Press Inc, 1977, pp 214-216. 2. Prasad AS, Miale A, Farid Z, et al: Zinc metabolism in normals and patients with syndrome of iron deficiency, anemia, hypogonadism and dwarfism . J Lab Clin Med 1963;61:537-549. 3. Prasad AS, Schulert AR, Miale A, et al: Zinc and iron deficiencies in male subjects with dwarfism but without ancyclostomiasis, schistosomiasis or severe anemia . Am J Clin Nutr 1963; 12:437-444. 4. Abbasi AA, Prasad AS, Ortega J, et al: Gonadal function abnormalities in sickle cell anemia . Ann Intern Med 1976;85:601-605.Crossref 5. Antoniou LD, Sudhakar T, Shalhoub RJ, et al: Reversal of uremic impotence by zinc . Lancet 1977;2:895-898.Crossref 6. McClain CJ, Van Thiel DH, Parker S, et al: Alterations in zinc, vitamin A and retinol-binding protein in chronic alcoholics: A possible mechanism for night blindness and hypogonadism . Alcoholism Clin Exp Res 1979;3:135-141.Crossref 7. Hartoma RJ, Nahoul K, Netter A: Zinc, plasma androgens and male sterility . Lancet 1977;2:1125-1126.Crossref 8. Sandstead HH, Prasad AS, Schulert AR, et al: Human zinc deficiency: Endocrine manifestations and response to treatment . Am J Clin Nutr 1967;20:422-442. 9. Bayley N, Gordon GS, Lisser H: Long term experiences with methyltestosterone on a growth stimulant in short immature boys . Pediatr Clin North Am 1957;4:819-825. 10. Sharma RK, Collipp PJ, Thomas J, et al: Methyltestosterone in constitutional growth delay and familial short stature . NY State J Med 1973;73-2235-2239. 11. Marti-Henneberg C, Niirianen AK, Rappaport P: Oxandrolone treatment of constitutional short stature in boys during adolescence: Effect on linear growth bone age, pubic hair and testicular development . J Pediatr 1975;86:783-788.Crossref 12. de Lange WE, Snoep MC, Doorenbox H: The effect of short-term testosterone treatment in boys with delayed puberty . Acta Endocrinol 1979;91:177-183. 13. Greulich WW, Pyle ST: Radiographic Atlas of Skeletal Development of Hands, Wrists , ed 2. Stanford, Calif, Stanford University Press, 1959. 14. Dufay ML, Catt KJ, Tsuruhara T, et al: Radioimmunoassay of plasma testosterone . Clin Chim Acta 1972;37:109-116.Crossref 15. Tanner JM: Growth at Adolescence , ed 2. Oxford, England, Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1962. 16. Marshall WA, Tanner JM: Variations in the pattern of pubertal changes in boys . Arch Dis Child 1970;45:13-23.Crossref 17. Winter JSD, Faiman C: Pituitary-gonadal relations in male children and adolescents . Pediatr Res 1972;6:126-135.Crossref 18. Hidiroglou M, Williams CJ, Ho SK, et al: Zinc and manganese in accessory genital glands of male sheep: Distribution, uptake and effect of testosterone . Am J Vet Res 1979;40:103-107. 19. Mawson CA, Fischer MI: The occurrence of zinc in the human prostate gland . Can J Med Sci 1952;30:336-339. 20. Mawson CA, Fischer MI: Zinc and carbonic anhydrase in human semen . Biochem J 1953; 55:696-699. 21. Millar MJ, Elcoate PV, Manson CA: Sex hormone control of the zinc content of the prostate . Can J Biochem Physiol 1957;35:865-868.Crossref 22. Prout CR, Sierp M, Whitmore WF: Radioactive zinc in the prostate . JAMA 1959;169:1703-1710.Crossref 23. Prasad AS: Metabolism of zinc and its deficiency in human subjects , in Prasad AS (ed): Zinc Metabolism . Springfield, Ill, Charles C Thomas Publisher, 1966, pp 250-301. 24. Lindeman RD, Clark ML, Colmore JP: Influence of age and sex on plasma and red-cell zinc concentrations . J Gerontol 1971;26:358-363.Crossref 25. Lei KY, Abbasi A, Prasad AS: Function of pituitary-gonadal axis in zinc-deficient rats . Am J Physiol 1976;230:1730-1732. 26. Root WA, Duckett G, Sweetland M, et al: Effects of zinc deficiency upon pituitary function in sexually mature and immature male rats . J Nutr 1979;109:958-964. 27. Grumbach MM, Roth JC, Kaplan SL, et al: Hypothalamic-pituitary regulation of puberty in man: Evidence and concepts derived from clinical research , in Grumbach MM, Grave ED, Mayer FE (eds): The Control of the Onset of Puberty . New York, John Wiley & Sons Inc, 1974, pp 115-181. 28. Kulin HE, Reiter ED: Delayed sexual maturation with special emphasis on the occurrence of the syndrome in the male , in Grumbach MM, Grave ED, Mayer FE (eds): The Control of the Onset of Puberty . New York, John Wiley & Sons Inc, 1974, pp 238-257.

Journal

American Journal of Diseases of ChildrenAmerican Medical Association

Published: Apr 1, 1981

References