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Zinc Deficiency in Man

Zinc Deficiency in Man Abstract In 1869, Raulin1 first showed that zinc was essential for the growth of Aspergillus niger. In 1926, its essentiality for higher forms of plant life was established.2 Todd and coworkers3 (1934) showed that zinc was necessary for the growth and well being of the rat. In 1955, Tucker and Salmon4 reported that Zinc cures and prevents parakeratosis in swine. The salient features of zinc deficiency in rats include anorexia, growth retardation, coarse and sparse hair, lymphopenia, testicular atrophy, hyperkeratosis, and acanthosis and parakeratosis of the skin, esophagus, and forestomach. In 1958, O'Dell et al5 showed that zinc was required for growth and various other functions in birds. Zinc deficiency has been noted to occur in mice,6 and deficiency of zinc has been produced experimentally in calves,7 lambs,8 dogs,9 and young Japanese quails.10 Zinc deficiency in man, however, was once believed References 1. Raulin J: Études cliniques sur la vegetation . Ann Sci Natl Botan Biol Vegetale 11:93, 1869. 2. Sommer AL, Lipman CB: Evidence on the indispensable nature of zinc and boron for higher green plants . Plant Physiol 1:231-249, 1926.Crossref 3. Todd WR, Elvehjem CA, Hart EB: Zinc in the nutrition of the rat . Am J Physiol 107:146-156, 1934. 4. Tucker HF, Salmon WD: Parakeratosis or zinc deficiency disease in the pig . Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 88:613-616, 1955.Crossref 5. O'Dell BL, Newberne PM, Savage JE: Significance of dietary zinc for the growing chicken . J Nutr 65:503-518, 1958. 6. Nishimura H: Zinc deficiency in suckling mice deprived of colostrum . J Nutr 49:79-93, 1953. 7. Miller JK, Miller WJ: Experimental zinc deficiency and recovery of calves . J Nutr 79:467-474, 1962. 8. Ott EA, Smith WH, Stob M, et al: Zinc deficiency syndrome in the young lamb . J Nutr 82:41-50, 1964. 9. Robertson BT, Burns MJ: Zinc metabolism and the zinc deficiency syndrome in the dog . Am J Vet Res 24:997-1002, 1963. 10. Fox MRS, Harrison BN: Zinc deficiency and plasma proteins , in Prasad AS (ed): Zinc Metabolism . Springfield, Ill, Charles C Thomas Publisher, 1966, pp 187-200. 11. Prasad AS, Halsted JA, Nadimi M: Syndrome of iron deficiency anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, dwarfism, hypogonadism, and geophagia . Am J Med 31:532-546, 1961.Crossref 12. Beutler E: Tissue effects of iron deficiency , in Gross F (ed): Iron Metabolism . Berlin, Springer-Verlag, 1964, pp 256-272. 13. Sandstead HH, Prasad AS, Schulert AR, et al: Human zinc deficiency, endocrine manifestations and response to treatment . Am J Clin Nutr 20:422-442, 1967. 14. Halsted JA, Ronaghy HA, Abadi P, et al: Zinc deficiency in man: The Shiraz experiment . Am J Med 53:277-284, 1972.Crossref 15. Prasad AS, Miale A, Farid Z, et al: Zinc metabolism in normals and patients with the syndrome of iron deficiency anemia, hypogonadism and dwarfism . J Lab Clin Med 61:537-549, 1963. 16. Ronaghy HA, Reinhold JG, Mahloudji M, et al: Zinc supplementation of malnourished schoolboys in Iran: Increased growth and other effects . Am J Clin Nutr 27:112-121, 1974. 17. Halsted JA, Smith JC Jr, Irwin MI: A conspectus of research on zinc requirements of man . J Nutr 104:345-378, 1974. 18. Sandstead HH, Vo-Khactu KP, Solomon N: Conditioned zinc deficiencies , in Prasad AS (ed): Trace Elements in Human Health and Disease . New York, Academic Press Inc, to be published. 19. Prasad AS, Schoomaker EB, Ortega J, et al: Zinc deficiency in sickle cell disease . Clin Chem 21:582-587, 1975. 20. Oelshlegel FJ, Brewer GJ, Knutsen C, et al: Studies on the interaction of zinc with human hemoglobin . Arch Biochem Biophys 163:742-748, 1974.Crossref 21. Neldner KH, Hambidge KM: Zinc therapy of acrodermatitis enteropathica . N Engl J Med 292:879-882, 1975.Crossref 22. Moynahan EJ: Acrodermatitis enteropathica: A lethal inherited human zinc deficiency disorder . Lancet 1:399-400, 1974.Crossref 23. Prasad AS (ed): Zinc Metabolism . Springfield, Ill, Charles C Thomas Publisher, 1966. 24. Vallee BL: Biochemistry, physiology and pathology of zinc . Physiol Rev 39:443, 1959. 25. Prasad AS, Oberleas D, Halsted JA: Determination of zinc in biological fluids by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in normal and cirrhotic subjects . J Lab Clin Med 66:508-516, 1965. 26. Reinhold JG, Hedayati H, Lahimgarzadeh A, et al: Zinc, calcium, phosphorus, and nitrogen balances of Iranian villagers following a change from phytate-rich to phytate-poor diets . Ecol Food Nutr 2:1-6, 1973.Crossref 27. Prasad AS, Oberleas D: Ribonuclease and deoxyribonuclease activities in zinc-deficient tissues . J Lab Clin Med 82:461-466, 1973. 28. Hsu JM, Anthony WL: Impairment of cystine-35S incorporation into skin protein by zinc-deficient rats . J Nutr 101:445-452, 1971. 29. Somers M, Underwood EJ: Studies of zinc nutrition in sheep: II. The influence of zinc deficiency in ram lambs upon the digestibility of the dry matter and utilization of the nitrogen and sulfur of the diet . Aust J Agr Res 20:899-902, 1969.Crossref 30. Prasad AS, Oberleas D: Thymidine kinase activity and incorporation of thymidine into DNA in zinc-deficient tissue . J Lab Clin Med 83:634-639, 1974. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png American Journal of Diseases of Children American Medical Association

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1976 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0002-922X
DOI
10.1001/archpedi.1976.02120050017002
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Abstract

Abstract In 1869, Raulin1 first showed that zinc was essential for the growth of Aspergillus niger. In 1926, its essentiality for higher forms of plant life was established.2 Todd and coworkers3 (1934) showed that zinc was necessary for the growth and well being of the rat. In 1955, Tucker and Salmon4 reported that Zinc cures and prevents parakeratosis in swine. The salient features of zinc deficiency in rats include anorexia, growth retardation, coarse and sparse hair, lymphopenia, testicular atrophy, hyperkeratosis, and acanthosis and parakeratosis of the skin, esophagus, and forestomach. In 1958, O'Dell et al5 showed that zinc was required for growth and various other functions in birds. Zinc deficiency has been noted to occur in mice,6 and deficiency of zinc has been produced experimentally in calves,7 lambs,8 dogs,9 and young Japanese quails.10 Zinc deficiency in man, however, was once believed References 1. Raulin J: Études cliniques sur la vegetation . Ann Sci Natl Botan Biol Vegetale 11:93, 1869. 2. Sommer AL, Lipman CB: Evidence on the indispensable nature of zinc and boron for higher green plants . Plant Physiol 1:231-249, 1926.Crossref 3. Todd WR, Elvehjem CA, Hart EB: Zinc in the nutrition of the rat . Am J Physiol 107:146-156, 1934. 4. Tucker HF, Salmon WD: Parakeratosis or zinc deficiency disease in the pig . Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 88:613-616, 1955.Crossref 5. O'Dell BL, Newberne PM, Savage JE: Significance of dietary zinc for the growing chicken . J Nutr 65:503-518, 1958. 6. Nishimura H: Zinc deficiency in suckling mice deprived of colostrum . J Nutr 49:79-93, 1953. 7. Miller JK, Miller WJ: Experimental zinc deficiency and recovery of calves . J Nutr 79:467-474, 1962. 8. Ott EA, Smith WH, Stob M, et al: Zinc deficiency syndrome in the young lamb . J Nutr 82:41-50, 1964. 9. Robertson BT, Burns MJ: Zinc metabolism and the zinc deficiency syndrome in the dog . Am J Vet Res 24:997-1002, 1963. 10. Fox MRS, Harrison BN: Zinc deficiency and plasma proteins , in Prasad AS (ed): Zinc Metabolism . Springfield, Ill, Charles C Thomas Publisher, 1966, pp 187-200. 11. Prasad AS, Halsted JA, Nadimi M: Syndrome of iron deficiency anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, dwarfism, hypogonadism, and geophagia . Am J Med 31:532-546, 1961.Crossref 12. Beutler E: Tissue effects of iron deficiency , in Gross F (ed): Iron Metabolism . Berlin, Springer-Verlag, 1964, pp 256-272. 13. Sandstead HH, Prasad AS, Schulert AR, et al: Human zinc deficiency, endocrine manifestations and response to treatment . Am J Clin Nutr 20:422-442, 1967. 14. Halsted JA, Ronaghy HA, Abadi P, et al: Zinc deficiency in man: The Shiraz experiment . Am J Med 53:277-284, 1972.Crossref 15. Prasad AS, Miale A, Farid Z, et al: Zinc metabolism in normals and patients with the syndrome of iron deficiency anemia, hypogonadism and dwarfism . J Lab Clin Med 61:537-549, 1963. 16. Ronaghy HA, Reinhold JG, Mahloudji M, et al: Zinc supplementation of malnourished schoolboys in Iran: Increased growth and other effects . Am J Clin Nutr 27:112-121, 1974. 17. Halsted JA, Smith JC Jr, Irwin MI: A conspectus of research on zinc requirements of man . J Nutr 104:345-378, 1974. 18. Sandstead HH, Vo-Khactu KP, Solomon N: Conditioned zinc deficiencies , in Prasad AS (ed): Trace Elements in Human Health and Disease . New York, Academic Press Inc, to be published. 19. Prasad AS, Schoomaker EB, Ortega J, et al: Zinc deficiency in sickle cell disease . Clin Chem 21:582-587, 1975. 20. Oelshlegel FJ, Brewer GJ, Knutsen C, et al: Studies on the interaction of zinc with human hemoglobin . Arch Biochem Biophys 163:742-748, 1974.Crossref 21. Neldner KH, Hambidge KM: Zinc therapy of acrodermatitis enteropathica . N Engl J Med 292:879-882, 1975.Crossref 22. Moynahan EJ: Acrodermatitis enteropathica: A lethal inherited human zinc deficiency disorder . Lancet 1:399-400, 1974.Crossref 23. Prasad AS (ed): Zinc Metabolism . Springfield, Ill, Charles C Thomas Publisher, 1966. 24. Vallee BL: Biochemistry, physiology and pathology of zinc . Physiol Rev 39:443, 1959. 25. Prasad AS, Oberleas D, Halsted JA: Determination of zinc in biological fluids by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in normal and cirrhotic subjects . J Lab Clin Med 66:508-516, 1965. 26. Reinhold JG, Hedayati H, Lahimgarzadeh A, et al: Zinc, calcium, phosphorus, and nitrogen balances of Iranian villagers following a change from phytate-rich to phytate-poor diets . Ecol Food Nutr 2:1-6, 1973.Crossref 27. Prasad AS, Oberleas D: Ribonuclease and deoxyribonuclease activities in zinc-deficient tissues . J Lab Clin Med 82:461-466, 1973. 28. Hsu JM, Anthony WL: Impairment of cystine-35S incorporation into skin protein by zinc-deficient rats . J Nutr 101:445-452, 1971. 29. Somers M, Underwood EJ: Studies of zinc nutrition in sheep: II. The influence of zinc deficiency in ram lambs upon the digestibility of the dry matter and utilization of the nitrogen and sulfur of the diet . Aust J Agr Res 20:899-902, 1969.Crossref 30. Prasad AS, Oberleas D: Thymidine kinase activity and incorporation of thymidine into DNA in zinc-deficient tissue . J Lab Clin Med 83:634-639, 1974.

Journal

American Journal of Diseases of ChildrenAmerican Medical Association

Published: Apr 1, 1976

References