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Yellow Staining Caused by 4,4'-Methylenedianiline Exposure: Occurrence Among Molded Plastics Workers

Yellow Staining Caused by 4,4'-Methylenedianiline Exposure: Occurrence Among Molded Plastics Workers Abstract • Workers engaged in a molded plastics operation were studied to determine the etiology of yellow staining reactions involving the skin, nails, and hair. A walk-through survey of the facility, medical interviews, physical examinations, and blood and urine tests were performed. 4,4'-Methylenedianiline (MDA), a component chemical of the manufacturing process, produced intense yellow discoloration of nitrocellulose paper in the laboratory and appeared to volatilize readily under ambient conditions. Thirty-five (65%) of 54 process workers showed varying degrees of staining while 11 workers employed in other parts of the factory showed no staining. Yellow staining was restricted to areas of the body where direct contact with MDA appeared likely. Laboratory studies did not provide evidence of systemic toxic effect. Because MDA is a known hepatotoxin for man, with carcinogenic properties in animal test systems, it is important to recognize yellow staining as a cutaneous marker of exposure to this chemical. (Arch Dermatol 1985;121:1022-1027) References 1. Agrup G, Fregert S: Contact allergy to 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane . Contact Dermatitis Newsletter 1969;5:92. 2. Breit R: Diaminodiphenylmethane . Contact Dermatitis Newsletter 1969;5:93. 3. LeVine MJ: Occupational photosensitivit to diamodiphenylmethane . Contact Dermatitis 1983;9:488-490. 'Crossref 4. Zylberszac S: Action cirrohgene des diaminodiphenyles insolubles sur le foie du rat . CR Soc Biol 1951;145:136-137. 5. Schoental R: Carcinogenic and chronic effects of 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane: An epoxy resin hardener . Nature 1968; 219:1162-1163.Crossref 6. Fukushima S, Hibino T, Shibata M, et al: Intrahepatic bile duct proliferation induced by 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane in rats . Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1979;48:145-155.Crossref 7. Kopelman H, Robertson MH, Sanders PG, et al: The Epping jaundice . Br Med J 1966;1:514-516.Crossref 8. Kopelman H, Scheuer P, Williams R: The liver lesion of Epping jaundice . Q J Med 1966;25:553-564. 9. Kopelman H: The Epping jaundice after two years . Postgrad Med J 1968;44:78-81.Crossref 10. McGill DB, Motto J: An industrial outbreak of toxic hepatitis due to methylenedianiline . N Engl J Med 1974;291:278-282.Crossref 11. Williams SV, Bryan JA, Burk JR: Toxic hepatitis and methylenedianiline . N Engl J Med 1974;291:1256. 12. Brooks L, Neale JM, Pieroni DR: Acute myocardiopathy following tripathway exposure to methylenedianiline . JAMA 1979;242:1527-1528.Crossref 13. Takemura N, Shimizu H: Mutagenicity of some aromatic amino- and nitro-compounds . Mutat Res 1978;54:256-257.Crossref 14. Darby T, Johnson H, Northup S: An evaluation of a polyurethane for use as a medical-grade plastic . Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1978;46:449-453.Crossref 15. Lavoie E, Tulley L, Fow E, et al: Mutagenicity of aminophenyl and nitrophenyl ethers, sulfides and disulfides . Mutat Res 1979;67:123-131.Crossref 16. Munn A: Occupational bladder tumors and carcinogens: Recent developments in Britain , in Lampe KF (ed): Bladder Cancer: A Symposium . Birmingham, Ala, Aesculapius Publishing Co, 1967, pp 187-193. 17. Steinhoff D, Grundman E: Zür cancerogenen wirkung von 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane und 2,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane . Naturwissenschaften 1970;57:247-248.Crossref 18. Deichmann WB, MacDonald WE, Coplan M, et al: Di(4aminophenyl)-methane (MDA): Four to seven-year dog feeding study . Toxicology 1978;11:185-188.Crossref 19. National Toxicology Program: Carcinogenesis Studies of 4,4'-Methylenedianiline Dihydrochloride in F344/N Rats and B6C3F, Mice (Drinking Water Studies) (CAS No. 13552-44-8), US Dept of Health and Human Services, NTP-81-143, National Institutes of Health, Publication 83-2504, NTP TR 248, 1983. 20. 4,4'Diamino-diphenylmethane (DDM) . Washington, DC, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Current Intelligence Bulletin 8, 1976. 21. Sciarini LJ, Meigs W: The biotransformation of benzidine (4,4'-diaminodiphenyl): An industrial carcinogen in the dog: I. Arch Indust Health 1958;18:521-530. 22. Schwartz L, Tulipan L, Birmingham D: Occupational Diseases of the Skin . Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger, 1957, pp 439-443. 23. Code of federal regulations: 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine (and its salts) . Federal Register 1980;108( (July 1) ):614-619. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Dermatology American Medical Association

Yellow Staining Caused by 4,4'-Methylenedianiline Exposure: Occurrence Among Molded Plastics Workers

Archives of Dermatology , Volume 121 (8) – Aug 1, 1985

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1985 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-987X
eISSN
1538-3652
DOI
10.1001/archderm.1985.01660080076018
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract • Workers engaged in a molded plastics operation were studied to determine the etiology of yellow staining reactions involving the skin, nails, and hair. A walk-through survey of the facility, medical interviews, physical examinations, and blood and urine tests were performed. 4,4'-Methylenedianiline (MDA), a component chemical of the manufacturing process, produced intense yellow discoloration of nitrocellulose paper in the laboratory and appeared to volatilize readily under ambient conditions. Thirty-five (65%) of 54 process workers showed varying degrees of staining while 11 workers employed in other parts of the factory showed no staining. Yellow staining was restricted to areas of the body where direct contact with MDA appeared likely. Laboratory studies did not provide evidence of systemic toxic effect. Because MDA is a known hepatotoxin for man, with carcinogenic properties in animal test systems, it is important to recognize yellow staining as a cutaneous marker of exposure to this chemical. (Arch Dermatol 1985;121:1022-1027) References 1. Agrup G, Fregert S: Contact allergy to 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane . Contact Dermatitis Newsletter 1969;5:92. 2. Breit R: Diaminodiphenylmethane . Contact Dermatitis Newsletter 1969;5:93. 3. LeVine MJ: Occupational photosensitivit to diamodiphenylmethane . Contact Dermatitis 1983;9:488-490. 'Crossref 4. Zylberszac S: Action cirrohgene des diaminodiphenyles insolubles sur le foie du rat . CR Soc Biol 1951;145:136-137. 5. Schoental R: Carcinogenic and chronic effects of 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane: An epoxy resin hardener . Nature 1968; 219:1162-1163.Crossref 6. Fukushima S, Hibino T, Shibata M, et al: Intrahepatic bile duct proliferation induced by 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane in rats . Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1979;48:145-155.Crossref 7. Kopelman H, Robertson MH, Sanders PG, et al: The Epping jaundice . Br Med J 1966;1:514-516.Crossref 8. Kopelman H, Scheuer P, Williams R: The liver lesion of Epping jaundice . Q J Med 1966;25:553-564. 9. Kopelman H: The Epping jaundice after two years . Postgrad Med J 1968;44:78-81.Crossref 10. McGill DB, Motto J: An industrial outbreak of toxic hepatitis due to methylenedianiline . N Engl J Med 1974;291:278-282.Crossref 11. Williams SV, Bryan JA, Burk JR: Toxic hepatitis and methylenedianiline . N Engl J Med 1974;291:1256. 12. Brooks L, Neale JM, Pieroni DR: Acute myocardiopathy following tripathway exposure to methylenedianiline . JAMA 1979;242:1527-1528.Crossref 13. Takemura N, Shimizu H: Mutagenicity of some aromatic amino- and nitro-compounds . Mutat Res 1978;54:256-257.Crossref 14. Darby T, Johnson H, Northup S: An evaluation of a polyurethane for use as a medical-grade plastic . Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1978;46:449-453.Crossref 15. Lavoie E, Tulley L, Fow E, et al: Mutagenicity of aminophenyl and nitrophenyl ethers, sulfides and disulfides . Mutat Res 1979;67:123-131.Crossref 16. Munn A: Occupational bladder tumors and carcinogens: Recent developments in Britain , in Lampe KF (ed): Bladder Cancer: A Symposium . Birmingham, Ala, Aesculapius Publishing Co, 1967, pp 187-193. 17. Steinhoff D, Grundman E: Zür cancerogenen wirkung von 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane und 2,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane . Naturwissenschaften 1970;57:247-248.Crossref 18. Deichmann WB, MacDonald WE, Coplan M, et al: Di(4aminophenyl)-methane (MDA): Four to seven-year dog feeding study . Toxicology 1978;11:185-188.Crossref 19. National Toxicology Program: Carcinogenesis Studies of 4,4'-Methylenedianiline Dihydrochloride in F344/N Rats and B6C3F, Mice (Drinking Water Studies) (CAS No. 13552-44-8), US Dept of Health and Human Services, NTP-81-143, National Institutes of Health, Publication 83-2504, NTP TR 248, 1983. 20. 4,4'Diamino-diphenylmethane (DDM) . Washington, DC, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Current Intelligence Bulletin 8, 1976. 21. Sciarini LJ, Meigs W: The biotransformation of benzidine (4,4'-diaminodiphenyl): An industrial carcinogen in the dog: I. Arch Indust Health 1958;18:521-530. 22. Schwartz L, Tulipan L, Birmingham D: Occupational Diseases of the Skin . Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger, 1957, pp 439-443. 23. Code of federal regulations: 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine (and its salts) . Federal Register 1980;108( (July 1) ):614-619.

Journal

Archives of DermatologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Aug 1, 1985

References