Clinical Review & Education Special Communication Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects World Medical Association Adopted by the 18th WMA General Assembly, Helsinki, Finland, June 1964, and amended by the: 29th WMA General Assembly, Tokyo, Japan, October 1975 35th WMA General Assembly, Venice, Italy, October 1983 41st WMA General Assembly, Hong Kong, September 1989 48th WMA General Assembly, Somerset West, Republic of South Africa, October 1996 52nd WMA General Assembly, Edinburgh, Scotland, October 2000 53rd WMA General Assembly, Washington, DC, USA, October 2002 (Note of Clarification added) 55th WMA General Assembly, Tokyo, Japan, October 2004 (Note of Clarification added) 59th WMA General Assembly, Seoul, Republic of Korea, October 2008 64th WMA General Assembly, Fortaleza, Brazil, October 2013 Preamble bestproveninterventionsmustbeevaluatedcontinuallythrough research for their safety, effectiveness, efficiency, accessibility 1. The World Medical Association (WMA) has developed the Dec- and quality. laration of Helsinki as a statement of ethical principles for medi- cal research involving human subjects, including research on 7. Medicalresearchissubjecttoethicalstandardsthatpromoteand identifiable human material and data. ensure respect for all human subjects and protect their health and rights. The Declaration is intended to be read as a whole and each of its constituent paragraphs should be applied with consider-
JAMA – American Medical Association
Published: Nov 27, 2013
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