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Women in Medicine: Fantasies, Dreams, Myths, and Realities

Women in Medicine: Fantasies, Dreams, Myths, and Realities Abstract When little girls and young women discuss their thoughts about medical careers, listeners often consider the thoughts to be fantasies. The same thoughts of little boys and young men are considered to be dreams. The difference in reactions to illusions or capricious images (fantasies) vs conceived possibilities or probabilities (dreams) has stymied the budding careers of many women. These reactions, added to the myths regarding women and men, threaten the future of the medical profession in the United States. I hope to convince you of this by reviewing the current status of women in medicine and proposing alternatives to alleviate the problem. The gender gap in pay and occupations has narrowed during three periods of American history: the industrial revolution (1820 to 1850), the period from 1900 to 1930 in which there was a dramatic increase in white collar jobs, and now.1 The current trend involves women entering higher-paying References 1. Goldin C. Understanding the Gender Gap: An Economic History of American Women . New York, NY: Oxford University Press Inc; 1990. 2. Bickel J. Women in medical education . N Engl J Med . 1988;319:1579-1584.Crossref 3. Jacobson SJ, Rimm AA. Regional differences in the proportion of women among first year medical students in the United States . J Med Educ . 1986;61:911-913. 4. Spence JT, Helmreich RL, Holahan CK. Negative and positive components of psychological masculinity and femininity and their relationship to self reports of neurotic and acting out behaviors . J Pers Soc Psychol . 1979;37:1973-1982. 5. Harward DH, Lyons CM, Porter CQ, Hunter RS. A comparison of the performance of male and female medical students and residents . J Med Educ . 1981;56:853-855. 6. Barondess JA. Are women different? Some trends in the assimilation of women in medicine . J Am Med Wom Assoc . 1981;36:95-104. 7. Day SC, Norcini JJ, Shea JA, Benson JA Jr. Gender differences in the clinical competence of residents in internal medicine . J Gen Intern Med . 1989;4:309-312.Crossref 8. Brownlee RC, Butzin DW. Are women that different? J Am Med Wom Assoc . 1981;36:378. 9. Ellsbury KR, Schneeweiss DE, Montano KC, Gordon KC, Kuykendall D. Gender differences and practice characteristics of graduates of family medicine residency . J Med Educ . 1987;162:895-903. 10. Calkins EV, Arnold LM, Willoughby TL. Gender differences in predictors of performance in medical training . J Med Educ . 1987;62:682-685. 11. Crowley AE, Etzel SI. Graduate medical education in the United States . JAMA . 1988; 260:1093-1101.Crossref 12. Roback G. Randolph L, Seidman B, Mead D. Physician Characteristics and Distribution in the US, 1986 . Chicago, Ill: American Medical Association; 1987. 13. Brown S. Why the gender gap in earnings remains huge . Med Econ . 1985;62:173-186. 14. American Medical Association Center for Health Policy Research. Socioeconomic Monitoring System Report . Chicago, Ill: American Medical Association; 1987. 15. Kletke PR, Marder WD, Silberger AB. The growing proportion of female physicians: implications for US physician supply . Am J Public Health . 1990;80:300-304.Crossref 16. Schermerhorn GR, Colliver JA, Verhulst ST, Schmidt EL. Factors that influence career patterns of women physicians . J Am Med Wom Assoc . 1986;41:74-78. 17. Nadelson LL, Notman MT, Lowenstein P. The practice patterns, life styles and stresses of women and men entering medicine: a follow-up study of Harvard Medical School graduates from 1967-1977 . J Am Med Wom Assoc . 1979;34:400-406. 18. Heins M. Women in medicine: two points of view, II: medicine and motherhood . JAMA . 1983; 249:209-210.Crossref 19. Gregant MA, Fletcher SW. Housestaff pregnancy in internal medicine residencies . Ann Intern Med . 1985;102:123-125.Crossref 20. Grunebaum A, Minkoff H, Blake D. Pregnancies among obstetricians: a comparison of births before, during and after residency . Am J Obstet Gynecol . 1987;157:79-83.Crossref 21. Miller NH, Katz VL, Cefalo RC. Pregnancies among physicians . J Reprod Med . 1989;34: 790-796. 22. Phelan ST. Pregnancy during residency: the decision 'to be or not to be.' Obstet Gynecol . 1988;72:425-436. 23. Levinson W, Tolle S, Lewis C. Women in academic medicine . N Engl J Med . 1989;321:1511-1517.Crossref 24. Ogle KS, Henry RC, Durda K, Zivick JD. Gender specific differences in family practice graduates . J Fam Pract . 1986;23:357-360. 25. Sinai S, Weavil P, Camp MG. Child care choices of women physicians . JAMA . 1989;44:183-184. 26. Franco K, Evans CL, Best AP, Zrull JP, Pizza GA. Conflicts associated with physicians' pregnancies . Am J Psychiatry . 1983;140:902-904. 27. Sayres M, Wyshak G, Denterlein G, Apfel R, Shore E, Federman D. Pregnancy during residency . N Engl J Med . 1986;314:418-423.Crossref 28. Ferrier BM, Woodward CA. Career choices, work patterns, and preceptors of undergraduate education of McMaster medical graduates: comparison between men and women . Can Med Assoc J . 1982;126:1411-1414. 29. Zuckerman H. Persistence and change in the careers of men and women scientists and engineers: a review of current research . In: Dix LS, ed. Women: Their Underrepresentation and Career Differentials in Science and Engineering: Proceedings of a Conference . Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences; 1987:127-157. 30. Levey BA, Gentile NO, Jolly HP, Beaty HN, Levey GS. Comparing research activities of women and men faculty in departments of internal medicine . Acad Med . 1990;65:102-106.Crossref 31. Beaty HN, Babbott D, Higgins EJ, Jolly D, Levey GS. Research activities of faculty in academic departments of medicine . Ann Intern Med . 1986;104:90-97.Crossref 32. Rosen B, Jerdee THE. The influence of sex role stereotypes on evaluations of male and female supervisory behavior . J Appl Psychol . 1973;57:44-48.Crossref 33. Paludi MA, Strayer LA. What's in an author's name? Differential evaluations of performance as a function of author's name . Sex Roles . 1985;12:353-361.Crossref 34. Graves PL, Thomas CB. Correlates of midlife career achievement among women physicians . JAMA . 1985;254:781-787.Crossref 35. Ivey ES. Recruiting more women into science and engineering . Issues Sci Technol . 1987;4;83-87. 36. Weitzman LJ. Sex role socialization in picture books for preschool children . Am J Social . 1972;77:1125-1150.Crossref 37. Geis FL, Brown V, Jennings J, Walstedt JJ, Porter N. TV commercials as achievement scripts for women . Sex Roles . 1984;10:513-525.Crossref 38. Schwartz LA, Markham WT. Sex stereotypes in children's toy advertisements . Sex Roles . 1985;12:157-170.Crossref 39. Chavez D. Perpetuation of gender inequality: a content analysis of comic strips . Sex Roles . 1985;13:93-103.Crossref 40. Huston AC. Sex typing . In: Mussen PH, ed. Handbook of Child Psychology . 4th ed. New York, NY:John Wiley & Sons Inc; 1983. 41. Kemper T. Reference groups, socialization and achievement . Am Soc Rev . 1968;33:31-45.Crossref 42. Speizer JJ. Role models, mentors and sponsors: the elusive concepts . Signs . 1981;6:692-712.Crossref 43. Ochberg RL, Barton GM, West AN. Women physicians and their mentors . J Am Med Wom Assoc . 1989;44:123-126. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png American Journal of Diseases of Children American Medical Association

Women in Medicine: Fantasies, Dreams, Myths, and Realities

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1991 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0002-922X
DOI
10.1001/archpedi.1991.02160010053015
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract When little girls and young women discuss their thoughts about medical careers, listeners often consider the thoughts to be fantasies. The same thoughts of little boys and young men are considered to be dreams. The difference in reactions to illusions or capricious images (fantasies) vs conceived possibilities or probabilities (dreams) has stymied the budding careers of many women. These reactions, added to the myths regarding women and men, threaten the future of the medical profession in the United States. I hope to convince you of this by reviewing the current status of women in medicine and proposing alternatives to alleviate the problem. The gender gap in pay and occupations has narrowed during three periods of American history: the industrial revolution (1820 to 1850), the period from 1900 to 1930 in which there was a dramatic increase in white collar jobs, and now.1 The current trend involves women entering higher-paying References 1. Goldin C. Understanding the Gender Gap: An Economic History of American Women . New York, NY: Oxford University Press Inc; 1990. 2. Bickel J. Women in medical education . N Engl J Med . 1988;319:1579-1584.Crossref 3. Jacobson SJ, Rimm AA. Regional differences in the proportion of women among first year medical students in the United States . J Med Educ . 1986;61:911-913. 4. Spence JT, Helmreich RL, Holahan CK. Negative and positive components of psychological masculinity and femininity and their relationship to self reports of neurotic and acting out behaviors . J Pers Soc Psychol . 1979;37:1973-1982. 5. Harward DH, Lyons CM, Porter CQ, Hunter RS. A comparison of the performance of male and female medical students and residents . J Med Educ . 1981;56:853-855. 6. Barondess JA. Are women different? Some trends in the assimilation of women in medicine . J Am Med Wom Assoc . 1981;36:95-104. 7. Day SC, Norcini JJ, Shea JA, Benson JA Jr. Gender differences in the clinical competence of residents in internal medicine . J Gen Intern Med . 1989;4:309-312.Crossref 8. Brownlee RC, Butzin DW. Are women that different? J Am Med Wom Assoc . 1981;36:378. 9. Ellsbury KR, Schneeweiss DE, Montano KC, Gordon KC, Kuykendall D. Gender differences and practice characteristics of graduates of family medicine residency . J Med Educ . 1987;162:895-903. 10. Calkins EV, Arnold LM, Willoughby TL. Gender differences in predictors of performance in medical training . J Med Educ . 1987;62:682-685. 11. Crowley AE, Etzel SI. Graduate medical education in the United States . JAMA . 1988; 260:1093-1101.Crossref 12. Roback G. Randolph L, Seidman B, Mead D. Physician Characteristics and Distribution in the US, 1986 . Chicago, Ill: American Medical Association; 1987. 13. Brown S. Why the gender gap in earnings remains huge . Med Econ . 1985;62:173-186. 14. American Medical Association Center for Health Policy Research. Socioeconomic Monitoring System Report . Chicago, Ill: American Medical Association; 1987. 15. Kletke PR, Marder WD, Silberger AB. The growing proportion of female physicians: implications for US physician supply . Am J Public Health . 1990;80:300-304.Crossref 16. Schermerhorn GR, Colliver JA, Verhulst ST, Schmidt EL. Factors that influence career patterns of women physicians . J Am Med Wom Assoc . 1986;41:74-78. 17. Nadelson LL, Notman MT, Lowenstein P. The practice patterns, life styles and stresses of women and men entering medicine: a follow-up study of Harvard Medical School graduates from 1967-1977 . J Am Med Wom Assoc . 1979;34:400-406. 18. Heins M. Women in medicine: two points of view, II: medicine and motherhood . JAMA . 1983; 249:209-210.Crossref 19. Gregant MA, Fletcher SW. Housestaff pregnancy in internal medicine residencies . Ann Intern Med . 1985;102:123-125.Crossref 20. Grunebaum A, Minkoff H, Blake D. Pregnancies among obstetricians: a comparison of births before, during and after residency . Am J Obstet Gynecol . 1987;157:79-83.Crossref 21. Miller NH, Katz VL, Cefalo RC. Pregnancies among physicians . J Reprod Med . 1989;34: 790-796. 22. Phelan ST. Pregnancy during residency: the decision 'to be or not to be.' Obstet Gynecol . 1988;72:425-436. 23. Levinson W, Tolle S, Lewis C. Women in academic medicine . N Engl J Med . 1989;321:1511-1517.Crossref 24. Ogle KS, Henry RC, Durda K, Zivick JD. Gender specific differences in family practice graduates . J Fam Pract . 1986;23:357-360. 25. Sinai S, Weavil P, Camp MG. Child care choices of women physicians . JAMA . 1989;44:183-184. 26. Franco K, Evans CL, Best AP, Zrull JP, Pizza GA. Conflicts associated with physicians' pregnancies . Am J Psychiatry . 1983;140:902-904. 27. Sayres M, Wyshak G, Denterlein G, Apfel R, Shore E, Federman D. Pregnancy during residency . N Engl J Med . 1986;314:418-423.Crossref 28. Ferrier BM, Woodward CA. Career choices, work patterns, and preceptors of undergraduate education of McMaster medical graduates: comparison between men and women . Can Med Assoc J . 1982;126:1411-1414. 29. Zuckerman H. Persistence and change in the careers of men and women scientists and engineers: a review of current research . In: Dix LS, ed. Women: Their Underrepresentation and Career Differentials in Science and Engineering: Proceedings of a Conference . Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences; 1987:127-157. 30. Levey BA, Gentile NO, Jolly HP, Beaty HN, Levey GS. Comparing research activities of women and men faculty in departments of internal medicine . Acad Med . 1990;65:102-106.Crossref 31. Beaty HN, Babbott D, Higgins EJ, Jolly D, Levey GS. Research activities of faculty in academic departments of medicine . Ann Intern Med . 1986;104:90-97.Crossref 32. Rosen B, Jerdee THE. The influence of sex role stereotypes on evaluations of male and female supervisory behavior . J Appl Psychol . 1973;57:44-48.Crossref 33. Paludi MA, Strayer LA. What's in an author's name? Differential evaluations of performance as a function of author's name . Sex Roles . 1985;12:353-361.Crossref 34. Graves PL, Thomas CB. Correlates of midlife career achievement among women physicians . JAMA . 1985;254:781-787.Crossref 35. Ivey ES. Recruiting more women into science and engineering . Issues Sci Technol . 1987;4;83-87. 36. Weitzman LJ. Sex role socialization in picture books for preschool children . Am J Social . 1972;77:1125-1150.Crossref 37. Geis FL, Brown V, Jennings J, Walstedt JJ, Porter N. TV commercials as achievement scripts for women . Sex Roles . 1984;10:513-525.Crossref 38. Schwartz LA, Markham WT. Sex stereotypes in children's toy advertisements . Sex Roles . 1985;12:157-170.Crossref 39. Chavez D. Perpetuation of gender inequality: a content analysis of comic strips . Sex Roles . 1985;13:93-103.Crossref 40. Huston AC. Sex typing . In: Mussen PH, ed. Handbook of Child Psychology . 4th ed. New York, NY:John Wiley & Sons Inc; 1983. 41. Kemper T. Reference groups, socialization and achievement . Am Soc Rev . 1968;33:31-45.Crossref 42. Speizer JJ. Role models, mentors and sponsors: the elusive concepts . Signs . 1981;6:692-712.Crossref 43. Ochberg RL, Barton GM, West AN. Women physicians and their mentors . J Am Med Wom Assoc . 1989;44:123-126.

Journal

American Journal of Diseases of ChildrenAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jan 1, 1991

References