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WEIL'S DISEASE: REPORT OF SEVEN CASES

WEIL'S DISEASE: REPORT OF SEVEN CASES Abstract Weil's disease has been recognized since Weil described the condition in 1886. Whether or not Weil's four cases were actually cases of spirochetal jaundice is not known, since laboratory confirmation was not possible then. Japanese investigators1 in 1916 published the results of their study of the disease in their country and established the identity of the causative organism, later named Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae.2 Since 1916 cases have been reported from Europe, Asia, Africa, South America and North America and Australia.3 In the United States and Canada thirteen cases have been reported in which the etiologic agent was shown to be L. icterohaemorrhagiae.4 In these thirteen cases the clinical course did not differ materially from the usual course.5 In five cases the diagnosis was not made until autopsy.6 Some confusion exists in the diagnosis of Weil's disease, consisting chiefly in the differentiation of the disease from infectious jaundice. Weil's References 1. Inada, Ido, Hoki, Kaneko and Ito. 2. Noguchi, 1918. 3. Wadsworth and others; Hübner and Reiter, and Uhlenhuth and Fromme, 1915. 4. Wadsworth and others; Ball, and Jeghers, Houghton and Foley. 5. Inada. 6. McDowell; Bates; Ball, and Jeghers, Houghton and Foley. 7. Wadsworth and others and Blumer. 8. Wadsworth and others. 9. Noguchi, 1917. 10. Baermann and Zuelzer. 11. Buchanan. 12. Inada and others, 1916 13. Stokes, Ryle and Tytler. 14. Ido, Hoki, Ito and Wani. 15. Schürer and Stirl. 16. Lyon and Buchanan. 17. Reiter. 18. Uhlenhuth and Kuhn. 19. Blanchard, Lefrou and Laigret. 20. Noguchi, 1919 21. Schüffner. 22. Fairley. 23. Uhlenhuth and Fromme, 1930. 24. Manteufel. 25. Gaehtgens. 26. Hindle and White, and Lusena and Carlinfanti. 27. Brown. 28. Inada, Ido, Hoki, Ito and Wani 29. Baermann and Smits. 30. Aitken, A. B.; Connal, A.; Gray, G. M., and Smith, E. C.: Yellow Fever in Lagos During 1925 , Tr. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. & Hyg. 20:166 ( (June) ) 1926. 31. Baermann, G., and Smits, E.: Diagnose, Klinik Epidemiologie und Therapie der Kurzfriestigen Weilschen Erkrankung , Centralbl. f. Bakt. (Abt. 1) 105: 368, 1928. 32. Baermann and Zuelzer, M.: Ueber die Aetiologie der Weilschen Krankheit , Klin. Wchnschr. 6:979 ( (May 21) ) 1927. 33. Ball, Howard A.: Leptospiral Jaundice , Am. J. Clin. Path. 3:283 ( (July) ) 1933. 34. Bates, J. E.: Leptospirosis Icterohemorragica (Weil's Disease) , Canad. M. A. J. 16:1466 ( (Dec.) ) 1926. 35. Blanchard, M.; Lefrou, G., and Laigret, J.: Spirochétose ictérigène épidémique observée sur des indigènes à Brazzaville , Bull. Soc. path. exot. 16:184 ( (March 14) ) 1923. 36. Blumer, George: Infectious Jaundice in the United States , J. A. M. A. 81:353 ( (Aug. 4) ) 1923. 37. Brown, H. C.: Serological Diagnosis of Weil's Disease , Brit. M. J. 1:411 ( (March 2) ) 1935. 38. Buchanan, G.: Spirochetal Jaundice, Medical Research Council , Special Report Series, no. 113, London, His Majesty's Stationery Office, 1927. 39. Cushing, E. H.: Leptospirosis Icterohemorrhagica , J. A. M. A. 89:1041 ( (Sept. 24) ) 1927. 40. Dawson, Bertrand; Hume, W. E., and Bedson, S. P.: Infective Jaundice , Brit. M. J. 2:345 ( (Sept. 15) ) 1917. 41. Fairley, N. Hamilton: Weil's Disease Among Sewer Workers in London , Brit. M. J. 2:10 ( (July 7) ) 1934. 42. Gaehtgens, W.: Beitrag zur Serodiagnose der Weilschen Krankheit , Klin. Wchnschr. 12:697 ( (May 6) ) 1933. 43. Gay, Douglas Merrill, and Sellards, Andrew Watson: The Fate of Leptospira Icteroides and Leptospira Icterohemmorhagiae in the Mosquito, Aëdes Aegypti , Ann. Trop. Med. 21:321 ( (Oct. 10) ) 1927. 44. Hayman, J. M., and Lynch, F. B.: Spirochetal Jaundice in the United States , Am. J. M. Sc. 173:80 ( (Jan.) ) 1927. 45. Hindle, E., and White, P. B., in discussion on Schüffner. 46. Hübner, A., and Reiter, Hans: Beiträge zur Aetiologie der Weilschen Krankheit , Deutsche med. Wchnschr. 41:1275 ( (Oct. 21) ) 1915 47. 42:1 (Jan. 6) 48. 131 (Feb. 3) 49. 1282 (Oct. 19) 1916. 50. Ido, Y.; Hoki, R.; Ito, H., and Wani, H.: The Rat as a Carrier of Spirochaeta Ictero-Hemorrhagiae the Causative Agent of Weil's Disease , J. Exper. Med. 26:341 ( (Sept.) ) 1917. 51. Inada, Ryckichi: The Clinical Aspects of Spirochaetosis Ictero-Hemorrhagica or Weil's Disease , J. Exper. Med. 26:355, 1917. 52. —Ido, Y.; Hoki, R.; Ito, H., and Wani, H.: Intravenous Serotherapy of Weil's Disease , Inada J. Exper. Med. 27:283 ( (Feb.) ) 1918. 53. —Ido, Y.; Hoki, R.; Kaneko, R., and Ito, H.: The Etiology, Mode of Infection and Specific Therapy of Weil's Disease (Spirochaetosis Icterohemorrhagica) , Inada J. Exper. Med. 23:377 ( (March) ) 1916. 54. Jeghers, Harold J.; Houghton, John D., and Foley, John A.: Weil's Disease , Arch. Path. 20:447 ( (Sept.) ) 1935. 55. Jobling, J. W., and Eggstein, A. A.: The Wild Rats of the Southern States as Carriers of Spirochaeta Icterohemorrhagiae , J. A. M. A. 69:1787 ( (Nov. 24) ) 1917.Crossref 56. Langworthy, Virginia, and Moore, Anna C.: A Study of Leptospira Icterohemorrhagiae , J. Infect. Dis. 41:70 ( (July) ) 1927.Crossref 57. Lusena, M., and Carlinfanti, E.: Antigéne pour le diagnostic serologique de la spirochétose icterohemorrhagique , Soc. internaz. di microbiol., Boll. d. sez. ital. 6:77 ( (March) ) 1934. 58. Lyon, D. M., and Buchanan, G.: Spirochetal Jaundice: Report of a Small Epidemic , Lancet 1:504 ( (March 7) ) 1925.Crossref 59. McDowell, E. S.: A Case of Infectious Jaundice , New York State J. Med. 25:19 ( (Jan. 16) ) 1925. 60. Manteufel, P.: Vereinfachung des Züchtungsverfahrens von Weil Spirochäten , Deutsche med. Wchnschr. 47:461, 1921.Crossref 61. Mulholland, H. B., and Bray, W. E.: Spirochetal Jaundice , J. A. M. A. 90:1113 ( (April 7) ) 1928.Crossref 62. Neill, M. H.: The Problem of Acute Infectious Jaundice in the United States , Pub. Health Rep. 33:717 ( (May 10) ) 1918.Crossref 63. Noguchi, Hideyo: Spirochaeta Icterohemorrhagiae in American Wild Rats and Its Relation to the Japanese and European Strains , J. Exper. Med. 25:755 ( (May 1) ) 1917.Crossref 64. Morphological Characteristics and Nomenclature of Leptospira (Spirochaeta) Icterohemorrhagiae , Noguchi J. Exper. Med. 27:575 ( (May) ) 1918.Crossref 65. Etiology of Yellow Fever , Noguchi J. Exper. Med. 30:401 ( (Oct.) ) 1919.Crossref 66. Otteraaen, Andrew: The Spirochete of Infectious Jaundice (Spirocheta Icterohemorrhagiae, Inada; Leptospira, Noguchi) in the House Rats in Chicago , J. Infect. Dis. 29:485 ( (May) ) 1919.Crossref 67. Reiter, Hans: Beiträge zur Aetiologie der Weilschen Krankheit , Deutsche med. Wchnschr. 42:1282 ( (Oct. 19) ) 1916.Crossref 68. Sailor, Joseph: Leptospirosis Icterohemorrhagica (Weil's Disease) , Am. J. M. Sc. 170:332 ( (Sept.) ) 1925.Crossref 69. Schüffner, W.: Recent Work on Leptospirosis , Tr. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. & Hyg. 28:7 ( (June) ) 1934. 70. Schüffner and Mochtar, A.: Gelbfieber und Weilsche Krankheit , Arch. f. Schiffs- u. Tropen-Hyg. 31:149 ( (April) ) 1927. 71. Schürer, J.: Weil's Disease as the Result of an Accident , Med. Klin. 18:533 ( (April 23) ) 1922. 72. Stirl, Otto: Zur Lehre von der infectiösen fieberhaften, mit Icterus complicirten Gastroenteritis (Weil'sche Krankheit) , Deutsche med. Wchnschr. 15: 798 ( (Sept. 26) ) 1889. 73. Stokes, A.; Ryle, J. A., and Tytler, W. H.: Weil's Disease in the British Army in Flanders , Lancet 1:142 ( (Jan. 27) ) 1917. 74. Towler, Harry H., and Walker, John E.: Spirochetal Jaundice , J. A. M. A. 89:86 ( (July 9) ) 1927. 75. Uhlenhuth, Paul, and Fromme, W.: Experimentelle Untersuchungen über die sogenannte Weilsche Krankheit , Med. Klin. 11:1202 ( (Oct. 31) ) 76. 1264 (Nov. 14) 77. 1296 (Nov. 21) 78. 1375 (Dec. 12) 1915. 79. Weilsche Krankheit, in Kolle, W.; Kraus, R., and Uhlenhuth, P.: Handbuch der pathogenen Mikroorganismen , Jena, Gustav Fischer, 1930, vol. 7, pt. 1, p. 487. 80. Weilsche Krankheit and Kuhn, P.: Experimentelle Uebertragung der Weilschen Krankheit durch die Stallfliege , Ztschr. f. Hyg. u. Infectionskr. 84:517, 1917.Crossref 81. Weilsche Krankheit and Zuelzer, M.: Zur Epidemiologie der Weilschen Krankheit: Zugleich ein Beitrag zur Frage der freilebenden Spirochäten (icterogenesähnlichen und andere) , Centralbl. f. Bakt. (Abt. 1) 85:141 ( (Feb.28) ) 1921 82. Topley, W. W. C., and Wilson, G. S.: The Principles of Bacteriology and Immunity , ed. 1, Baltimore, William Wood & Company, 1929, vol. 2. 83. Wadsworth, Augustus; Langworthy, Virginia H.; Stewart, Constance F.; Moore, Anna C., and Coleman, Marion B.: Infectious Jaundice Occurring in New York State , J. A. M. A. 78:1120 ( (April 15) ) 1922.Crossref 84. Weil, Adolph: Ueber eine eigenthümliche, mit Mitztumor, Icterus und Nephritis einhergehende, acute Infektionskrankheit , Deutsches Arch. f. klin. Med. 39: 209 ( (July 28) ) 1886. 85. Wolbach, S., and Binger, L.: J. M. Research 30:23, 1914. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Internal Medicine American Medical Association

WEIL'S DISEASE: REPORT OF SEVEN CASES

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American Medical Association
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Copyright © 1937 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
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0730-188X
DOI
10.1001/archinte.1937.00180050084006
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Abstract

Abstract Weil's disease has been recognized since Weil described the condition in 1886. Whether or not Weil's four cases were actually cases of spirochetal jaundice is not known, since laboratory confirmation was not possible then. Japanese investigators1 in 1916 published the results of their study of the disease in their country and established the identity of the causative organism, later named Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae.2 Since 1916 cases have been reported from Europe, Asia, Africa, South America and North America and Australia.3 In the United States and Canada thirteen cases have been reported in which the etiologic agent was shown to be L. icterohaemorrhagiae.4 In these thirteen cases the clinical course did not differ materially from the usual course.5 In five cases the diagnosis was not made until autopsy.6 Some confusion exists in the diagnosis of Weil's disease, consisting chiefly in the differentiation of the disease from infectious jaundice. Weil's References 1. Inada, Ido, Hoki, Kaneko and Ito. 2. Noguchi, 1918. 3. Wadsworth and others; Hübner and Reiter, and Uhlenhuth and Fromme, 1915. 4. Wadsworth and others; Ball, and Jeghers, Houghton and Foley. 5. Inada. 6. McDowell; Bates; Ball, and Jeghers, Houghton and Foley. 7. Wadsworth and others and Blumer. 8. Wadsworth and others. 9. Noguchi, 1917. 10. Baermann and Zuelzer. 11. Buchanan. 12. Inada and others, 1916 13. Stokes, Ryle and Tytler. 14. Ido, Hoki, Ito and Wani. 15. Schürer and Stirl. 16. Lyon and Buchanan. 17. Reiter. 18. Uhlenhuth and Kuhn. 19. Blanchard, Lefrou and Laigret. 20. Noguchi, 1919 21. Schüffner. 22. Fairley. 23. Uhlenhuth and Fromme, 1930. 24. Manteufel. 25. Gaehtgens. 26. Hindle and White, and Lusena and Carlinfanti. 27. Brown. 28. Inada, Ido, Hoki, Ito and Wani 29. Baermann and Smits. 30. Aitken, A. B.; Connal, A.; Gray, G. M., and Smith, E. C.: Yellow Fever in Lagos During 1925 , Tr. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. & Hyg. 20:166 ( (June) ) 1926. 31. Baermann, G., and Smits, E.: Diagnose, Klinik Epidemiologie und Therapie der Kurzfriestigen Weilschen Erkrankung , Centralbl. f. Bakt. (Abt. 1) 105: 368, 1928. 32. Baermann and Zuelzer, M.: Ueber die Aetiologie der Weilschen Krankheit , Klin. Wchnschr. 6:979 ( (May 21) ) 1927. 33. Ball, Howard A.: Leptospiral Jaundice , Am. J. Clin. Path. 3:283 ( (July) ) 1933. 34. Bates, J. E.: Leptospirosis Icterohemorragica (Weil's Disease) , Canad. M. A. J. 16:1466 ( (Dec.) ) 1926. 35. Blanchard, M.; Lefrou, G., and Laigret, J.: Spirochétose ictérigène épidémique observée sur des indigènes à Brazzaville , Bull. Soc. path. exot. 16:184 ( (March 14) ) 1923. 36. Blumer, George: Infectious Jaundice in the United States , J. A. M. A. 81:353 ( (Aug. 4) ) 1923. 37. Brown, H. C.: Serological Diagnosis of Weil's Disease , Brit. M. J. 1:411 ( (March 2) ) 1935. 38. Buchanan, G.: Spirochetal Jaundice, Medical Research Council , Special Report Series, no. 113, London, His Majesty's Stationery Office, 1927. 39. Cushing, E. H.: Leptospirosis Icterohemorrhagica , J. A. M. A. 89:1041 ( (Sept. 24) ) 1927. 40. Dawson, Bertrand; Hume, W. E., and Bedson, S. P.: Infective Jaundice , Brit. M. J. 2:345 ( (Sept. 15) ) 1917. 41. Fairley, N. Hamilton: Weil's Disease Among Sewer Workers in London , Brit. M. J. 2:10 ( (July 7) ) 1934. 42. Gaehtgens, W.: Beitrag zur Serodiagnose der Weilschen Krankheit , Klin. Wchnschr. 12:697 ( (May 6) ) 1933. 43. Gay, Douglas Merrill, and Sellards, Andrew Watson: The Fate of Leptospira Icteroides and Leptospira Icterohemmorhagiae in the Mosquito, Aëdes Aegypti , Ann. Trop. Med. 21:321 ( (Oct. 10) ) 1927. 44. Hayman, J. M., and Lynch, F. B.: Spirochetal Jaundice in the United States , Am. J. M. Sc. 173:80 ( (Jan.) ) 1927. 45. Hindle, E., and White, P. B., in discussion on Schüffner. 46. Hübner, A., and Reiter, Hans: Beiträge zur Aetiologie der Weilschen Krankheit , Deutsche med. Wchnschr. 41:1275 ( (Oct. 21) ) 1915 47. 42:1 (Jan. 6) 48. 131 (Feb. 3) 49. 1282 (Oct. 19) 1916. 50. Ido, Y.; Hoki, R.; Ito, H., and Wani, H.: The Rat as a Carrier of Spirochaeta Ictero-Hemorrhagiae the Causative Agent of Weil's Disease , J. Exper. Med. 26:341 ( (Sept.) ) 1917. 51. Inada, Ryckichi: The Clinical Aspects of Spirochaetosis Ictero-Hemorrhagica or Weil's Disease , J. Exper. Med. 26:355, 1917. 52. —Ido, Y.; Hoki, R.; Ito, H., and Wani, H.: Intravenous Serotherapy of Weil's Disease , Inada J. Exper. Med. 27:283 ( (Feb.) ) 1918. 53. —Ido, Y.; Hoki, R.; Kaneko, R., and Ito, H.: The Etiology, Mode of Infection and Specific Therapy of Weil's Disease (Spirochaetosis Icterohemorrhagica) , Inada J. Exper. Med. 23:377 ( (March) ) 1916. 54. Jeghers, Harold J.; Houghton, John D., and Foley, John A.: Weil's Disease , Arch. Path. 20:447 ( (Sept.) ) 1935. 55. Jobling, J. W., and Eggstein, A. A.: The Wild Rats of the Southern States as Carriers of Spirochaeta Icterohemorrhagiae , J. A. M. A. 69:1787 ( (Nov. 24) ) 1917.Crossref 56. Langworthy, Virginia, and Moore, Anna C.: A Study of Leptospira Icterohemorrhagiae , J. Infect. Dis. 41:70 ( (July) ) 1927.Crossref 57. Lusena, M., and Carlinfanti, E.: Antigéne pour le diagnostic serologique de la spirochétose icterohemorrhagique , Soc. internaz. di microbiol., Boll. d. sez. ital. 6:77 ( (March) ) 1934. 58. Lyon, D. M., and Buchanan, G.: Spirochetal Jaundice: Report of a Small Epidemic , Lancet 1:504 ( (March 7) ) 1925.Crossref 59. McDowell, E. S.: A Case of Infectious Jaundice , New York State J. Med. 25:19 ( (Jan. 16) ) 1925. 60. Manteufel, P.: Vereinfachung des Züchtungsverfahrens von Weil Spirochäten , Deutsche med. Wchnschr. 47:461, 1921.Crossref 61. Mulholland, H. B., and Bray, W. E.: Spirochetal Jaundice , J. A. M. A. 90:1113 ( (April 7) ) 1928.Crossref 62. Neill, M. H.: The Problem of Acute Infectious Jaundice in the United States , Pub. Health Rep. 33:717 ( (May 10) ) 1918.Crossref 63. Noguchi, Hideyo: Spirochaeta Icterohemorrhagiae in American Wild Rats and Its Relation to the Japanese and European Strains , J. Exper. Med. 25:755 ( (May 1) ) 1917.Crossref 64. Morphological Characteristics and Nomenclature of Leptospira (Spirochaeta) Icterohemorrhagiae , Noguchi J. Exper. Med. 27:575 ( (May) ) 1918.Crossref 65. Etiology of Yellow Fever , Noguchi J. Exper. Med. 30:401 ( (Oct.) ) 1919.Crossref 66. Otteraaen, Andrew: The Spirochete of Infectious Jaundice (Spirocheta Icterohemorrhagiae, Inada; Leptospira, Noguchi) in the House Rats in Chicago , J. Infect. Dis. 29:485 ( (May) ) 1919.Crossref 67. Reiter, Hans: Beiträge zur Aetiologie der Weilschen Krankheit , Deutsche med. Wchnschr. 42:1282 ( (Oct. 19) ) 1916.Crossref 68. Sailor, Joseph: Leptospirosis Icterohemorrhagica (Weil's Disease) , Am. J. M. Sc. 170:332 ( (Sept.) ) 1925.Crossref 69. Schüffner, W.: Recent Work on Leptospirosis , Tr. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. & Hyg. 28:7 ( (June) ) 1934. 70. Schüffner and Mochtar, A.: Gelbfieber und Weilsche Krankheit , Arch. f. Schiffs- u. Tropen-Hyg. 31:149 ( (April) ) 1927. 71. Schürer, J.: Weil's Disease as the Result of an Accident , Med. Klin. 18:533 ( (April 23) ) 1922. 72. Stirl, Otto: Zur Lehre von der infectiösen fieberhaften, mit Icterus complicirten Gastroenteritis (Weil'sche Krankheit) , Deutsche med. Wchnschr. 15: 798 ( (Sept. 26) ) 1889. 73. Stokes, A.; Ryle, J. A., and Tytler, W. H.: Weil's Disease in the British Army in Flanders , Lancet 1:142 ( (Jan. 27) ) 1917. 74. Towler, Harry H., and Walker, John E.: Spirochetal Jaundice , J. A. M. A. 89:86 ( (July 9) ) 1927. 75. Uhlenhuth, Paul, and Fromme, W.: Experimentelle Untersuchungen über die sogenannte Weilsche Krankheit , Med. Klin. 11:1202 ( (Oct. 31) ) 76. 1264 (Nov. 14) 77. 1296 (Nov. 21) 78. 1375 (Dec. 12) 1915. 79. Weilsche Krankheit, in Kolle, W.; Kraus, R., and Uhlenhuth, P.: Handbuch der pathogenen Mikroorganismen , Jena, Gustav Fischer, 1930, vol. 7, pt. 1, p. 487. 80. Weilsche Krankheit and Kuhn, P.: Experimentelle Uebertragung der Weilschen Krankheit durch die Stallfliege , Ztschr. f. Hyg. u. Infectionskr. 84:517, 1917.Crossref 81. Weilsche Krankheit and Zuelzer, M.: Zur Epidemiologie der Weilschen Krankheit: Zugleich ein Beitrag zur Frage der freilebenden Spirochäten (icterogenesähnlichen und andere) , Centralbl. f. Bakt. (Abt. 1) 85:141 ( (Feb.28) ) 1921 82. Topley, W. W. C., and Wilson, G. S.: The Principles of Bacteriology and Immunity , ed. 1, Baltimore, William Wood & Company, 1929, vol. 2. 83. Wadsworth, Augustus; Langworthy, Virginia H.; Stewart, Constance F.; Moore, Anna C., and Coleman, Marion B.: Infectious Jaundice Occurring in New York State , J. A. M. A. 78:1120 ( (April 15) ) 1922.Crossref 84. Weil, Adolph: Ueber eine eigenthümliche, mit Mitztumor, Icterus und Nephritis einhergehende, acute Infektionskrankheit , Deutsches Arch. f. klin. Med. 39: 209 ( (July 28) ) 1886. 85. Wolbach, S., and Binger, L.: J. M. Research 30:23, 1914.

Journal

Archives of Internal MedicineAmerican Medical Association

Published: Nov 1, 1937

References