Access the full text.
Sign up today, get DeepDyve free for 14 days.
Abstract Although several hypotheses for human carcinogenesis have been proposed, the specific genetic changes that cause normal cells to become cancer cells have not been identified. In spite of uncertainties regarding the mechanisms of carcinogenesis, several vitamins such as β-carotene and vitamins A, C, and E, which can reduce the risk of cancer, have been identified, using animal and in vitro models of carcinogenesis. These studies have led to a hypothesis that the supplemental intake of these vitamins may reduce the risk of cancer. This hypothesis in humans can be tested only by intervention trials that are in progress. Prospective and retrospective case-controlled experimental designs are not suitable for testing the above hypothesis. The fact that some vitamins induce cell differentiation and/or growth inhibition in tumor cells in culture suggests that the use of these vitamins in cancer prevention has a cellular basis. In addition to having a direct effect on tumor cells, vitamins such as α-tocopheryl succinate and;β-carotene enhance the effect of other agents that induce differentiation in tumor cells. Some vitamins like β-carotene retinoic acid, α-tocopheryl succinate, and vitamin D also regulate the expressions of certain oncogenes and cellular genes. These are exciting new functions of vitamins that nobody could have predicted only a few years ago. (Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1993;119:1133-1140) References 1. Duesberg PH, Schwartz JR. Latent viruses and mutated oncogenes: no evidence for pathogenicity . Prog Nucl Acid Res Mol Biol . 1992;43:135-204. 2. Prasad KN, Hsie AW. Morphologic differentiation of mouse neuroblastoma cells induced in vitro by dibutyryl adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate . Nature New Biol . 1971;233:141-142.Crossref 3. Prasad KN. Differentiation of neuroblastoma cells: a useful model for neurobiology and cancer . Biol Rev . 1991;66:431-451.Crossref 4. Santamaria L, Bianchi A, Mobilio G, et al. Cancer chemoprevention by carotenoids . In: Tryfiates GP, Prasad KN, eds. Nutrition, Growth and Cancer . New York, NY: Alan R Liss; 1988:177-220. 5. Pung A, Rundhaug JE, Yoshawa CN, Bertram JS. β-Carotene and canthaxanthin inhibit chemically and physically induced transformation in 10T 1/2 cells . Carcinogenesis . 1988;9:1533-1539.Crossref 6. Lippman SM, Meyskens FL Jr. Retinoids as anticancer agents . In: Tryfiates GP, Prasad KN, eds. Nutrition, Growth and Cancer , New York, NY: Alan R Liss; 1988:229-244. 7. Moon RC, McCormick DL, Mehta RG. Chemoprevention of animal tumors by retinoids . In: Meyskens FL Jr, Prasad KN, eds. Modulation and Mediation of Cancer by Vitamins . Basel, Switzerland: S Karger AG; 1983:47-57. 8. Lotan R. Vitamin A analogues (retinoids) as biological response modifiers . In: Tryfiates GP, Prasad KN, eds. Nutrition, Growth and Cancer . New York, NY: Alan R Liss; 1988:261-271. 9. Sporn MB, Roberts AB. Role of retinoids in differentiation and carcinogenesis . Cancer Res . 1983;43:3034-3040. 10. Cameron E, Pauling L, Leibowitz B. Ascorbic acid and cancer: a review . Cancer Res . 1979;39:663-681. 11. Prasad KN, Edwards-Prasad J. Vitamin E and cancer prevention: recent advances and future potentials . J Am Coll Nutr . 1992;11:487-500.Crossref 12. Radner BS, Kennedy AN. Suppression of x-ray—induced transformation by vitamin E in mouse CH310T1/2 cells . Cancer Lett . 1986;32:25-32.Crossref 13. Mettlin C. Graham S, Swanson M. Vitamin A and lung cancer . J Natl Cancer Inst . 1979;62:1435-1438. 14. Wald N, Idle M, Boreham J, et al. Low serum-vitamin A and subsequent risk of cancer: preliminary results of a prospective study . Lancet . 1980;2:813-815.Crossref 15. Wassertheil-Smoller S, Romney SL, Wylie-Rosett J, et al. Dietary vitamin C and uterine cervical dysplasia . Am J Epidemiol . 1981;114:714-724. 16. Reichman ME, Hayes RB, Ziegler RG, et al. Serum vitamin A and subsequent development of prostate cancer in the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey epidemiologic follow-up study . Cancer Res . 1990;50:2311-2315. 17. Willett WC, Polk BF, Underwood BA, et al. Relation of serum vitamin A and E and carotenoids to the risk of cancer . N Engl J Med . 1984;310:430-434.Crossref 18. Russell MJ, Thomas BS, Bulbrook RD. A prospective study of the relationship between serum vitamin A and E and risk of breast cancer . Br J Cancer . 1988; 57:213-215.Crossref 19. Boutwell RK. Biology and biochemistry of two-step carcinogenesis . In: Meyskens FL Jr, Prasad KN, eds. Modulation and Mediation of Cancer by Vitamins . Basel, Switzerland: S Karger AG; 1983:2-9. 20. Prasad KN, Edwards-Prasad J. Expressions of some molecular cancer risk factors and their modification by vitamins . J Am Coll Nutr . 1990;9:28-34.Crossref 21. Zhang LX, Cooney RV, Bertram JS. Carotenoids up-regulate connexin-43 gene expression independent of their pro—vitamin A or antioxidant properties . Cancer Res . 1992;52:5707-5712. 22. Santamaria L, Bianchi A, Arnaboldi A, Andreoni L. Prevention of the benzo(α) pyrene photocarcinogenic effect by β-carotene . Boll Chim Farm . 1980;119: 745-748. 23. Krinsky NI. Carotenoids as chemoprevention agents . Prev Med . 1989;18:592-502.Crossref 24. Hazuka MB, Edwards-Prasad J, Newman F, Kinzie JJ, Prasad KN. Beta-carotene induces morphological differentiation and decreases adenylate cyclase activity in melanoma cells in culture . J Am Coll Nutr . 1990;9:143-149.Crossref 25. Griep AE, DeLuca HF. Decreased c-myc expression in an early event in retinoic acid-induced differentiation of F-9 teratocarcinoma cells . Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A . 1986;83:5539-5543.Crossref 26. Campsi J, Gray HE, Pardee AB, Dean M, Sonenshein GE. Cell-cycle control of c-myc but not c-ras expression is lost following chemical transformation . Cell . 1984;36:241-247.Crossref 27. Dean M, Levine RA, Campsi J. c-myc Regulation during retinoic acid—induced differentiation of F-9 cells in post-transcriptional and associated with growth arrest . Mol Cellular Biol . 1986;6:518-524. 28. Grasso LE, Pitot HC. Modulation of c-myc expression HL-60 cell line . Biochem Biophys Res Commun . 1984;119:473-480.Crossref 29. Westin EH, Wong-Staal F, Gelmann EP, et al. Expression of cellular homologues of retroviral one genes in human hematopoietic cells . Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A . 1982;79:2490-2494.Crossref 30. Prasad KN, Cohrs RJ, Sharma OK. Decreased expression of c-myc and H-ras oncogenes in vitamin E succinate—induced differentiated murine B-16 melanoma cells in culture . Biochem Cell Biol . 1990;68:1250-1255.Crossref 31. Yen A, Guernsey DL. Increased c-myc RNA levels associated with the precommitment state during HL-60 myeloid differentiation . Cancer Res . 1986;46: 4156-4161. 32. Thiele CJ, Reynolds CP, Israel MA. Decreased expression of N-myc precedes retinoic acid—induced morphological differentiation of human neuroblastoma . Nature . 1985;313:404-406.Crossref 33. Chapekar MS, Hartman KD, Knode MC, Glazer RI. Synergistic effect of retinoic acid and calcium ionophore A23187 on differentiations, c-myc expression and membrane tyrosine kinase activity in human promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL-60 . Mol Pharmacol . 1987;31:140-145. 34. Cohrs RJ, Torelli S, Prasad KN, Edwards-Prasad J, Sharma OK. Effect of vitamin E succinate and a cAMP stimulating agent on the expression of c-myc, N-myc and H-ras in murine neuroblastoma cell . Int J Dev Biol Neurosci . 1991; 9:187-194.Crossref 35. Reitsma PH, Rothberg PG, Astrin SM, et al. Regulation of myc gene expression in HL-60 leukemia cells by vitamin D metabolites . Nature . 1983;306:492-494.Crossref 36. Brelvi ZS, Studzinski GP. Inhibition of DNA synthesis by an inducer of differentiation of leukemic cells, 1-α-25-hydroxyvitamin D3 precede down regulation of the c-myc gene . J Cell Physiol . 1986;128:171-179.Crossref 37. Matsui T, Takahashi R, Mihara K, et al. Cooperative regulation of c-myc expression in differentiations of human promyelocytic leukemia induced by recombinant γ-interferon and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 . Cancer Res . 1985;45: 4371-4372. 38. Simpson RU, Hsu T, Begley DA, Mitchell BS, Alizadeh BN. Transcriptional regulation of the c-myc protooncogene by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in HL-60 promyeloctyic leukemia cells . J Biol Chem . 1987;262:4104-4108. 39. Huh N. Satoh M, Nose K Abe E, Suda T. 1-α-25-Hydroxyvitamin D induces anchorage-independent growth and c-Ki-ras expression of BALB/3T3 and NIH/3T3 cells . Jpn J Cancer Res . 1987;78:99-102. 40. Prasad KN, Edwards-Prasad J. Effect of tocopherol (vitamin E) acid succinate on morphological alterations and growth inhibition in melanoma cells in culture . Cancer Res . 1982;42:550-555. 41. Plescia OJ. Does prostaglandin synthesis effect in vivo tumor growth by altering tumor/host balance? In: Powles T, Bockman RS, Honn KV, Ramwell P, eds. Prostaglandins and Cancer . New York, NY: Alan R Liss Inc; 1982:619-631. 42. Sahu SN, Edwards-Prasad J, Prasad KN. Effect of α-tocopheryl succinate on adenylate cyclase activity in murine neuroblastoma cells in culture . J Am Coll Nutr . 1988;7:285-294.Crossref 43. Sahu SN, Edwards-Prasad J, Prasad KN. α-Tocopheryl succinate inhibits melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)–sensitive adenylate cyclase activity in melanoma cells . J Cell Physiol . 1987;133:585-589.Crossref 44. Prasad KN, Edwards-Prasad J. Effect of tumor-promoters on adenylate cyclase activity in melanoma cells in culture . Biochem Pharmacol . 1990;40:2377-2380.Crossref 45. Nishizuka Y. Perspective on the role of protein kinase C in stimulus-response coupling . J Natl Cancer Inst . 1986;76:363-370. 46. Miyake R, Tanaka Y, Tsuda T, Kaikuchi K, Kiawa U, Nishizuka V. Activation of protein kinase by non-phorbol tumor promoter, mezerein . Biochem Biophys Res Commun . 1984;121:649-656.Crossref 47. Taffet SM, Greenfield ARL, Haddox MK. Retinol inhibits TPA-activated calciumdependent phospholipid-dependent protein kinase ('C' kinase) . Biochem Biophys Res Commun . 1983;114:1194-1199.Crossref 48. Mahoney CW, Azzi A. Vitamin E inhibits protein kinase C activity . Biochem Biophys Res Commun . 1988;154:694-697.Crossref 49. Ludwig KW, Lowey B, Niles RM. Retinoic acid increases cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity in murine melanoma cells . J Biol Chem . 1980;255:5999-6002. 50. Torelli S, Masoudi F, Prasad KN. Effect of α-tocopheryl succinate on cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity in murine B-16 melanoma cells in culture . Cancer Lett . 1988;39:129-136.Crossref 51. Fontana J, Repucci A, Durham J, Miranda D. Correlation between the induction of leukemic cell differentiation by various retinoids and modulation of protein kinases . Cancer Res . 1986;46:2468-2473. 52. Ways DK, Dodd RC, Bennett TE, Hokker JL, Earp HS. Effect of retinoic acid on phorbol ester-stimulated differentiation and protein kinase C—dependent phosphorylation in the U937 human monoblastic cell . Cancer Res . 1988;48:5779-5787. 53. Plet A, Gerbaud P, Anderson WB, Evan-Brion D. Effect of phorbol ester on cyclic adenosine-3',5'-monophosphate—dependent protein kinases in PYS teratocarcinoma-derived cells and counteraction with retinoic acid . Cancer Res . 1988;48:3993-3997. 54. Gundimeda U, Hara SK, Anderson WB, Gopalakrishna R. Retinoids inhibit the oxidation modification of protein kinase C induced by oxidant tumor promoters . Arch Biochem Biophys . 1993;300:576-530.Crossref 55. Gopalakrishna R, Gundimeda U, Chen ZH, Anderson WB. The antitumor promoter vitamin E decreases the rate of down-regulation of protein kinase C induced by phorbol esters and oxidants. Presented at the Annual Meeting of FASEB; April 29, 1993; New Orleans, La. Page 166. Abstract. 56. Prasad KC. Induction of differentiated phenotypes in melanoma cells by a combination of an adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate stimulating agent and d-α-tocopheryl succinate Cancer Lett . 1989;116:17-22.Crossref 57. Rama BN, Prasad KN. Effects of dl-α-tocopheryl succinate in combination with sodium beutyrate and cAMP stimulating agents on neuroblastoma cells in culture . Int J Cancer . 1984;34:863-867.Crossref 58. Prasad KN, Kentroti S, Edwards-Prasad J, et al. Modification of the expression of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate—induced differentiated functions in neuroblastoma cells by beta-carotene and d-alpha tocopheryl succinate. J Am Coll Nutr. In press. 59. Sram RJ, Dobias L, Pastorkova A, Rossner P, Janca L. Effect of ascorbic acid prophylaxis on the frequency of chromosome aberrations in the peripheral lymphocytes of coal-tar workers . Mutation Res . 1983;120:181-186. 60. Sugiyama M, Lin X, Costa M. Protective effect of vitamin E against chromosomal aberration and mutation induced by sodium chromate in Chinese hamster V79 cells . Mutation Res . 1991;260:19-23.Crossref 61. Paganelli GM, Biasco G, Brandi G, et al. Effect of vitamin A, C and E supplementation on rectal cell proliferation in patients with colorectal adenomas . J Natl Cancer Inst . 1992;84:47-52.Crossref 62. Benner SE, Winn RJ, Lippman SM, et al. Regression of oral leukoplakia with alpha tocopherol: a community clinical oncology program chemoprevention study . J Natl Cancer Inst . 1993;85:44-47.Crossref 63. Stich HF, Tsang SS, Paliec B, et al. The usefulness of in vitro assays and animal experiments in the design of chemoprevention protocols with beta-carotene and vitamin A on tobacco chewers . In Prasad KN, ed. Nutrients and Cancer Prevention . Clifton, NJ: Humana Press; 1990:119-134. 64. Prasad KN. Nutrition and cancer: an overview of present reality and future goals . In Prasad KN, Meyskens FL, Jr, eds. Nutrients and Cancer Prevention . Clifton, NJ: Humana Press; 1990:xi-xvi. 65. Ames BN. Dietary carcinogens and anti-carcinogens . Science . 1983;221:1256-1263.Crossref
Archives of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery – American Medical Association
Published: Oct 1, 1993
Access the full text.
Sign up today, get DeepDyve free for 14 days.