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Vestibular Responses in Schizophrenia

Vestibular Responses in Schizophrenia Abstract • In a study of vestibular responses to caloric stimulation that controlled opportunity for fixation and state of alertness, we evaluated previous findings of diminished nystagmus in schizophrenia. We failed to replicate earlier reports in these respects: (1) None of the psychotic patient groups, when compared with normal controls, showed lower response intensity, latency, or culmination time of the nystagmic response. (2) The schizophrenic groups did not manifest a prevalence of clinically significant asymmetry. We did, however, observe that chronic deteriorated schizophrenics and recent schizophrenics have significantly greater dysrhythmic responses. This diminished orderliness of nystagmus may explain previous reports of absent or diminished nystagmus in the schizophrenics. The results are not compatible with peripheral vestibular disease in schizophrenia, but they may reflect state-related phenomena consistent with disturbances in alertness, which are not necessarily voluntary or motivational in origin. References 1. Pekelsky A: Transitorischer anystagmus bei katatonie: Ist der nystagmus willkurlich unterdruckbar? Zentralbl Gesamte Neurol 26:291, 1921. 2. Angyal A, Blackman N: Vestibular reactivity in schizophrenia . Arch Neurol Psychiatry 44:611-620, 1940.Crossref 3. Angyal A, Blackman N: Paradoxical vestibular reactions in schizophrenia under the influence of alcohol, of hyperpnea, and CO2 inhalation . Am J Psychiatry 97:894-903, 1941. 4. Angyal A, Sherman M: Postural reactions to vestibular stimulation in schizophrenic and normal subjects . Am J Psychiatry 98:857-862, 1942. 5. Aubry M, Baruk H: Les troubles vestibulaires dans la catatonie et l'hebephreno-catatonie . Ann Mal Oreille Larynx Nez 48:138-150, 1929. 6. Bourguignon G: Relations de la chronaxie vestibulaire avec l'émotivité a l'état normal et dans le pseudo-mongolisme et la démence précoce . Inst Fr Compt Rendus Acad Sci 193:250-253, 1931. 7. Claude H, Baruk H, Aubry M: Contribution a l'étude de la démence précoce catatonique: Inexcitabilité labyrinthique au cours de la catatonie . Rev Neurol 1:976-980, 1927. 8. Claude H, Bourguignon G, Baruk H: Essai sur les variations spontanées et experimentales de la chronaxie vestibulaire au cours du sommeil cataleptique, et de la catalepsie dans l'hysterie, dans la catatonie, et dans l'hebephrenie . Ann Med Psychol 90:641-654, 1932. 9. Fitzgerald G, Stengel E: Vestibular reactivity to caloric stimulation in schizophrenics . J Ment Sci 91:93-100, 1945. 10. Freeman H, Rodnick E: Effect of rotation on postural steadiness in normal and schizophrenic subjects . Arch Neurol Psychiatry 48:47-53, 1942.Crossref 11. Joo B, Meduna L: Labyrinthreizungsuntersuchungen bei Schizophrenie . Psychiatr Neurol Wochenschr 37:26-29, 1935. 12. Kristensen H, Zilstorff-Pedersen K: Oto-neurologiske undersogelser hos psykotiske patienter . Forhandlingar Svensk Otolaryngol 3:1-6, 1956. 13. Leach W: Nystagmus: An integrative neural deficit in schizophrenia . J Abnorm Soc Psychol 60:305-309, 1960.Crossref 14. Lowenbach H: Messende Untersuchungen uber die Erregbarkeit des Zentralnervensystems von Geisteskraken, vor Allem von Periodisch Katatonen, mit Hilfe Quantitativer Vestibularisreizung . Arch Psychiatr Nervenkr 105:313-323, 1936.Crossref 15. Majczak A: Kliniczne badanie reaktywnosci elektrycznej ukladu przedsionkowego w okresie aktywnosci . Psychiatr Pol 5:403-411, 1971. 16. Myers S, Caldwell D, Purcell G: Vestibular dysfunction in schizophrenia . Biol Psychiatry 71:255-261, 1973. 17. Rosenblum W, Friedhoff A: The response of adult schizophrenics to caloric stimulation . J Nerv Ment Dis 133:104-107, 1961.Crossref 18. Rosenfeld M: Uber das Vorkommen von Nystagmus bei Schizophrenie . Dtsch Med Wochenschr 52:985-988, 1926.Crossref 19. Sercl M, Vin̂ar J: Poruchy vestibularniho aparatu u schizofrenie . Cas Lek Cesk 76:213-218, 1937. 20. Shuster AR: The psychotropic drugs: Considerations relative to the vestibular pathways and testing . Laryngoscope 75:707-749, 1965.Crossref 21. Shuster BH: Remarks on the vestibular tests—with a record of the vestibular findings in a group of mixed neurological cases . Laryngoscope 43:435-455, 1933.Crossref 22. Szymczewska J: Pobudliwosc ukladu przedsionkowego u chorych na schizofrenie leczonych neuroleptykami . Ann Acad Med Stetin 17:429-450, 1971. 23. Warzel B, Staniszewski L: Wplyw chlorpromazyny na chronaksje blednikowa, czuciowa I siatkowkowa U alkoholikow I U chorych na schizofrenie . Ann Acad Med Stetin 9:405-426, 1963. 24. Colbert E, Koegler R, Markham C: Vestibular dysfunction in childhood schizophrenia . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1:600-617, 1959.Crossref 25. Fish B: Neurobiologic antecedents of schizophrenia in children . Arch Gen Psychiatry 34:1297-1313, 1977.Crossref 26. Ornitz E, Brown M, Mason A, et al: Effect of visual input on vestibular nystagmus in autistic children . Arch Gen Psychiatry 31:369-375, 1974.Crossref 27. Pollack M, Krieger H: Oculomotor & postural patterns in schizophrenic children . Arch Neurol Psychiatry 79:720-726, 1958.Crossref 28. Ritro E, Ornitz E, Eviatar A, et al: Decreased postrotatory nystagmus in early infantile autism . Neurology 19:653-658, 1969.Crossref 29. Zlotnik G, Iversen P, Tolstrup K, et al: Vestibular function of patients in a child psychiatric department . Dan Med Bull 18:152-156, 1971. 30. Piggot L, Purcell G, Cummings G, et al: Vestibular dysfunction in emotionally disturbed children . Biol Psychiatry 11:719-729, 1976. 31. Angyal A: The experience of the body-self in schizophrenia . Arch Gen Psychiatry 35:1029-1053, 1936. 32. Ornitz EM: Vestibular dysfunction in schizophrenia and childhood autism . Compr Psychiatry 11:159-173, 1970.Crossref 33. Schilder P: The vestibular apparatus in neurosis and psychosis . J Nerv Ment Dis 78:137-164, 1933.Crossref 34. Holzman PS: Perceptual aspects of psychopathology , in Zubin J, Shagass C (eds): Neurobiological Aspects of Psychopathology . New York, Grune & Stratton Inc, 1969, pp 144-178. 35. Rado S, Buchenholz B, Dunton H, et al: Schizotypical organization: Preliminary report on a clinical study of schizophrenia , in Rado S, Daniels G (eds): Changing Concepts of Psychoanalytic Medicine . New York, Grune & Stratton Inc, 1956, pp 235-255. 36. Sokolovski A: The influence of mental activity and visual fixation upon caloric-induced nystagmus in normal subjects . Acta Otolaryngol 61:209-220, 1966.Crossref 37. Collins WE, Guedry FE, Posner J: Control of caloric nystagmus by manipulating arousal and visual fixation distance . Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 71:187-202, 1962. 38. Dowd PJ: Factors affecting vestibular nystagmus in coriolis stimulation . Acta Otolaryngol 61:228-236, 1966.Crossref 39. Mahoney J, Harlan W, Bickford R: Visual and other factors influencing caloric nystagmus in normal subjects . Arch Otolaryngol 65:46-53, 1957.Crossref 40. Collins WE, Crampton G, Posner J: Effects of mental activity on vestibular nystagmus and the electroencephalogram . Nature 190:194-195, 1961.Crossref 41. Collins WE, Schroeder DJ, Hill RJ: Some effects of alcohol on vestibular responses . Adv Otorhinolaryngol 19:295-303, 1973. 42. Dahlstrom WG, Welsh GS, Dahlstrom LE: An MMPI Handbook: I. Clinical Interpretation . Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1972. 43. American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, ed 2. Washington, DC, 1968. 44. Phillips L: Human Adaptation and Its Failures . New York, Academic Press Inc, 1968. 45. Venables P, O'Connor N: A short scale for rating paranoid schizophrenia . J Ment Sci 105:815-818, 1959. 46. Luborsky L: Clinicians' judgements on mental health . Arch Gen Psychiatry 7:407-417, 1962.Crossref 47. Rapaport D, Gill M, Schafer R: Diagnostic psychological testing . New York, International Universities Press, 1968. 48. Aschan G, Bergstedt M, Stahle J: Nystagmography: Recording of nystagmus in clinical neuro-otological examinations . Acta Otolaryngol 129( (suppl) ):1-103, 1956. 49. Cawthorne T, Dix M, Hood J: Recent advances in electronystagmographic technique with special reference to its value in clinical diagnosis , in Smith JL (ed): Neuro-ophthalmology . St Louis, CV Mosby Co, 1968, vol 4, pp 81-109. 50. Stahle J: Electro-nystagmography in the caloric and rotatory tests: A clinical study . Acta Otolaryngol 137( (suppl) ):1-83, 1958. 51. Henriksson NG, Pfaltz C, Torok N, et al: A Synopsis of the Vestibular System . Basel, Switzerland, Gasser & Cie AG, 1972. 52. Pfaltz C, Piffko P: Studies on habituation of the human vestibular system . Adv Otorhinolaryngol 17:169-179, 1970. 53. Ledoux A, Lanwers P, Lennes G: La Valeur Clinique de l'épreuve rotatoire . Acta Otorhinolaryngol 17:403-410, 1963. 54. Hammersma H: The Caloric Test: A Nystagmographical Study, thesis. University of Amsterdam, 1957. 55. Fitzgerald G, Hallpike CS: Studies in human vestibular function: I. Observations on the directional preponderance ("Nystagmusbereitschaft") of caloric nystagmus resulting from cerebral lesions . Brain 65:115-137, 1942.Crossref 56. Levy D: Vestibular Function and Schizophrenia, thesis. University of Chicago, 1976. 57. Levy DL, Proctor LR, Holzman PS: Visual interference on vestibular response . Arch Otolaryngol 103:287-291, 1977.Crossref 58. Frenzel H: Spontan-und Provokationsnystagmus als Krankheitssymptom . Berlin, Springer-Verlag, 1955. 59. Coats AC: Electronystagmography , in Bradford LJ (ed): Psysiological Measures of the Audio-vestibular System . New York, Academic Press Inc, 1975, pp 37-85. 60. Proctor LR, Carli T, Davis S: Analysis of thermal vestibular responses in the cat: A preliminary report . Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 81:114-126, 1972. 61. Lidvall HF: Vertigo and nystagmus responses to caloric stimuli repeated at short and long intervals . Acta Otolaryngol 53:507-518, 1961.Crossref 62. Jongkees LBW, Philipszoon AJ: Electronystagmography . Acta Otolaryngol 189( (suppl) ):1-111, 1964. 63. Jung R, Kornhuber H: Results of ENG in man: The value of optokinetic, vestibular and spontaneous nystagmus for neurological diagnosis and research , in Bender M (ed): The Oculomotor System . New York, Harper & Row Inc, 1964, pp 428-482. 64. Jongkees LBW: Value of the caloric test of the labyrinth . Arch Otolaryngol 48:402-417, 1948.Crossref 65. Bock RD: Multivariate Statistical Methods in Behavioral Research . New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co Inc, 1975. 66. Brookler KH, Pulec JL: Computer analysis of electronystagmography records . Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol 74:563-575, 1970. 67. Ledoux A, Demanez J-P: "Ocular fixation index" in the caloric test: Contributions to the nystagmographic diagnosis of central diseases , in Stahle J (ed): Vestibular Function on Earth and in Space . New York, Pergamon Press Inc, 1970, pp 177-185. 68. Clement P: Dysrhythmia During Caloric Nystagmus, thesis. University of Amsterdam, 1970. 69. Bos J, Oosterveld W, Philipszoon A, et al: On pathological spontaneous and positional nystagmus . Pract Otorhinolaryngol 25:282-290, 1963. 70. Coats A: The diagnostic significance of spontaneous nystagmus as observed in the electronystagmographic examination . Acta Otolaryngol 67:33-42, 1969.Crossref 71. Killam EK, Killan KF: Phenothiozic-pharmacologic studies: The effect of pharmacologic studies on the nervous system . Proc Assoc Nerv Neural Dis 37:245-265, 1959. 72. Kornetsky C, Mirsky A: On certain pharmacological and physiological differences between schizophrenics and normal persons . Psychiatr Pharmacol 8:309-318, 1966.Crossref 73. Von Albert H-H: Der nachweis sedativer wirkungen durch die elektronnystagmographie . Arzneim Forsch 19:1527-1543, 1969. 74. Lachmann J, Bergmann F: The effect of various drugs on central and vestibular nystagmus as well as on the disorders of equilibrium in rabbits . Confin Neurol 21:272-281, 1961.Crossref 75. Jongkees LBW: The influence of some drugs upon the function of the labyrinth . Acta Otolaryngol 53:281-285, 1961.Crossref 76. Jongkees LBW, Philipszoon AJ: Some nystagmographical methods for the investigation of the effect of drugs upon the labyrinth: The influence of cinnarazine, hyoscine, largactil, and nembutal on the vestibular system . Acta Physiol Pharmacol Neerland 9:240-275, 1960. 77. Bergstrom O, Koch H: The effect of chlorpromazine on the vestibular function . Acta Otolaryngol 46:484-498, 1956.Crossref 78. Bradley PB: The central action of certain drugs in relation to the reticular formation of the brain , in Jasper HH, Proctor LD, Knighton SS, et al (eds): Reticular Formation of the Brain . Boston, Little Brown & Co Inc, 1958, pp 123-149. 79. Das Gupta SR: Central actions of chlorpromazine . Ind J Physiol Pharmacol 5:1-18, 1961. 80. Papatheodoroa CA, Krieger HP, Wagman IH: Effects of chlorpromazine on normal monkeys and monkeys with lesions in the brain stem . J Mt Sinai Hosp 25:427-436, 1958. 81. Taniewski J: Largaktyl a narzak rownowag . Otolaryngol Pol 3:259-264, 1958. 82. Salerno G: L'azione del largactil sui disturbe vestibolar . Ann Laringol Otol Rinol Faringol 54:1-7, 1955. 83. Holzman PS, Levy DL, Proctor LR: Smooth pursuit eye movements, attention, and schizophrenia . Arch Gen Psychiatry 33:1415-1420, 1976.Crossref 84. Holzman PS: Cognitive impairment & cognitive stability: Towards a theory of thought disorder , in Serban G (ed): Cognitive Defects in the Development of Mental Illness . New York, Brunner-Mazel Inc, to be published. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of General Psychiatry American Medical Association

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American Medical Association
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Copyright © 1978 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
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0003-990X
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1598-3636
DOI
10.1001/archpsyc.1978.01770320066005
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Abstract

Abstract • In a study of vestibular responses to caloric stimulation that controlled opportunity for fixation and state of alertness, we evaluated previous findings of diminished nystagmus in schizophrenia. We failed to replicate earlier reports in these respects: (1) None of the psychotic patient groups, when compared with normal controls, showed lower response intensity, latency, or culmination time of the nystagmic response. (2) The schizophrenic groups did not manifest a prevalence of clinically significant asymmetry. We did, however, observe that chronic deteriorated schizophrenics and recent schizophrenics have significantly greater dysrhythmic responses. This diminished orderliness of nystagmus may explain previous reports of absent or diminished nystagmus in the schizophrenics. The results are not compatible with peripheral vestibular disease in schizophrenia, but they may reflect state-related phenomena consistent with disturbances in alertness, which are not necessarily voluntary or motivational in origin. References 1. Pekelsky A: Transitorischer anystagmus bei katatonie: Ist der nystagmus willkurlich unterdruckbar? Zentralbl Gesamte Neurol 26:291, 1921. 2. Angyal A, Blackman N: Vestibular reactivity in schizophrenia . Arch Neurol Psychiatry 44:611-620, 1940.Crossref 3. Angyal A, Blackman N: Paradoxical vestibular reactions in schizophrenia under the influence of alcohol, of hyperpnea, and CO2 inhalation . Am J Psychiatry 97:894-903, 1941. 4. Angyal A, Sherman M: Postural reactions to vestibular stimulation in schizophrenic and normal subjects . Am J Psychiatry 98:857-862, 1942. 5. Aubry M, Baruk H: Les troubles vestibulaires dans la catatonie et l'hebephreno-catatonie . Ann Mal Oreille Larynx Nez 48:138-150, 1929. 6. Bourguignon G: Relations de la chronaxie vestibulaire avec l'émotivité a l'état normal et dans le pseudo-mongolisme et la démence précoce . Inst Fr Compt Rendus Acad Sci 193:250-253, 1931. 7. Claude H, Baruk H, Aubry M: Contribution a l'étude de la démence précoce catatonique: Inexcitabilité labyrinthique au cours de la catatonie . Rev Neurol 1:976-980, 1927. 8. Claude H, Bourguignon G, Baruk H: Essai sur les variations spontanées et experimentales de la chronaxie vestibulaire au cours du sommeil cataleptique, et de la catalepsie dans l'hysterie, dans la catatonie, et dans l'hebephrenie . Ann Med Psychol 90:641-654, 1932. 9. Fitzgerald G, Stengel E: Vestibular reactivity to caloric stimulation in schizophrenics . J Ment Sci 91:93-100, 1945. 10. Freeman H, Rodnick E: Effect of rotation on postural steadiness in normal and schizophrenic subjects . Arch Neurol Psychiatry 48:47-53, 1942.Crossref 11. Joo B, Meduna L: Labyrinthreizungsuntersuchungen bei Schizophrenie . Psychiatr Neurol Wochenschr 37:26-29, 1935. 12. Kristensen H, Zilstorff-Pedersen K: Oto-neurologiske undersogelser hos psykotiske patienter . Forhandlingar Svensk Otolaryngol 3:1-6, 1956. 13. Leach W: Nystagmus: An integrative neural deficit in schizophrenia . J Abnorm Soc Psychol 60:305-309, 1960.Crossref 14. Lowenbach H: Messende Untersuchungen uber die Erregbarkeit des Zentralnervensystems von Geisteskraken, vor Allem von Periodisch Katatonen, mit Hilfe Quantitativer Vestibularisreizung . Arch Psychiatr Nervenkr 105:313-323, 1936.Crossref 15. Majczak A: Kliniczne badanie reaktywnosci elektrycznej ukladu przedsionkowego w okresie aktywnosci . Psychiatr Pol 5:403-411, 1971. 16. Myers S, Caldwell D, Purcell G: Vestibular dysfunction in schizophrenia . Biol Psychiatry 71:255-261, 1973. 17. Rosenblum W, Friedhoff A: The response of adult schizophrenics to caloric stimulation . J Nerv Ment Dis 133:104-107, 1961.Crossref 18. Rosenfeld M: Uber das Vorkommen von Nystagmus bei Schizophrenie . Dtsch Med Wochenschr 52:985-988, 1926.Crossref 19. Sercl M, Vin̂ar J: Poruchy vestibularniho aparatu u schizofrenie . Cas Lek Cesk 76:213-218, 1937. 20. Shuster AR: The psychotropic drugs: Considerations relative to the vestibular pathways and testing . Laryngoscope 75:707-749, 1965.Crossref 21. Shuster BH: Remarks on the vestibular tests—with a record of the vestibular findings in a group of mixed neurological cases . Laryngoscope 43:435-455, 1933.Crossref 22. Szymczewska J: Pobudliwosc ukladu przedsionkowego u chorych na schizofrenie leczonych neuroleptykami . Ann Acad Med Stetin 17:429-450, 1971. 23. Warzel B, Staniszewski L: Wplyw chlorpromazyny na chronaksje blednikowa, czuciowa I siatkowkowa U alkoholikow I U chorych na schizofrenie . Ann Acad Med Stetin 9:405-426, 1963. 24. Colbert E, Koegler R, Markham C: Vestibular dysfunction in childhood schizophrenia . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1:600-617, 1959.Crossref 25. Fish B: Neurobiologic antecedents of schizophrenia in children . Arch Gen Psychiatry 34:1297-1313, 1977.Crossref 26. Ornitz E, Brown M, Mason A, et al: Effect of visual input on vestibular nystagmus in autistic children . Arch Gen Psychiatry 31:369-375, 1974.Crossref 27. Pollack M, Krieger H: Oculomotor & postural patterns in schizophrenic children . Arch Neurol Psychiatry 79:720-726, 1958.Crossref 28. Ritro E, Ornitz E, Eviatar A, et al: Decreased postrotatory nystagmus in early infantile autism . Neurology 19:653-658, 1969.Crossref 29. Zlotnik G, Iversen P, Tolstrup K, et al: Vestibular function of patients in a child psychiatric department . Dan Med Bull 18:152-156, 1971. 30. Piggot L, Purcell G, Cummings G, et al: Vestibular dysfunction in emotionally disturbed children . Biol Psychiatry 11:719-729, 1976. 31. Angyal A: The experience of the body-self in schizophrenia . Arch Gen Psychiatry 35:1029-1053, 1936. 32. Ornitz EM: Vestibular dysfunction in schizophrenia and childhood autism . Compr Psychiatry 11:159-173, 1970.Crossref 33. Schilder P: The vestibular apparatus in neurosis and psychosis . J Nerv Ment Dis 78:137-164, 1933.Crossref 34. Holzman PS: Perceptual aspects of psychopathology , in Zubin J, Shagass C (eds): Neurobiological Aspects of Psychopathology . New York, Grune & Stratton Inc, 1969, pp 144-178. 35. Rado S, Buchenholz B, Dunton H, et al: Schizotypical organization: Preliminary report on a clinical study of schizophrenia , in Rado S, Daniels G (eds): Changing Concepts of Psychoanalytic Medicine . New York, Grune & Stratton Inc, 1956, pp 235-255. 36. Sokolovski A: The influence of mental activity and visual fixation upon caloric-induced nystagmus in normal subjects . Acta Otolaryngol 61:209-220, 1966.Crossref 37. Collins WE, Guedry FE, Posner J: Control of caloric nystagmus by manipulating arousal and visual fixation distance . Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 71:187-202, 1962. 38. Dowd PJ: Factors affecting vestibular nystagmus in coriolis stimulation . Acta Otolaryngol 61:228-236, 1966.Crossref 39. Mahoney J, Harlan W, Bickford R: Visual and other factors influencing caloric nystagmus in normal subjects . Arch Otolaryngol 65:46-53, 1957.Crossref 40. Collins WE, Crampton G, Posner J: Effects of mental activity on vestibular nystagmus and the electroencephalogram . Nature 190:194-195, 1961.Crossref 41. Collins WE, Schroeder DJ, Hill RJ: Some effects of alcohol on vestibular responses . Adv Otorhinolaryngol 19:295-303, 1973. 42. Dahlstrom WG, Welsh GS, Dahlstrom LE: An MMPI Handbook: I. Clinical Interpretation . Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1972. 43. American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, ed 2. Washington, DC, 1968. 44. Phillips L: Human Adaptation and Its Failures . New York, Academic Press Inc, 1968. 45. Venables P, O'Connor N: A short scale for rating paranoid schizophrenia . J Ment Sci 105:815-818, 1959. 46. Luborsky L: Clinicians' judgements on mental health . Arch Gen Psychiatry 7:407-417, 1962.Crossref 47. Rapaport D, Gill M, Schafer R: Diagnostic psychological testing . New York, International Universities Press, 1968. 48. Aschan G, Bergstedt M, Stahle J: Nystagmography: Recording of nystagmus in clinical neuro-otological examinations . Acta Otolaryngol 129( (suppl) ):1-103, 1956. 49. Cawthorne T, Dix M, Hood J: Recent advances in electronystagmographic technique with special reference to its value in clinical diagnosis , in Smith JL (ed): Neuro-ophthalmology . St Louis, CV Mosby Co, 1968, vol 4, pp 81-109. 50. Stahle J: Electro-nystagmography in the caloric and rotatory tests: A clinical study . Acta Otolaryngol 137( (suppl) ):1-83, 1958. 51. Henriksson NG, Pfaltz C, Torok N, et al: A Synopsis of the Vestibular System . Basel, Switzerland, Gasser & Cie AG, 1972. 52. Pfaltz C, Piffko P: Studies on habituation of the human vestibular system . Adv Otorhinolaryngol 17:169-179, 1970. 53. Ledoux A, Lanwers P, Lennes G: La Valeur Clinique de l'épreuve rotatoire . Acta Otorhinolaryngol 17:403-410, 1963. 54. Hammersma H: The Caloric Test: A Nystagmographical Study, thesis. University of Amsterdam, 1957. 55. Fitzgerald G, Hallpike CS: Studies in human vestibular function: I. Observations on the directional preponderance ("Nystagmusbereitschaft") of caloric nystagmus resulting from cerebral lesions . Brain 65:115-137, 1942.Crossref 56. Levy D: Vestibular Function and Schizophrenia, thesis. University of Chicago, 1976. 57. Levy DL, Proctor LR, Holzman PS: Visual interference on vestibular response . Arch Otolaryngol 103:287-291, 1977.Crossref 58. Frenzel H: Spontan-und Provokationsnystagmus als Krankheitssymptom . Berlin, Springer-Verlag, 1955. 59. Coats AC: Electronystagmography , in Bradford LJ (ed): Psysiological Measures of the Audio-vestibular System . New York, Academic Press Inc, 1975, pp 37-85. 60. Proctor LR, Carli T, Davis S: Analysis of thermal vestibular responses in the cat: A preliminary report . Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 81:114-126, 1972. 61. Lidvall HF: Vertigo and nystagmus responses to caloric stimuli repeated at short and long intervals . Acta Otolaryngol 53:507-518, 1961.Crossref 62. Jongkees LBW, Philipszoon AJ: Electronystagmography . Acta Otolaryngol 189( (suppl) ):1-111, 1964. 63. Jung R, Kornhuber H: Results of ENG in man: The value of optokinetic, vestibular and spontaneous nystagmus for neurological diagnosis and research , in Bender M (ed): The Oculomotor System . New York, Harper & Row Inc, 1964, pp 428-482. 64. Jongkees LBW: Value of the caloric test of the labyrinth . Arch Otolaryngol 48:402-417, 1948.Crossref 65. Bock RD: Multivariate Statistical Methods in Behavioral Research . New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co Inc, 1975. 66. Brookler KH, Pulec JL: Computer analysis of electronystagmography records . Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol 74:563-575, 1970. 67. Ledoux A, Demanez J-P: "Ocular fixation index" in the caloric test: Contributions to the nystagmographic diagnosis of central diseases , in Stahle J (ed): Vestibular Function on Earth and in Space . New York, Pergamon Press Inc, 1970, pp 177-185. 68. Clement P: Dysrhythmia During Caloric Nystagmus, thesis. University of Amsterdam, 1970. 69. Bos J, Oosterveld W, Philipszoon A, et al: On pathological spontaneous and positional nystagmus . Pract Otorhinolaryngol 25:282-290, 1963. 70. Coats A: The diagnostic significance of spontaneous nystagmus as observed in the electronystagmographic examination . Acta Otolaryngol 67:33-42, 1969.Crossref 71. Killam EK, Killan KF: Phenothiozic-pharmacologic studies: The effect of pharmacologic studies on the nervous system . Proc Assoc Nerv Neural Dis 37:245-265, 1959. 72. Kornetsky C, Mirsky A: On certain pharmacological and physiological differences between schizophrenics and normal persons . Psychiatr Pharmacol 8:309-318, 1966.Crossref 73. Von Albert H-H: Der nachweis sedativer wirkungen durch die elektronnystagmographie . Arzneim Forsch 19:1527-1543, 1969. 74. Lachmann J, Bergmann F: The effect of various drugs on central and vestibular nystagmus as well as on the disorders of equilibrium in rabbits . Confin Neurol 21:272-281, 1961.Crossref 75. Jongkees LBW: The influence of some drugs upon the function of the labyrinth . Acta Otolaryngol 53:281-285, 1961.Crossref 76. Jongkees LBW, Philipszoon AJ: Some nystagmographical methods for the investigation of the effect of drugs upon the labyrinth: The influence of cinnarazine, hyoscine, largactil, and nembutal on the vestibular system . Acta Physiol Pharmacol Neerland 9:240-275, 1960. 77. Bergstrom O, Koch H: The effect of chlorpromazine on the vestibular function . Acta Otolaryngol 46:484-498, 1956.Crossref 78. Bradley PB: The central action of certain drugs in relation to the reticular formation of the brain , in Jasper HH, Proctor LD, Knighton SS, et al (eds): Reticular Formation of the Brain . Boston, Little Brown & Co Inc, 1958, pp 123-149. 79. Das Gupta SR: Central actions of chlorpromazine . Ind J Physiol Pharmacol 5:1-18, 1961. 80. Papatheodoroa CA, Krieger HP, Wagman IH: Effects of chlorpromazine on normal monkeys and monkeys with lesions in the brain stem . J Mt Sinai Hosp 25:427-436, 1958. 81. Taniewski J: Largaktyl a narzak rownowag . Otolaryngol Pol 3:259-264, 1958. 82. Salerno G: L'azione del largactil sui disturbe vestibolar . Ann Laringol Otol Rinol Faringol 54:1-7, 1955. 83. Holzman PS, Levy DL, Proctor LR: Smooth pursuit eye movements, attention, and schizophrenia . Arch Gen Psychiatry 33:1415-1420, 1976.Crossref 84. Holzman PS: Cognitive impairment & cognitive stability: Towards a theory of thought disorder , in Serban G (ed): Cognitive Defects in the Development of Mental Illness . New York, Brunner-Mazel Inc, to be published.

Journal

Archives of General PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Aug 1, 1978

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