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Varicose Veins: Facts and Fantasy

Varicose Veins: Facts and Fantasy Abstract • The high prevalence of varicose veins in Western countries contrasts with their relative rarity in traditionally living communities in the Third World. Evidence is presented in support of the hypothesis that a major causative factor is the transmission of raised intra-abdominal pressures to the veins of the legs. One important cause of these pressures is the abdominal straining necessitated to evacuate small firm stools, which in turn are the result of fiber-depleted diets. (Arch Surg 111:1327-1332, 1976) References 1. The treatment of varicose veins , editorial. Lancet 2:311, 1975. 2. De Takats G, Quint H: The injection treatment of varicose veins . Surg Gynecol Obstet 50:545-561, 1930. 3. Dodd H, Cockett FB: The Pathology and Surgery of the Veins of the Lower Limb . Edinburgh, Livingstone, 1956, p 3. 4. Martin P, Lyn PB, Dible JH, et al: Peripheral Vascular Disorders. Edinburgh , Livingstone, 1956, p 664. 5. Allen EV, Barker NW, Hines EA: Peripheral Vascular Diseases . Philadelphia, WB Saunders Co, 1962, p 636. 6. Guberan E, Widmer LK, Glaus L, et al: Causative factors of varicose veins: Myths and facts . J Vasc Dis 2:115-120, 1973. 7. Coon WW, Park WW, Keller JB: Venous thromboembolism and other venous disease in the Tecumseh community health study . Circulation 158:839-846, 1973.Crossref 8. Williams EH: Varicose veins in tropical Africa . Lancet 1:1291, 1974.Crossref 9. Milton-Thompson DG: Varicose veins in tropical Africa . Lancet 1:1174, 1974.Crossref 10. Dreaper R: Diet and dental disease . Br Med J 1:859, 1965.Crossref 11. Worsfold JT: Varicose veins in tropical Africa . Lancet 2:1322-1323, 1974.Crossref 12. Harvey RS: in Burkitt DP, Trowell HC (eds): Refined Carbohydrate Foods and Disease . New York, Academic Press Inc, 1975, p 145. 13. Barker A: Varicose veins . Lancet 2:970-971, 1964.Crossref 14. Coles RW: Varicose veins in tropical Africa . Lancet 2:474-475, 1974.Crossref 15. Letac R, Mawupe Vovor V, Cabanne F: De la rarete de la pathologie veineuse des membres inferieurs en Afrique Noire . Schweiz Z Path Bakt 21:587-598, 1958. 16. Alexander CJ: The epidemiology of varicose veins . Med J Aust 1:215-218, 1972. 17. Tommerup J, Papua N: Guinea Med J 1:69, 1955. 18. Mekky S, Schilling RSF, Walfrod J: Varicose veins in women cotton workers: An epidemiological study in England and Egypt . Br Med J 2:591-595, 1969.Crossref 19. Burkitt DP: Varicose veins, deep vein thrombosis and haemorrhoids: Epidemiology and suggested aetiology . Br Med J 2:556-561, 1972.Crossref 20. Daynes G, Beighton P: Prevalence of varicose veins in Africans . Br Med J 3:354, 1973.Crossref 21. Rougemont A: Varicose veins in tropical Africa . Lancet 1:870, 1974.Crossref 22. Burkitt DP, Townsend AJ, Patel K, et al: Varicose veins in developing countries . Lancet 2:202-203, 1976.Crossref 23. Burkitt DP, Jansen HK, Mategaonker DW, et al: Varicose veins in India . Lancet 2:765, 1975.Crossref 24. Malhotra SL: An epidemiological study of varicose veins in Indian railroad workers from the South and North of India, with special reference to the causation and prevention of varicose veins . Int J Epidemiol 1:177-183, 1972.Crossref 25. Prior I: Proceedings of Pan Pacific Surgical Association, 13th Congress, 1975, to be published. 26. Dalrymple J, Crofts T: Varicose veins in developing countries . Lancet 1:808, 1975.Crossref 27. Phillips C, Burkitt DP: Varicose veins in developing countries . Br Med J 2:1148, 1976.Crossref 28. Bremner GG: The changing pattern of disease seen at Baragwanath Hospital . S Afr J Surg 9:127-131, 1971. 29. Cockett FB, Elgan-Jones DE: The ankle blow-out syndrome, a new approach to the varicose ulcer problem . Lancet 1:17-23, 1953.Crossref 30. Latto C, Wilkinson RW, Gilmore OJA: Diverticular disease and varicose veins . Lancet 1:1089-1090, 1973.Crossref 31. Brodribb AJM, Humphreys DM: Diverticular disease: Three studies Br Med J 1:424-430, 1976.Crossref 32. Burkitt DP: Some diseases characteristic of Western civilization . Br Med J 1:274-278, 1973.Crossref 33. Rajmohan N: Instance of varicose veins in Singapore (a study in three occupational groups) . Singapore Med J 9:167-169, 1968. 34. Cleave TL: The Saccharine Disease . Bristol, England, John Wright & Sons Inc, 1974. 35. Stamler J: Epidemiology as an investigative method for the study of human atherosclerosis . J Natl Med Assoc 50:161, 1958. 36. Sturup H, Hojensgard IC: Venous pressure in varicose veins in patients with incompetent communicating veins . Acta Chir Scand 99:518-525, 1950. 37. Edwards JE, Edwards EA: The saphenous valves in varicose veins . Am Heart J 19:338-351, 1940.Crossref 38. Delbet P: Clinique chirugical de la saphene interne dan les varices du membres inferieurs . Sem Med 17:372-374, 1897. 39. Delbet P: Pathology and prophylaxis of varicose veins . Int Clin 1902, pp 50-56. 40. Mengert WF, Murphy DP: Intra-abdominal pressures created by voluntary muscular effort . Surg Gynecol Obstet 50:150-154, 1934. 41. Adams JC: Aetiological factors in varicose veins of the lower extremities . Surg Gynecol Obstet 69:717-725, 1939. 42. Hojensgard IC, Sturup H: Venous pressure and postthrombotic varicose veins . Acta Chir Scand 99:133-153, 1950. 43. Folse R: The influence of femoral vein dynamics on the development of varicose veins . Surgery 68:974-979, 1970. 44. Burkitt DP, Walker ARP, Painter NS: Dietary fiber and disease . JAMA 229:1068-1074, 1972.Crossref 45. Painter NS: The aetiology of diverticulosis of the colon with speck reference to the action of certain drugs on the behaviour of the colon . Ann R Coll Surg 34:98-119, 1964. 46. Burkitt DP: The aetiology of appendicitis . Br J Surg 58:695-699, 1971.Crossref 47. Burkitt DP, James PA: Low-residue diets and hiatus hernia . Lancet 2:128-130, 1973.Crossref 48. Graham-Stewart CW: What causes haemorrhoids? Dis Colon Rectum 6:333-344, 1963.Crossref 49. Burkitt DP, Graham-Stewart CW: Haemorrhoids: Postulated pathogenesis and proposed prevention . Postgrad Med J 51:631-636, 1975.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Surgery American Medical Association

Varicose Veins: Facts and Fantasy

Archives of Surgery , Volume 111 (12) – Dec 1, 1976

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1976 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0004-0010
eISSN
1538-3644
DOI
10.1001/archsurg.1976.01360300017002
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract • The high prevalence of varicose veins in Western countries contrasts with their relative rarity in traditionally living communities in the Third World. Evidence is presented in support of the hypothesis that a major causative factor is the transmission of raised intra-abdominal pressures to the veins of the legs. One important cause of these pressures is the abdominal straining necessitated to evacuate small firm stools, which in turn are the result of fiber-depleted diets. (Arch Surg 111:1327-1332, 1976) References 1. The treatment of varicose veins , editorial. Lancet 2:311, 1975. 2. De Takats G, Quint H: The injection treatment of varicose veins . Surg Gynecol Obstet 50:545-561, 1930. 3. Dodd H, Cockett FB: The Pathology and Surgery of the Veins of the Lower Limb . Edinburgh, Livingstone, 1956, p 3. 4. Martin P, Lyn PB, Dible JH, et al: Peripheral Vascular Disorders. Edinburgh , Livingstone, 1956, p 664. 5. Allen EV, Barker NW, Hines EA: Peripheral Vascular Diseases . Philadelphia, WB Saunders Co, 1962, p 636. 6. Guberan E, Widmer LK, Glaus L, et al: Causative factors of varicose veins: Myths and facts . J Vasc Dis 2:115-120, 1973. 7. Coon WW, Park WW, Keller JB: Venous thromboembolism and other venous disease in the Tecumseh community health study . Circulation 158:839-846, 1973.Crossref 8. Williams EH: Varicose veins in tropical Africa . Lancet 1:1291, 1974.Crossref 9. Milton-Thompson DG: Varicose veins in tropical Africa . Lancet 1:1174, 1974.Crossref 10. Dreaper R: Diet and dental disease . Br Med J 1:859, 1965.Crossref 11. Worsfold JT: Varicose veins in tropical Africa . Lancet 2:1322-1323, 1974.Crossref 12. Harvey RS: in Burkitt DP, Trowell HC (eds): Refined Carbohydrate Foods and Disease . New York, Academic Press Inc, 1975, p 145. 13. Barker A: Varicose veins . Lancet 2:970-971, 1964.Crossref 14. Coles RW: Varicose veins in tropical Africa . Lancet 2:474-475, 1974.Crossref 15. Letac R, Mawupe Vovor V, Cabanne F: De la rarete de la pathologie veineuse des membres inferieurs en Afrique Noire . Schweiz Z Path Bakt 21:587-598, 1958. 16. Alexander CJ: The epidemiology of varicose veins . Med J Aust 1:215-218, 1972. 17. Tommerup J, Papua N: Guinea Med J 1:69, 1955. 18. Mekky S, Schilling RSF, Walfrod J: Varicose veins in women cotton workers: An epidemiological study in England and Egypt . Br Med J 2:591-595, 1969.Crossref 19. Burkitt DP: Varicose veins, deep vein thrombosis and haemorrhoids: Epidemiology and suggested aetiology . Br Med J 2:556-561, 1972.Crossref 20. Daynes G, Beighton P: Prevalence of varicose veins in Africans . Br Med J 3:354, 1973.Crossref 21. Rougemont A: Varicose veins in tropical Africa . Lancet 1:870, 1974.Crossref 22. Burkitt DP, Townsend AJ, Patel K, et al: Varicose veins in developing countries . Lancet 2:202-203, 1976.Crossref 23. Burkitt DP, Jansen HK, Mategaonker DW, et al: Varicose veins in India . Lancet 2:765, 1975.Crossref 24. Malhotra SL: An epidemiological study of varicose veins in Indian railroad workers from the South and North of India, with special reference to the causation and prevention of varicose veins . Int J Epidemiol 1:177-183, 1972.Crossref 25. Prior I: Proceedings of Pan Pacific Surgical Association, 13th Congress, 1975, to be published. 26. Dalrymple J, Crofts T: Varicose veins in developing countries . Lancet 1:808, 1975.Crossref 27. Phillips C, Burkitt DP: Varicose veins in developing countries . Br Med J 2:1148, 1976.Crossref 28. Bremner GG: The changing pattern of disease seen at Baragwanath Hospital . S Afr J Surg 9:127-131, 1971. 29. Cockett FB, Elgan-Jones DE: The ankle blow-out syndrome, a new approach to the varicose ulcer problem . Lancet 1:17-23, 1953.Crossref 30. Latto C, Wilkinson RW, Gilmore OJA: Diverticular disease and varicose veins . Lancet 1:1089-1090, 1973.Crossref 31. Brodribb AJM, Humphreys DM: Diverticular disease: Three studies Br Med J 1:424-430, 1976.Crossref 32. Burkitt DP: Some diseases characteristic of Western civilization . Br Med J 1:274-278, 1973.Crossref 33. Rajmohan N: Instance of varicose veins in Singapore (a study in three occupational groups) . Singapore Med J 9:167-169, 1968. 34. Cleave TL: The Saccharine Disease . Bristol, England, John Wright & Sons Inc, 1974. 35. Stamler J: Epidemiology as an investigative method for the study of human atherosclerosis . J Natl Med Assoc 50:161, 1958. 36. Sturup H, Hojensgard IC: Venous pressure in varicose veins in patients with incompetent communicating veins . Acta Chir Scand 99:518-525, 1950. 37. Edwards JE, Edwards EA: The saphenous valves in varicose veins . Am Heart J 19:338-351, 1940.Crossref 38. Delbet P: Clinique chirugical de la saphene interne dan les varices du membres inferieurs . Sem Med 17:372-374, 1897. 39. Delbet P: Pathology and prophylaxis of varicose veins . Int Clin 1902, pp 50-56. 40. Mengert WF, Murphy DP: Intra-abdominal pressures created by voluntary muscular effort . Surg Gynecol Obstet 50:150-154, 1934. 41. Adams JC: Aetiological factors in varicose veins of the lower extremities . Surg Gynecol Obstet 69:717-725, 1939. 42. Hojensgard IC, Sturup H: Venous pressure and postthrombotic varicose veins . Acta Chir Scand 99:133-153, 1950. 43. Folse R: The influence of femoral vein dynamics on the development of varicose veins . Surgery 68:974-979, 1970. 44. Burkitt DP, Walker ARP, Painter NS: Dietary fiber and disease . JAMA 229:1068-1074, 1972.Crossref 45. Painter NS: The aetiology of diverticulosis of the colon with speck reference to the action of certain drugs on the behaviour of the colon . Ann R Coll Surg 34:98-119, 1964. 46. Burkitt DP: The aetiology of appendicitis . Br J Surg 58:695-699, 1971.Crossref 47. Burkitt DP, James PA: Low-residue diets and hiatus hernia . Lancet 2:128-130, 1973.Crossref 48. Graham-Stewart CW: What causes haemorrhoids? Dis Colon Rectum 6:333-344, 1963.Crossref 49. Burkitt DP, Graham-Stewart CW: Haemorrhoids: Postulated pathogenesis and proposed prevention . Postgrad Med J 51:631-636, 1975.Crossref

Journal

Archives of SurgeryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Dec 1, 1976

References