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ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION AND VISION

ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION AND VISION Abstract IN THIS review, ultraviolet radiation refers to the spectral region from approximately 300 to 400 mμ; in other words, the near ultraviolet rays. In many textbooks the visible spectrum is said to end at 400 mμ, and the ICI (International Commission on Illumination) luminosity curve does not extend beyond 380mμ, but shorter wave lengths than this have been reported to be visible on several occasions. The biological effects of the wave lengths of about 300 mμ are well known; they produce erythema and, in the eye, photophthalmia. Although it is generally recognized that the shorter wave lengths cannot penetrate to the retina, it is suggested that those between 300 and 400 mμ can have a harmful effect on vision. It is the purpose of this review to discuss the visibility of this band of the spectrum and its possible effects upon visual function. The reader should look elsewhere1 for References 1. (a) Blum, H. F.: Physiologic Effects of Sunlight on Man , Physiol. Rev. 25:483-530, 1945. 2. (b) Ellis, C., and Wells, A. S.: The Chemical Action of Ultraviolet Rays , revised and enlarged edition by F. F. Heyroth, New York, Reinhold Publishing Corporation, 1941. 3. (c) Judd, D. B.: Basic Correlates of the Visual Stimulus , in Handbook of Experimental Psychology , edited by S. S. Stevens, New York, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1951, pp. 811-867. 4. (d) Koller, L. R.: Ultraviolet Radiation , New York, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1952. 5. (e) Laurens, H.: The Physiological Effects of Radiant Energy, American Chemical Society Monograph Series , New York, Chemical Catalog Company, Inc., 1933. 6. Walker, C. B.: Systematic Review of the Literature Relating to the Effects of Radiant Energy upon the Eye , Proc. Am. Acad. Arts & Sc. 51:760-818, 1916. 7. Duke-Elder, W. S.: Text-Book of Ophthalmology: Vol. 1: The Development, Form and Function of the Visual Apparatus , London, Henry Kimpton, 1932. 8. Sheard, C.: The Physiological Effects of Radiant Energy, Especially upon the Human Eye , New York J. Med. 23:292-300, 1923. 9. Cogan, D. G.: Lesions of the Eye from Radiant Energy , J. A. M. A. 142:145-151, 1950. 10. Verhoeff, F. H., and Bell, L.: The Pathological Effects of Radiant Energy on the Eye: An Experimental Investigation , Proc. Am. Acad. Arts & Sc. 51:629-759, 1916. 11. Cogan, D. G., and Kinsey, V. E.: Action Spectrum of Keratitis Produced by Ultraviolet Radiation , Arch. Ophth. 35:670-677, 1946. 12. Duke-Elder, W. S., and Duke-Elder, P. M.: A Histological Study on the Action of Short-Waved Light upon the Eye, with a Note on "Inclusion Bodies," Brit. J. Ophth. 13:1-37, 1929. 13. Birch-Hirschfeld, A.: Die Wirkung der ultra-violetten Strahlen auf das Auge , von Graefes Arch. Ophth. 58:469-562, 1904. 14. Duke-Elder and Duke-Elder,8 p. 31. 15. Duke-Elder and Duke-Elder,8 p. 27. 16. Morgan, L. D.: There Is Something Wrong with our Fluorescent Lighting Applications , Illum. Engin. 41:275-285, 1945. 17. Harmon, D. B.: Lighting and the Eye , Illum. Engin. 39:481-500, 1944. 18. Ley, E. B.: Study of Illumination , Illum. Engin. 39:500-505, 1944. 19. Heine, L.: Klinische Untersuchungen über die Wirkung gewisser Glassorten auf den menschlichen Lichtsinn and seine Störungen , Klin. Monatsbl. Augenh. 76:37-45, 1926. 20. Siegfried, W.: Experimentelle Untersuchungen über den angeblich schädingenden Einfluss der ultravioletten Strahlen auf die Adaptation des Auges , von Graefes Arch. Ophth. 120:526-539, 1928. 21. Wolf, E.: Effects of Exposure to Ultraviolet Light on Visual Thresholds , Proc. Nat. Acad. Sc. 31:236-241, 1945 22. Effects of Exposure to Ultraviolet Light on Subsequent Dark Adaptation , Proc. Nat. Acad. Sc. 31:349-355, 1945. 23. Wolf, E.: Effects of Exposure to Ultraviolet Light on Human Dark Adaptation , Proc. Nat. Acad. Sc. 32:219-226, 1946. 24. Wolf, E.: Effects on Visual Thresholds of Exposure to the Radiation Below 4000 Angstroms , Tr. Am. Acad. Ophth. 53:400-413, 1949. 25. Hecht, S.; Hendley, C. D.; Ross, S., and Richmond, P.: The Influence of Exposure to Intense Sunlight on Subsequent Night Vision, Bureau Medical Research Project No. X 442 (Av-233-W), April 26, 1945. 26. Peckham, R. H., and Harley, R. D.: Reduction in Visual Acuity Due to Excessive Sunlight , Arch. Ophth. 44:624-627, 1950. 27. Ludvigh, E., and Kinsey, V. E.: Effect of Long Ultraviolet Radiations on the Human Eye , Science 104:246, 1946. 28. Wolf, E.: Effects of Ultraviolet Radiations on Visual Thresholds , Science 105:366, 1947. 29. Zigler, M. J.; Wolf, E., and King, E. S.: The Influence of Surround Brightness and Short Wave Components of Radiation on Dark Adaptation , J. Optic. Soc. America 41:354-359, 1951.Crossref 30. Keil, F. C.: The Effect of Aircraft Cockpit Fluorescent Lighting on Visual Acuity and Dark Adaptation, U. S. Air Force School of Aviation Medicine, Project No. 64, Report No. 1, July 1, 1942. 31. Lee, R. H.: Effect of Short Exposures to Radiation from a Landing Signal Officer's Lamp on Dark Adaptation, Biblography of Scientific and Industrial Reports Publication Board, No. 23041 32. abstracted, Psychol. Abstr. 20:4515, 1946. 33. Langstroth, G. O.; Batho, H. F.; Wolfson, J. L.; Maclaren, E. H., and McLeod, M. J.: The Effect of Exposure to Ultraviolet and Infrared Radiation on the Rate of Darkness Adaptation, Department of National Defence of Canada, Directorate of Chemical Warfare and Smoke, Extra-Mural Research in Chemical Warfare and Smoke, Project No. C. E. 128, Jan. 11, 1944. 34. Preliminary work in this laboratory indicates that exposure to an ultraviolet cockpit lamp has no effect on the scotopic acuity threshold. 35. Sexton, M.; Malone, F., and Farnsworth, D.: The Effect of Ultraviolet Radiation from Fluorescent Lights on Dark Adaptation and Visual Acuity , Medical Research Laboratory Report No. 169 9:301-317, 1950. 36. Farnsworth, in a recent personal communication, is rather dubious about these curves, as subsequent research, although tentative, reveals no effects. 37. Hulburt, E. O.: Time of Dark Adaptation After Stimulation by Various Brightnesses and Colors , J. Optic. Soc. America 41:402-404, 1951.Crossref 38. Peckham, R. H.: A Proposed Method for Predicting Light Adaptation , J. Optic. Soc. America 42:65, 1952.Crossref 39. Wald, G.: Alleged Effects of the Near Ultraviolet on Human Vision , J. Optic. Soc. America 42:171-177, 1952.Crossref 40. Goodeve, C. F.; Lythgoe, R. J., and Schneider, E. E.: The Photosensitivity of Visual Purple Solutions and the Scotopic Sensitivity of the Eye in the Ultra-Violet , Proc. Roy. Soc., London, s.B. 130:380-395, 1942.Crossref 41. Pinegin, N. I.: Absolute Photopic Sensitivity of the Eye in the Ultra-Violet and in the Visible Spectrum , Compt. rend. Acad. sc. URSS 43:157-158, 1944. 42. Shoji, Y.: Untersuchungen über die Absorption der ultravioletten Strahlen durch die Augenmedien , Mitt. med. Fak. Tokio 29:61-129, 1922. 43. Hosoya, Y.: Über die Alterverschiedenheit der Ultraviolettabsorption der menschlichen Augenmedien , Tohoku J. Exper. Med. 13:510-523, 1929.Crossref 44. Hoffmann, W.: Zur Messung der Ultraviolettabsorption von Hornhaut und Linse am lebenden Auge , Ztschr. Augenh. 63:38-47, 1927. 45. Hallauer, O.: Über die Absorption von kurzwelligen Licht durch die menschliche Linse , Klin. Monatsbl. Augenh. 47:721-730, 1909. 46. Graham, W. P.: The Absorption of the Eye for Ultraviolet , Am. J. Physiol. Optics 4:151-160, 1923. 47. Roggenbau, C., and Wetthauer, A.: Über die Durchlässigkeit der brechenden Augenmedien für langwelliges Licht nach Untersuchungen am Rindesauge , Klin. Monatsbl. Augenh. 79:456-464, 1927. 48. Ludvigh, E., and McCarthy, E. F.: Absorption of Visible Light by the Refractive Media of the Human Eye , Arch. Ophth. 20:37-51, 1938.Crossref 49. Kinsey, V. E.: Special Transmission of the Eye to Ultraviolet Radiation , Arch. Ophth. 39:508-513, 1948.Crossref 50. Wald, G.: Human Vision and the Spectrum , Science 101:653-658, 1945.Crossref 51. Salomon, F.: L'absorption sélective de la lumière par le cristallin , Rev. opt. (théor. instrumen). 29:632-637, 1950. 52. Klang, G.: Measurement and Studies of the Fluorescence of the Human Lens in Vivo , Acta ophth. , (Supp. 31) , 1948. 53. Goodeve, C. F.: Vision in the Ultra-Violet , Nature, London 134:416-417, 1934.Crossref 54. Hosoya, Y.: Fluoreszenz der einzelnen Augenmedien und Sichtbarkeit des ultravioletten Gebietes des Spektrums , Tohoku J. Exper. Med. 13:524-538, 1929.Crossref 55. de Groot, W.: Vision in the Ultra-Violet , Nature, London 135:68-69, 1935.Crossref 56. Pinegin, N. I.: Über die absolute Empfindlichkeit des Auges im ultravioletten und im sichtbaren Spektrum , Compt. rend. Acad. sc. URSS 30:206-211, 1941. 57. Helmholtz, H.: Treatise on Physiological Optics , translated from the third German edition, and edited by J. P. C. Southall, Ithaca, N. Y., Optical Society of America, 1924, Vol. 2. 58. Gaydon, A. G.: Color Sensations Produced by Ultraviolet Light , Proc. Phys. Soc. 50:714-720, 1938.Crossref 59. Friedrich, W., and Schreiber, H.: Das Sehen des menschlichen Auges im Ultraviolett: II. Die Grenze des extrafovealen Sehens im Spektrum , Arch. ges. Physiol. 246:790-802, 1943.Crossref 60. Le Grand, Y.: Sur la fluorescence du cristallin , Compt. rend. Acad. sc. 207:1128-1130, 1938. 61. Schneider, E. E.: Color Phenomena in Ultraviolet Vision , Nature, London 155:176, 1945.Crossref 62. Bachem, A.: The Color of Ultraviolet Light , Am. J. Psychol. 66:251-260, 1953.Crossref 63. Gibson, K. S., and Tyndall, E. P. T.: Visibility of Radiant Energy, National Bureau Standard Scientific Paper No. 475, 1923. 64. de Groot, W.: Seeing in the Ultra-Violet , Nature, London 134:494, 1934.Crossref 65. Friedrich, W., and Schreiber, H.: Das Sehen des menschlichen Auges im Ultraviolett: I. Die extrafovealen Schwellenwerte für 365 mμ und 546 mμ , Arch. ges. Physiol. 246:621-632, 1943Crossref 66. Wawilow, S. I.: Sensitivity of the Retina to the Ultraviolet Spectrum , Compt. rend Acad. sc. URSS. 21:373-375, 1938. 67. Pinegin, N. I.: Absolute Scotopic Sensitivity of the Eye in the Ultra-Violet and in the Visible Spectrum , Nature, London 155:20-21, 1945Crossref 68. Wright, W. D.: The Visual Sensitivity of Normal and Aphakic Observers in the Ultraviolet , Ann. psychol. 50:169-177, 1951.Crossref 69. Extension of the Scotopic Visibility Curve to 3130 A and 8000 A, Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Bibliography of Scientific and Industrial Reports Publication Board, No. 28539; Office of Scientific Research Development, Report No. 1431, March 1, 1943. 70. Crawford, B. H.: The Scotopic Visibility Function , Proc. Phys. Soc. 62:312-334, 1949.Crossref 71. Weaver, K. S.: A Provisional Standard Observer for Low-Level Photometry , J. Optic. Soc. America 39:278-291, 1949.Crossref 72. Wald, G.: The Photochemical Basis of Rod Vision , J. Optic. Soc. America 41:949-956, 1951.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png A.M.A. Archives of Ophthalmology American Medical Association

ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION AND VISION

A.M.A. Archives of Ophthalmology , Volume 50 (6) – Dec 1, 1953

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Copyright © 1953 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
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0096-6339
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10.1001/archopht.1953.00920030759011
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Abstract

Abstract IN THIS review, ultraviolet radiation refers to the spectral region from approximately 300 to 400 mμ; in other words, the near ultraviolet rays. In many textbooks the visible spectrum is said to end at 400 mμ, and the ICI (International Commission on Illumination) luminosity curve does not extend beyond 380mμ, but shorter wave lengths than this have been reported to be visible on several occasions. The biological effects of the wave lengths of about 300 mμ are well known; they produce erythema and, in the eye, photophthalmia. Although it is generally recognized that the shorter wave lengths cannot penetrate to the retina, it is suggested that those between 300 and 400 mμ can have a harmful effect on vision. It is the purpose of this review to discuss the visibility of this band of the spectrum and its possible effects upon visual function. The reader should look elsewhere1 for References 1. (a) Blum, H. F.: Physiologic Effects of Sunlight on Man , Physiol. Rev. 25:483-530, 1945. 2. (b) Ellis, C., and Wells, A. S.: The Chemical Action of Ultraviolet Rays , revised and enlarged edition by F. F. Heyroth, New York, Reinhold Publishing Corporation, 1941. 3. (c) Judd, D. B.: Basic Correlates of the Visual Stimulus , in Handbook of Experimental Psychology , edited by S. S. Stevens, New York, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1951, pp. 811-867. 4. (d) Koller, L. R.: Ultraviolet Radiation , New York, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1952. 5. (e) Laurens, H.: The Physiological Effects of Radiant Energy, American Chemical Society Monograph Series , New York, Chemical Catalog Company, Inc., 1933. 6. Walker, C. B.: Systematic Review of the Literature Relating to the Effects of Radiant Energy upon the Eye , Proc. Am. Acad. Arts & Sc. 51:760-818, 1916. 7. Duke-Elder, W. S.: Text-Book of Ophthalmology: Vol. 1: The Development, Form and Function of the Visual Apparatus , London, Henry Kimpton, 1932. 8. Sheard, C.: The Physiological Effects of Radiant Energy, Especially upon the Human Eye , New York J. Med. 23:292-300, 1923. 9. Cogan, D. G.: Lesions of the Eye from Radiant Energy , J. A. M. A. 142:145-151, 1950. 10. Verhoeff, F. H., and Bell, L.: The Pathological Effects of Radiant Energy on the Eye: An Experimental Investigation , Proc. Am. Acad. Arts & Sc. 51:629-759, 1916. 11. Cogan, D. G., and Kinsey, V. E.: Action Spectrum of Keratitis Produced by Ultraviolet Radiation , Arch. Ophth. 35:670-677, 1946. 12. Duke-Elder, W. S., and Duke-Elder, P. M.: A Histological Study on the Action of Short-Waved Light upon the Eye, with a Note on "Inclusion Bodies," Brit. J. Ophth. 13:1-37, 1929. 13. Birch-Hirschfeld, A.: Die Wirkung der ultra-violetten Strahlen auf das Auge , von Graefes Arch. Ophth. 58:469-562, 1904. 14. Duke-Elder and Duke-Elder,8 p. 31. 15. Duke-Elder and Duke-Elder,8 p. 27. 16. Morgan, L. D.: There Is Something Wrong with our Fluorescent Lighting Applications , Illum. Engin. 41:275-285, 1945. 17. Harmon, D. B.: Lighting and the Eye , Illum. Engin. 39:481-500, 1944. 18. Ley, E. B.: Study of Illumination , Illum. Engin. 39:500-505, 1944. 19. Heine, L.: Klinische Untersuchungen über die Wirkung gewisser Glassorten auf den menschlichen Lichtsinn and seine Störungen , Klin. Monatsbl. Augenh. 76:37-45, 1926. 20. Siegfried, W.: Experimentelle Untersuchungen über den angeblich schädingenden Einfluss der ultravioletten Strahlen auf die Adaptation des Auges , von Graefes Arch. Ophth. 120:526-539, 1928. 21. Wolf, E.: Effects of Exposure to Ultraviolet Light on Visual Thresholds , Proc. Nat. Acad. Sc. 31:236-241, 1945 22. Effects of Exposure to Ultraviolet Light on Subsequent Dark Adaptation , Proc. Nat. Acad. Sc. 31:349-355, 1945. 23. Wolf, E.: Effects of Exposure to Ultraviolet Light on Human Dark Adaptation , Proc. Nat. Acad. Sc. 32:219-226, 1946. 24. Wolf, E.: Effects on Visual Thresholds of Exposure to the Radiation Below 4000 Angstroms , Tr. Am. Acad. Ophth. 53:400-413, 1949. 25. Hecht, S.; Hendley, C. D.; Ross, S., and Richmond, P.: The Influence of Exposure to Intense Sunlight on Subsequent Night Vision, Bureau Medical Research Project No. X 442 (Av-233-W), April 26, 1945. 26. Peckham, R. H., and Harley, R. D.: Reduction in Visual Acuity Due to Excessive Sunlight , Arch. Ophth. 44:624-627, 1950. 27. Ludvigh, E., and Kinsey, V. E.: Effect of Long Ultraviolet Radiations on the Human Eye , Science 104:246, 1946. 28. Wolf, E.: Effects of Ultraviolet Radiations on Visual Thresholds , Science 105:366, 1947. 29. Zigler, M. J.; Wolf, E., and King, E. S.: The Influence of Surround Brightness and Short Wave Components of Radiation on Dark Adaptation , J. Optic. Soc. America 41:354-359, 1951.Crossref 30. Keil, F. C.: The Effect of Aircraft Cockpit Fluorescent Lighting on Visual Acuity and Dark Adaptation, U. S. Air Force School of Aviation Medicine, Project No. 64, Report No. 1, July 1, 1942. 31. Lee, R. H.: Effect of Short Exposures to Radiation from a Landing Signal Officer's Lamp on Dark Adaptation, Biblography of Scientific and Industrial Reports Publication Board, No. 23041 32. abstracted, Psychol. Abstr. 20:4515, 1946. 33. Langstroth, G. O.; Batho, H. F.; Wolfson, J. L.; Maclaren, E. H., and McLeod, M. J.: The Effect of Exposure to Ultraviolet and Infrared Radiation on the Rate of Darkness Adaptation, Department of National Defence of Canada, Directorate of Chemical Warfare and Smoke, Extra-Mural Research in Chemical Warfare and Smoke, Project No. C. E. 128, Jan. 11, 1944. 34. Preliminary work in this laboratory indicates that exposure to an ultraviolet cockpit lamp has no effect on the scotopic acuity threshold. 35. Sexton, M.; Malone, F., and Farnsworth, D.: The Effect of Ultraviolet Radiation from Fluorescent Lights on Dark Adaptation and Visual Acuity , Medical Research Laboratory Report No. 169 9:301-317, 1950. 36. Farnsworth, in a recent personal communication, is rather dubious about these curves, as subsequent research, although tentative, reveals no effects. 37. Hulburt, E. O.: Time of Dark Adaptation After Stimulation by Various Brightnesses and Colors , J. Optic. Soc. America 41:402-404, 1951.Crossref 38. Peckham, R. H.: A Proposed Method for Predicting Light Adaptation , J. Optic. Soc. America 42:65, 1952.Crossref 39. Wald, G.: Alleged Effects of the Near Ultraviolet on Human Vision , J. Optic. Soc. America 42:171-177, 1952.Crossref 40. Goodeve, C. F.; Lythgoe, R. J., and Schneider, E. E.: The Photosensitivity of Visual Purple Solutions and the Scotopic Sensitivity of the Eye in the Ultra-Violet , Proc. Roy. Soc., London, s.B. 130:380-395, 1942.Crossref 41. Pinegin, N. I.: Absolute Photopic Sensitivity of the Eye in the Ultra-Violet and in the Visible Spectrum , Compt. rend. Acad. sc. URSS 43:157-158, 1944. 42. Shoji, Y.: Untersuchungen über die Absorption der ultravioletten Strahlen durch die Augenmedien , Mitt. med. Fak. Tokio 29:61-129, 1922. 43. Hosoya, Y.: Über die Alterverschiedenheit der Ultraviolettabsorption der menschlichen Augenmedien , Tohoku J. Exper. Med. 13:510-523, 1929.Crossref 44. Hoffmann, W.: Zur Messung der Ultraviolettabsorption von Hornhaut und Linse am lebenden Auge , Ztschr. Augenh. 63:38-47, 1927. 45. Hallauer, O.: Über die Absorption von kurzwelligen Licht durch die menschliche Linse , Klin. Monatsbl. Augenh. 47:721-730, 1909. 46. Graham, W. P.: The Absorption of the Eye for Ultraviolet , Am. J. Physiol. Optics 4:151-160, 1923. 47. Roggenbau, C., and Wetthauer, A.: Über die Durchlässigkeit der brechenden Augenmedien für langwelliges Licht nach Untersuchungen am Rindesauge , Klin. Monatsbl. Augenh. 79:456-464, 1927. 48. Ludvigh, E., and McCarthy, E. F.: Absorption of Visible Light by the Refractive Media of the Human Eye , Arch. Ophth. 20:37-51, 1938.Crossref 49. Kinsey, V. E.: Special Transmission of the Eye to Ultraviolet Radiation , Arch. Ophth. 39:508-513, 1948.Crossref 50. Wald, G.: Human Vision and the Spectrum , Science 101:653-658, 1945.Crossref 51. Salomon, F.: L'absorption sélective de la lumière par le cristallin , Rev. opt. (théor. instrumen). 29:632-637, 1950. 52. Klang, G.: Measurement and Studies of the Fluorescence of the Human Lens in Vivo , Acta ophth. , (Supp. 31) , 1948. 53. Goodeve, C. F.: Vision in the Ultra-Violet , Nature, London 134:416-417, 1934.Crossref 54. Hosoya, Y.: Fluoreszenz der einzelnen Augenmedien und Sichtbarkeit des ultravioletten Gebietes des Spektrums , Tohoku J. Exper. Med. 13:524-538, 1929.Crossref 55. de Groot, W.: Vision in the Ultra-Violet , Nature, London 135:68-69, 1935.Crossref 56. Pinegin, N. I.: Über die absolute Empfindlichkeit des Auges im ultravioletten und im sichtbaren Spektrum , Compt. rend. Acad. sc. URSS 30:206-211, 1941. 57. Helmholtz, H.: Treatise on Physiological Optics , translated from the third German edition, and edited by J. P. C. Southall, Ithaca, N. Y., Optical Society of America, 1924, Vol. 2. 58. Gaydon, A. G.: Color Sensations Produced by Ultraviolet Light , Proc. Phys. Soc. 50:714-720, 1938.Crossref 59. Friedrich, W., and Schreiber, H.: Das Sehen des menschlichen Auges im Ultraviolett: II. Die Grenze des extrafovealen Sehens im Spektrum , Arch. ges. Physiol. 246:790-802, 1943.Crossref 60. Le Grand, Y.: Sur la fluorescence du cristallin , Compt. rend. Acad. sc. 207:1128-1130, 1938. 61. Schneider, E. E.: Color Phenomena in Ultraviolet Vision , Nature, London 155:176, 1945.Crossref 62. Bachem, A.: The Color of Ultraviolet Light , Am. J. Psychol. 66:251-260, 1953.Crossref 63. Gibson, K. S., and Tyndall, E. P. T.: Visibility of Radiant Energy, National Bureau Standard Scientific Paper No. 475, 1923. 64. de Groot, W.: Seeing in the Ultra-Violet , Nature, London 134:494, 1934.Crossref 65. Friedrich, W., and Schreiber, H.: Das Sehen des menschlichen Auges im Ultraviolett: I. Die extrafovealen Schwellenwerte für 365 mμ und 546 mμ , Arch. ges. Physiol. 246:621-632, 1943Crossref 66. Wawilow, S. I.: Sensitivity of the Retina to the Ultraviolet Spectrum , Compt. rend Acad. sc. URSS. 21:373-375, 1938. 67. Pinegin, N. I.: Absolute Scotopic Sensitivity of the Eye in the Ultra-Violet and in the Visible Spectrum , Nature, London 155:20-21, 1945Crossref 68. Wright, W. D.: The Visual Sensitivity of Normal and Aphakic Observers in the Ultraviolet , Ann. psychol. 50:169-177, 1951.Crossref 69. Extension of the Scotopic Visibility Curve to 3130 A and 8000 A, Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Bibliography of Scientific and Industrial Reports Publication Board, No. 28539; Office of Scientific Research Development, Report No. 1431, March 1, 1943. 70. Crawford, B. H.: The Scotopic Visibility Function , Proc. Phys. Soc. 62:312-334, 1949.Crossref 71. Weaver, K. S.: A Provisional Standard Observer for Low-Level Photometry , J. Optic. Soc. America 39:278-291, 1949.Crossref 72. Wald, G.: The Photochemical Basis of Rod Vision , J. Optic. Soc. America 41:949-956, 1951.Crossref

Journal

A.M.A. Archives of OphthalmologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Dec 1, 1953

References