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TRH (Protirelin) in Depressed Alcoholic Men: Behavioral Changes and Endocrine Responses

TRH (Protirelin) in Depressed Alcoholic Men: Behavioral Changes and Endocrine Responses Abstract • Chronic alcoholics with secondary depression were treated with protirelin in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Behavioral data, collected only during the acute alcohol withdrawal state, indicated a beneficial effect of protirelin three hours after injection, but not during subsequent days. Injections caused only mild and infrequent subjective side effects and no cardiovascular effects. Endocrine data were recorded in the acute withdrawal state and after clinical remission. Findings in the acute state suggested thyroid activation and increased central dopaminergic activity, as evidenced by elevated baseline levels of growth hormone, low baseline levels of prolactin, and blunted thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) response to protirelin. The first two abnormalities returned to normal levels in the remission state. A blunted TSH response was observed in both the acute and the remission states. Partial persistence of this finding suggests that TSH blunting may not be solely statedependent. In the acute withdrawal state, TSH blunting was associated with favorable behavioral responses to protirelin. References 1. Prange AJ Jr, Wilson IC: Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) for the immediate relief of depression . Psychopharmacologia 26:82, 1972. 2. Prange AJ Jr, Lara PP, Wilson IC, et al: Effects of thyrotropin releasing hormone in depression . Lancet 2:999-1002, 1972.Crossref 3. Kastin AJ, Ehrensing RH, Schalch DS, et al: Improvement in mental depression with decreased thyrotropin response after administration of thyrotropin-releasing hormone . Lancet 2:740-742, 1972.Crossref 4. Prange AJ Jr, Nemeroff CB, Lipton MA, et al: Peptides and the central nervous system , in Iversen LL, Iversen SD, Snyder SH (eds): Handbook of Pharmacology . New York, Plenum Press Inc, vol 13, pp 1-107. 5. Coppen A, Peet M, Montgomery S, et al: Thyrotropin-releasing hormone in the treatment of depression . Lancet 1:433-435, 1974.Crossref 6. Kirkegaard C, Norlem N, Lauridsen BU, et al: Protirelin stimulation test and thyroid function during treatment of depression . Arch Gen Psychiatry 32:1115-1118, 1975.Crossref 7. Maeda K, Kato T, Ohgo S, et al: Growth hormone and prolactin release after injection of thyrotropin-releasing hormone in patients with depression . J Clin Endocrinol Metab 40:501-505, 1975.Crossref 8. Hollister LE, Davis KL, Berger PA: Pituitary response to thyrotropinreleasing hormone in depression . Arch Gen Psychiatry 33:1393-1396, 1976.Crossref 9. Loosen PT, Prange AJ Jr, Wilson IC, et al: Thyroid stimulating hormone response after thyrotropin releasing hormone in depressed, schizophrenic and normal women . Psychoneuroendocrinology 2:137-148, 1977.Crossref 10. Gregoire F, Braumann H, DeBuck R, et al: Hormone release in depressed patients before and after recovery . Psychoneuroendocrinology 2:303-312, 1977.Crossref 11. Gold PW, Goodwin FK, Wehr T, et al: Pituitary thyrotropin response to thyrotropin releasing hormone in affective illness: Relationship to spinal fluid amine metabolites . Am J Psychiatry 134:1028-1031, 1977. 12. Loosen PT, Prange AJ Jr, Wilson IC, et al: Pituitary responses to thyrotropin releasing hormone in depressed patients: A review . Pharmacol Biochem Behav 5( (suppl 1) ):95-101, 1976.Crossref 13. Prange AJ JR: Patterns of pituitary response to thyrotropin releasing hormone in depressed patients , in Fann WE, Karacan I, Pokorny AD, et al (eds): Phenomenology and Treatment of Depression . New York, Spectrum, 1977, pp 1-15. 14. Weissman MM, Pottenger M, Kleber H, et al: Symptom patterns in primary and secondary depression . Arch Gen Psychiatry 34:854-862, 1977.Crossref 15. Pitts FN, Winokur G: Affective disorder: VII. Alcoholism and affective disorder . J Psychiatr Res 4:37-50, 1966.Crossref 16. Reynolds CM, Merry J, Coppen A: Prophylactic treatment of alcoholism by lithium carbonate: An initial report . Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1:109-111, 1977.Crossref 17. Winokur G, Cadoret R, Dorzab I, et al: Depressive disease: A genetic study . Arch Gen Psychiatry 24:135-144, 1971.Crossref 18. Woodruff RA Jr, Guzes B, Clayton PJ, et al: Alcoholism and depression . Arch Gen Psychiatry 28:97-100, 1973.Crossref 19. Gross MM, Lewis E, Hastey J: Acute alcohol withdrawal syndrome , in Kissin B, Begleiter H (eds): The Biology of Alcoholism . New York, Plenum Press Inc, 1973, vol 3. 20. Hamilton M: A rating scale for depression . J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 23:56-62, 1960.Crossref 21. Overall JE, Gorham DR: The brief psychiatric rating scale . Psychol Rep 10:799-812, 1962.Crossref 22. Aitken RCB, Zeally AH: Measurement of mood . Br J Hosp Med 4:215-224, 1970. 23. Bond A, Lader M: The use of analogue scales in rating subjective feelings . Br J Med Psychol 47:211-218, 1974.Crossref 24. Odell WD, Wilber JR, Utiger RD: Studies of thyrotropin physiology by means of radioimmunoassay . Rec Prog Horm Res 23:47-85, 1967. 25. Meltzer HY, Fang VS: The effects of neuroleptics on serum prolactin in schizophrenic patients . Arch Gen Psychiatry 33:279-286, 1976.Crossref 26. Gordon P, Roth G: Clinical application of radioimmunoassay of growth hormone , in Sunderman FW, Sunderman FW Jr (eds): Laboratory Diagnosis of Endocrine Diseases . St Louis, Warren Green Inc, 1971, p200. 27. Pileggi VJ, Demetriou GA, Beattie J: A radioimmunoassay method for the determination of triiodothyronine in serum, abstract 1415 . Scand J Clin Lab Invest 29( (suppl 126) ):14, 1972. 28. Hales IB, Steel JN, Thomas M: Evaluation of sephadex column methods for the estimation of total serum thyroxine level and triiodothyronine resin uptake . Med J Aust 1:116, 1972. 29. Campuzano AC, Wilkerson JE, Raven PG, et al: A radioimmunoassay for cortisol in human plasma . Biochem Med 7:350-356, 1973.Crossref 30. Auletta FJ, Caldwell BV, Hamilton G: Androgens, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone , in Jaffe BM, Behman HR (eds): Methods of Hormone Radioimmunoassay . New York, Academic Press Inc, 1974. 31. Aksel S, Schomberg DW, Tyrey L, et al: Vasomotor symptoms, serum estrogens and gonadotropin levels in surgical menopause . Am J Obstet Gynecol 126:165-170, 1976. 32. Winer BJ: Statistical Principles in Experimental Design , ed 2. New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co Inc, 1976. 33. Shaw JA, Donley P, Morgan DW, et al: Treatment of depression in alcoholics . Am J Psychiatry 132:641:644, 1975. 34. Kissin B, Gross MM: Drug therapy in alcoholism . Am J Psychiatry 125:69-79, 1968. 35. Kaim SC, Rothfeld B: Treatment of the acute alcohol withdrawal state: A comparison of four drugs . Am J Psychiatry 125:1640-1646, 1969. 36. Viamontes JA: Review of drug effectiveness in the treatment of alcoholism . Am J Psychiatry 128:1570-1571, 1972. 37. Kissin B, Charnoff SN: Clinical evaluation of tranquilizers and antidepressant drugs in long term treatment of chronic alcoholism , in Fox R (ed): Alcoholism, Behavioral Research, Therapeutic Approaches . New York, Spring Publishing Co, 1967. 38. Ditman KS: Evaluation of drugs in the treatment of alcoholics . Q J Stud Alcohol 22( (suppl 1) ):107-116, 1961. 39. Huey LY, Janowsky DS, Mandell AJ, et al: Preliminary studies on the use of thyrotropin-releasing hormone in manic states, depression, and the dysphoria of alcohol withdrawal . Psychopharmacol Bull 11:24-27, 1975. 40. Loosen PT, Wilson IC, Lara PP, et al: Beeinflussung depressiver Zustande im Alkoholentzugssyndrom mit TRH (Thyrotropin-releasing hormone) . Arznei Forsch 26:1164-1166, 1976. 41. Deitrich RA: Biochemical aspects of alcoholism . Psychoneuroendocrinology 1:325-346, 1976.Crossref 42. Reichlin S, Saperstein R, Jackson IMD, et al: Hypothalamic hormones . Ann Rev Physiol 38:389-424, 1976.Crossref 43. Meltzer HY, Sachar EJ, Frantz A: Serum prolactin levels in unmediated schizophrenic patients . Arch Gen Psychiatry 31:564-569, 1974.Crossref 44. Brambilla F, Guastalla A, Guerrini A, et al: Prolactin secretion in chronic schizophrenia . Acta Psychiatr Scand 54:275-286, 1976.Crossref 45. Gruen PH, Sachar EJ, Langer G, et al: Prolactin responses to neuroleptics in normal and schizophrenic subjects . Arch Gen Psychiatry 35:108-116, 1978.Crossref 46. Frohman LA: Neurotransmitters as regulators of endocrine function . Hosp Pract 10:54-67, 1975. 47. Martin JB: Neural regulation of growth hormone secretion . N Engl J Med 288:1384-1393, 1973.Crossref 48. Sawin CT, Hershman JH: Clinical use of thyrotropin-releasing hormone . Pharmacol Ther [C] 1:351-366, 1976. 49. Burrow GN, May PB, Spaulding SW, et al: TRH and dopamine interaction affecting pituitary hormone secretion . J Clin Endocrinol Metab 45:65-72, 1977.Crossref 50. Otsuki M, Dakoda M, Baba D: Influence of glucocorticoids on TRH mediated TSH response in man . J Clin Endocrinol 36:95-102, 1973.Crossref 51. Re RN, Kourides IA, Ridgway EC, et al: The effect of glucocorticoid administration of human pituitary secretion of thyrotropin and prolactin . J Clin Endocrinol Metab 43:338-346, 1976.Crossref 52. Loosen PT, Prange AJ Jr, Wilson IC: Influence of cortisol on TRH induced TSH response on depression . Am J Psychiatry 155:244-246, 1978. 53. Snyder PT, Utiger RD: Response to thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) in normal men . J Clin Endocrinol Metab 34:380-385, 1972.Crossref 54. Wenzel DW, Meinhold H, Herpich M, et al: TRH stimulations-test mit alters und geschlechtsabhaengiegem TSH anstieg bei normal personen . Klin Wochenschr 52:722-727, 1975.Crossref 55. Greenblatt DJ, Shader RI: Treatment of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome , in Shader RI (ed): Manual of Psychiatric Therapeutics . Boston, Little, Brown Co, 1975, pp 211-235. 56. Blum K, Eubanks JD, Wallace JE, et al: Suppression of ethanol withdrawal by dopamine . Experimentia 32:493-495, 1976.Crossref 57. Carlsson C, Johanson PR, Gulleberg B: A double-blind crossover study: Apomorphine/placebo in chronic alcoholics . Int J Clin Pharmacol 15:211-213, 1977. 58. Alkana RL, Praker ES, Cohen HB, et al: Reversal of ethanol intoxication in humans: An assessment of the efficacy of L-DOPA aminophylline, and ephedrine . Psychopharmacology 55:203-212, 1977.Crossref 59. Horst WD, Spirt N: A possible mechanism for the antidepressant activity of thyrotropin-releasing hormone . Life Sci 15:1073-1082, 1974.Crossref 60. Reigle TJ, Avni J, Platz PA, et al: Norepinephrine metabolism in the rat brain following acute and chronic administration of thyrotropin releasing hormone . Psychopharmacologia 37:1-6, 1974.Crossref 61. Schmidt DE: Effects of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) on pentobarbital-induced decrease in cholinergic neuronal activity . Comm Psychopharmacol 1:469-473, 1977. 62. Yarbrough GG: TRH potentiates excitatory actions of acetylcholine on cerebral cortical neurons . Nature 263:523-524, 1976.Crossref 63. Kolakowska T, Swigar ME: Thyroid function in depression and alcohol abuse . Arch Gen Psychiatry 34:984-988, 1977.Crossref 64. Murdock HR Jr: Thyroidal effect of alcohol . Q J Stud Alcohol 28:419-423, 1967. 65. Selzer ML, Van Houten WH: Normal thyroid function in chronic alcoholism . J Clin Endocrinol Metab 24:380-382, 1977.Crossref 66. Augustine JR: Laboratory studies in acute alcoholics . Can Med Assoc J 96:1367-1370, 1967. 67. Goldberg M: The occurrence and treatment of hypothyroidism among alcoholics . J Clin Endocrinol Metab 20:609-621, 1960.Crossref 68. Goldberg M: Thyroid function in chronic alcoholism . Lancet 2:746, 1962.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of General Psychiatry American Medical Association

TRH (Protirelin) in Depressed Alcoholic Men: Behavioral Changes and Endocrine Responses

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American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1979 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-990X
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1598-3636
DOI
10.1001/archpsyc.1979.01780050050005
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Abstract

Abstract • Chronic alcoholics with secondary depression were treated with protirelin in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Behavioral data, collected only during the acute alcohol withdrawal state, indicated a beneficial effect of protirelin three hours after injection, but not during subsequent days. Injections caused only mild and infrequent subjective side effects and no cardiovascular effects. Endocrine data were recorded in the acute withdrawal state and after clinical remission. Findings in the acute state suggested thyroid activation and increased central dopaminergic activity, as evidenced by elevated baseline levels of growth hormone, low baseline levels of prolactin, and blunted thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) response to protirelin. The first two abnormalities returned to normal levels in the remission state. A blunted TSH response was observed in both the acute and the remission states. Partial persistence of this finding suggests that TSH blunting may not be solely statedependent. In the acute withdrawal state, TSH blunting was associated with favorable behavioral responses to protirelin. References 1. Prange AJ Jr, Wilson IC: Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) for the immediate relief of depression . Psychopharmacologia 26:82, 1972. 2. Prange AJ Jr, Lara PP, Wilson IC, et al: Effects of thyrotropin releasing hormone in depression . Lancet 2:999-1002, 1972.Crossref 3. Kastin AJ, Ehrensing RH, Schalch DS, et al: Improvement in mental depression with decreased thyrotropin response after administration of thyrotropin-releasing hormone . Lancet 2:740-742, 1972.Crossref 4. Prange AJ Jr, Nemeroff CB, Lipton MA, et al: Peptides and the central nervous system , in Iversen LL, Iversen SD, Snyder SH (eds): Handbook of Pharmacology . New York, Plenum Press Inc, vol 13, pp 1-107. 5. Coppen A, Peet M, Montgomery S, et al: Thyrotropin-releasing hormone in the treatment of depression . Lancet 1:433-435, 1974.Crossref 6. Kirkegaard C, Norlem N, Lauridsen BU, et al: Protirelin stimulation test and thyroid function during treatment of depression . Arch Gen Psychiatry 32:1115-1118, 1975.Crossref 7. Maeda K, Kato T, Ohgo S, et al: Growth hormone and prolactin release after injection of thyrotropin-releasing hormone in patients with depression . J Clin Endocrinol Metab 40:501-505, 1975.Crossref 8. Hollister LE, Davis KL, Berger PA: Pituitary response to thyrotropinreleasing hormone in depression . Arch Gen Psychiatry 33:1393-1396, 1976.Crossref 9. Loosen PT, Prange AJ Jr, Wilson IC, et al: Thyroid stimulating hormone response after thyrotropin releasing hormone in depressed, schizophrenic and normal women . Psychoneuroendocrinology 2:137-148, 1977.Crossref 10. Gregoire F, Braumann H, DeBuck R, et al: Hormone release in depressed patients before and after recovery . Psychoneuroendocrinology 2:303-312, 1977.Crossref 11. Gold PW, Goodwin FK, Wehr T, et al: Pituitary thyrotropin response to thyrotropin releasing hormone in affective illness: Relationship to spinal fluid amine metabolites . Am J Psychiatry 134:1028-1031, 1977. 12. Loosen PT, Prange AJ Jr, Wilson IC, et al: Pituitary responses to thyrotropin releasing hormone in depressed patients: A review . Pharmacol Biochem Behav 5( (suppl 1) ):95-101, 1976.Crossref 13. Prange AJ JR: Patterns of pituitary response to thyrotropin releasing hormone in depressed patients , in Fann WE, Karacan I, Pokorny AD, et al (eds): Phenomenology and Treatment of Depression . New York, Spectrum, 1977, pp 1-15. 14. Weissman MM, Pottenger M, Kleber H, et al: Symptom patterns in primary and secondary depression . Arch Gen Psychiatry 34:854-862, 1977.Crossref 15. Pitts FN, Winokur G: Affective disorder: VII. Alcoholism and affective disorder . J Psychiatr Res 4:37-50, 1966.Crossref 16. Reynolds CM, Merry J, Coppen A: Prophylactic treatment of alcoholism by lithium carbonate: An initial report . Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1:109-111, 1977.Crossref 17. Winokur G, Cadoret R, Dorzab I, et al: Depressive disease: A genetic study . Arch Gen Psychiatry 24:135-144, 1971.Crossref 18. Woodruff RA Jr, Guzes B, Clayton PJ, et al: Alcoholism and depression . Arch Gen Psychiatry 28:97-100, 1973.Crossref 19. Gross MM, Lewis E, Hastey J: Acute alcohol withdrawal syndrome , in Kissin B, Begleiter H (eds): The Biology of Alcoholism . New York, Plenum Press Inc, 1973, vol 3. 20. Hamilton M: A rating scale for depression . J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 23:56-62, 1960.Crossref 21. Overall JE, Gorham DR: The brief psychiatric rating scale . Psychol Rep 10:799-812, 1962.Crossref 22. Aitken RCB, Zeally AH: Measurement of mood . Br J Hosp Med 4:215-224, 1970. 23. Bond A, Lader M: The use of analogue scales in rating subjective feelings . Br J Med Psychol 47:211-218, 1974.Crossref 24. Odell WD, Wilber JR, Utiger RD: Studies of thyrotropin physiology by means of radioimmunoassay . Rec Prog Horm Res 23:47-85, 1967. 25. Meltzer HY, Fang VS: The effects of neuroleptics on serum prolactin in schizophrenic patients . Arch Gen Psychiatry 33:279-286, 1976.Crossref 26. Gordon P, Roth G: Clinical application of radioimmunoassay of growth hormone , in Sunderman FW, Sunderman FW Jr (eds): Laboratory Diagnosis of Endocrine Diseases . St Louis, Warren Green Inc, 1971, p200. 27. Pileggi VJ, Demetriou GA, Beattie J: A radioimmunoassay method for the determination of triiodothyronine in serum, abstract 1415 . Scand J Clin Lab Invest 29( (suppl 126) ):14, 1972. 28. Hales IB, Steel JN, Thomas M: Evaluation of sephadex column methods for the estimation of total serum thyroxine level and triiodothyronine resin uptake . Med J Aust 1:116, 1972. 29. Campuzano AC, Wilkerson JE, Raven PG, et al: A radioimmunoassay for cortisol in human plasma . Biochem Med 7:350-356, 1973.Crossref 30. Auletta FJ, Caldwell BV, Hamilton G: Androgens, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone , in Jaffe BM, Behman HR (eds): Methods of Hormone Radioimmunoassay . New York, Academic Press Inc, 1974. 31. Aksel S, Schomberg DW, Tyrey L, et al: Vasomotor symptoms, serum estrogens and gonadotropin levels in surgical menopause . Am J Obstet Gynecol 126:165-170, 1976. 32. Winer BJ: Statistical Principles in Experimental Design , ed 2. New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co Inc, 1976. 33. Shaw JA, Donley P, Morgan DW, et al: Treatment of depression in alcoholics . Am J Psychiatry 132:641:644, 1975. 34. Kissin B, Gross MM: Drug therapy in alcoholism . Am J Psychiatry 125:69-79, 1968. 35. Kaim SC, Rothfeld B: Treatment of the acute alcohol withdrawal state: A comparison of four drugs . Am J Psychiatry 125:1640-1646, 1969. 36. Viamontes JA: Review of drug effectiveness in the treatment of alcoholism . Am J Psychiatry 128:1570-1571, 1972. 37. Kissin B, Charnoff SN: Clinical evaluation of tranquilizers and antidepressant drugs in long term treatment of chronic alcoholism , in Fox R (ed): Alcoholism, Behavioral Research, Therapeutic Approaches . New York, Spring Publishing Co, 1967. 38. Ditman KS: Evaluation of drugs in the treatment of alcoholics . Q J Stud Alcohol 22( (suppl 1) ):107-116, 1961. 39. Huey LY, Janowsky DS, Mandell AJ, et al: Preliminary studies on the use of thyrotropin-releasing hormone in manic states, depression, and the dysphoria of alcohol withdrawal . Psychopharmacol Bull 11:24-27, 1975. 40. Loosen PT, Wilson IC, Lara PP, et al: Beeinflussung depressiver Zustande im Alkoholentzugssyndrom mit TRH (Thyrotropin-releasing hormone) . Arznei Forsch 26:1164-1166, 1976. 41. Deitrich RA: Biochemical aspects of alcoholism . Psychoneuroendocrinology 1:325-346, 1976.Crossref 42. Reichlin S, Saperstein R, Jackson IMD, et al: Hypothalamic hormones . Ann Rev Physiol 38:389-424, 1976.Crossref 43. Meltzer HY, Sachar EJ, Frantz A: Serum prolactin levels in unmediated schizophrenic patients . Arch Gen Psychiatry 31:564-569, 1974.Crossref 44. Brambilla F, Guastalla A, Guerrini A, et al: Prolactin secretion in chronic schizophrenia . Acta Psychiatr Scand 54:275-286, 1976.Crossref 45. Gruen PH, Sachar EJ, Langer G, et al: Prolactin responses to neuroleptics in normal and schizophrenic subjects . Arch Gen Psychiatry 35:108-116, 1978.Crossref 46. Frohman LA: Neurotransmitters as regulators of endocrine function . Hosp Pract 10:54-67, 1975. 47. Martin JB: Neural regulation of growth hormone secretion . N Engl J Med 288:1384-1393, 1973.Crossref 48. Sawin CT, Hershman JH: Clinical use of thyrotropin-releasing hormone . Pharmacol Ther [C] 1:351-366, 1976. 49. Burrow GN, May PB, Spaulding SW, et al: TRH and dopamine interaction affecting pituitary hormone secretion . J Clin Endocrinol Metab 45:65-72, 1977.Crossref 50. Otsuki M, Dakoda M, Baba D: Influence of glucocorticoids on TRH mediated TSH response in man . J Clin Endocrinol 36:95-102, 1973.Crossref 51. Re RN, Kourides IA, Ridgway EC, et al: The effect of glucocorticoid administration of human pituitary secretion of thyrotropin and prolactin . J Clin Endocrinol Metab 43:338-346, 1976.Crossref 52. Loosen PT, Prange AJ Jr, Wilson IC: Influence of cortisol on TRH induced TSH response on depression . Am J Psychiatry 155:244-246, 1978. 53. Snyder PT, Utiger RD: Response to thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) in normal men . J Clin Endocrinol Metab 34:380-385, 1972.Crossref 54. Wenzel DW, Meinhold H, Herpich M, et al: TRH stimulations-test mit alters und geschlechtsabhaengiegem TSH anstieg bei normal personen . Klin Wochenschr 52:722-727, 1975.Crossref 55. Greenblatt DJ, Shader RI: Treatment of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome , in Shader RI (ed): Manual of Psychiatric Therapeutics . Boston, Little, Brown Co, 1975, pp 211-235. 56. Blum K, Eubanks JD, Wallace JE, et al: Suppression of ethanol withdrawal by dopamine . Experimentia 32:493-495, 1976.Crossref 57. Carlsson C, Johanson PR, Gulleberg B: A double-blind crossover study: Apomorphine/placebo in chronic alcoholics . Int J Clin Pharmacol 15:211-213, 1977. 58. Alkana RL, Praker ES, Cohen HB, et al: Reversal of ethanol intoxication in humans: An assessment of the efficacy of L-DOPA aminophylline, and ephedrine . Psychopharmacology 55:203-212, 1977.Crossref 59. Horst WD, Spirt N: A possible mechanism for the antidepressant activity of thyrotropin-releasing hormone . Life Sci 15:1073-1082, 1974.Crossref 60. Reigle TJ, Avni J, Platz PA, et al: Norepinephrine metabolism in the rat brain following acute and chronic administration of thyrotropin releasing hormone . Psychopharmacologia 37:1-6, 1974.Crossref 61. Schmidt DE: Effects of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) on pentobarbital-induced decrease in cholinergic neuronal activity . Comm Psychopharmacol 1:469-473, 1977. 62. Yarbrough GG: TRH potentiates excitatory actions of acetylcholine on cerebral cortical neurons . Nature 263:523-524, 1976.Crossref 63. Kolakowska T, Swigar ME: Thyroid function in depression and alcohol abuse . Arch Gen Psychiatry 34:984-988, 1977.Crossref 64. Murdock HR Jr: Thyroidal effect of alcohol . Q J Stud Alcohol 28:419-423, 1967. 65. Selzer ML, Van Houten WH: Normal thyroid function in chronic alcoholism . J Clin Endocrinol Metab 24:380-382, 1977.Crossref 66. Augustine JR: Laboratory studies in acute alcoholics . Can Med Assoc J 96:1367-1370, 1967. 67. Goldberg M: The occurrence and treatment of hypothyroidism among alcoholics . J Clin Endocrinol Metab 20:609-621, 1960.Crossref 68. Goldberg M: Thyroid function in chronic alcoholism . Lancet 2:746, 1962.Crossref

Journal

Archives of General PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: May 1, 1979

References