Abstract TONOGRAPHY is a new term for a procedure which consists essentially of the observation of the drop in ocular tension that occurs during prolonged or sustained corneal application of a tonometer of the Schiøtz type. Fundamentally, this drop in ocular tension is an example of the reaction of the normal human eye to localized pressure from without, causing deformation, indentation, and distention of the eyeball wall. At present tonography may be described as a promising approach to a number of ophthalmological problems, the unexplored ground vastly exceeding the explored territory. HISTORY OF TONOGRAPHY While the phenomenon of a drop in ocular tension under the influence of repeated or prolonged application of the tonometer was known to Schiøtz and his early followers, its first systematic study appears to have been made and reported by Wegner.1 When a Schiøtz tonometer with the 5.5 gm. load was allowed to rest on the References 1. Wegner, W.: Massagewirkung und Stauungsversuche am normalen und glaukomatösen Auge , Ztschr. Augenh. 55:381, 1925. 2. Bailliart, P.: On Tonometry , Tr. Ophth. Soc. U. Kingdom 51:412, 1931. 3. Boeck, J.; Kronfeld, P. C., and Stough, J. T.: Effect on Intraocular Tension of Corneal Massage with the Tonometer of Schiøtz , Arch. Ophth. 11:796, 1934. 4. Seidel, E.: Zur Methodik der klinischen Glaukomforschung , von Graefes Arch. Ophth. 119:15, 1927Crossref 5. Ber. Versamml. deutsch. ophth. Gesellsch. 46:43, 1927. 6. Thomassen, T. L.: Experimental Investigations into the Conditions of Tension in Normal Eyes and in Simple Glaucoma, Particularly Performed by Subjecting the Eyes to Weight Compressions , Acta ophth. , (Supp. 27) , 1946. 7. Dashevsky, A. I.: Tonometric Expression Testing and Its Clinical Significance in Glaucoma and Traumatic Ocular Hypotony , Vestnik oftal. 23:21, 1944 8. abstracted, Am. J. Ophth. 29:116, 1946. 9. Moses, R. A., and Bruno, M.: Rate of Outflow of Fluid from the Eye Under Increased Pressure , Am. J. Ophth. 33:389, 1950. 10. Grant, W. M.: (a) Tonographic Method for Measuring the Facility and Rate of Aqueous Flow in Human Eyes , Arch. Ophth. 44:204, 1950Crossref 11. (b) Clinical Measurements of Aqueous Outflow , A. M. A. Arch. Ophth. 46:113, 1951Crossref 12. (c) Clinical Tonography , Tr. Am. Acad. Ophth. 56:774, 1951. 13. Shahan, P. T.: Tonography: Studies of Aqueous Expulsion in Normal and Glaucomatous Eyes, to be published. 14. deRoetth, A., in discussion on Grant,8b p. 130. 15. Friedenwald, J. S.: Problems in the Calibration of Tonometers , Am. J. Ophth. 31:941, 1948. 16. Friedenwald, J. S.: Personal communication to the author. 17. Friedenwald, J. S., in discussion on Grant,8b p. 124. 18. The conversion tables supplied by the manufacturers of tonometers contain only Po values, since the clinician, ordinarily, is interested in knowing what the ocular tension was just before, and not during, the tonometric procedure. 19. Goldmann, H.: Studien über den Abflussdruck des Kammerwassers beim Menschen , Ophthalmologica 114:81, 1947.Crossref 20. Weekers, R., and Prijot, E.: Recherches expérimentales sur les fonctions des veines aqueuses , Ophthalmologica 119:321, 1950.Crossref 21. Greaves, D. P., and Perkins, E. S.: Aqueous Veins in Rabbits , Brit. J. Ophth. 35:119. 1951.Crossref 22. Moses and Bruno,7 p. 390. 23. These eyes were not included in the series of 40 eyes with early cataract or undiseased eyes which served to establish the normal range of coefficients of outflow. 24. Attention will be paid in the future to possible effects upon the coefficient of outflow of individual variations in corneal curvature which have been shown to have a definite effect upon the volume displaced (Friedenwald 11).
A.M.A. Archives of Ophthalmology – American Medical Association
Published: Oct 1, 1952
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera