Abstract TICK PARALYSIS, a disease of man and animals, has been recognized as a clinical entity since the beginning of the 19th century. Captain William Hovell, while traveling through Australia, wrote in 1824 of "the small insect called the tick, which buries itself in the flesh, and would in the end destroy either man or beast if not removed in time."1 Todd2 reported the first cases of tick paralysis in man in North America. As of 1965, approximately 350 cases had been reported in the United States and Canada with a mortality of about 12%3 The disease is seen worldwide and is endemic in the southeastern and northwestern regions of the United States and in western Canada.4 Certain ticks of the species Dermacentor andersoni and D variabilis elaborate a toxic substance which can give rise to an acute ascending flaccid paralysis that can end References 1. Hovell, W.H.: Journal Kept on the Journey From Lake George to Port Phillip, 1824-1825 , R Aust Hist Soc 7:358, 1921. 2. Todd, J.L.: Does a Human Tick-Bome Disease Exist in British Columbia? Canada Med Assoc J 2:686, 1912. 3. Morbidity and Mortality, US Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Weekly Report, Sept 18, 1965. 4. Campbell, E.G.: Tick Paralysis: A Brief Review of the Disease , J Kansas Med Soc 65:465-468, 1964. 5. Kaire, G.H.: Isolation of Tick Paralysis Toxin from Ixodes Hyolcyclus , Toxin 4:91-97, 1966. 6. Abbott, K.H.: Tick Paralysis: A Review , Mayo Clin Proc 18:39-45, 59-63, 1943. 7. Murnaghan, M.F.: Conduction Block of Terminal Somatic Motor Fibers in Tick Paralysis , Canad J Biochem Physiol 38:287-295, 1960.Crossref 8. Emmons, P., and McLennan, H.: Some Observations on Tick Paralysis in Marmots , J Exp Biol 37:355-362, 1960. 9. Esplin, D.W.; Phillip, C.B.; and Hughes, L.E.: Impairment of Muscle Stretch Reflexes in Tick Paralysis , Science 132:958-959, 1960.Crossref 10. Granit, R., and Kellerth, J.O. " The Effects of Stretch Receptors on Motoneurons ," in Yahr, M.D., and Purpura, D.P. (eds): Neurophysiological Basis of Normal and Abnormal Motor Activities , Hewlett, NY: Raven Press, 1967, pp 3-28. 11. Gilman, S., and McDonald, W.I.: Cerebellar Facilitation of Muscle Spindle Activity , J Neurophysiol 30:1494-1522, 1967. 12. Van der Meulen, J.P., and Gilman, S.: Recovery of Muscle Spindle Activity in Cats After Cerebellar Ablation , J Neurophysiol 28:943-957, 1965. 13. Erulkar, S.D., et al: Organization of the Vestibular Projection to the Spinal Cord of the Cat , J Neurophysiol 29:626-664, 1966. 14. Wilson, V.J., and Yoshida, M.: Vestibulospinal and Reticulospinal Effects on Hindlimb, Forelimb, and Neck Alpha Motoneurons of the Cat , Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 60:836-840 ( (July) ) 1968.Crossref 15. Fishbein, R.E.: Use of Intravenous Chlordiazepoxide in Emergency Room Treatment , Curr Ther Res 3:345-349, 1961. 16. Randall, L.O.: Pharmacology of Chlordiazepoxide (Librium) , Dis Nerv Syst 22( (suppl 4) ):7-15, 1961. 17. Wilson, V.J., and Talbot, W.H.: Recurrent Conditioning in the Cat Spinal Cord: Differential Effect of Meprobamate on Recurrent Facilitation and Inhibition , J Gen Physiol 43:495-502, 1960.Crossref 18. Esplin, D.W.: Criteria for Assessing Effects of Depressant Drugs on Spinal Cord Synaptic Transmission, With Examples of Drug Selectivity , Arch Int Pharmacodyn 143:479-497, 1963. 19. Domino, E.F.: The Correlation Between Animal Testing Procedures and Clinical Effectiveness of Centrally Acting Muscle Relaxants of the Mephenesin Type , Ann NY Acad Sci 67:705-729, 1956.Crossref 20. Henatsch, H.D., and Ingvar, D.H.: Chlorpromozin und Spastizitat: Eine Experimentelle elektrophysiologische Untersuchung , Arch Psychiat 195:77-93, 1956.Crossref 21. Hudson, R.D., and Domino, E.F.: Evidence for a Brain Stem Action of Chlorpromazine on Some Reflexes , abstracted, Fed Proc 20:307, 1961.
Archives of Neurology – American Medical Association
Published: Nov 1, 1969
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