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Thyroid Function in Young Children With Down Syndrome

Thyroid Function in Young Children With Down Syndrome Abstract • A retrospective review of thyroid function tests (TFTs) was performed on 49 young children (aged 4 months to 3 years) with Down syndrome compared with age-matched controls screened for hypothyroidism because of developmental delay or failure to thrive. Three of the 49 children with Down syndrome had congenital hypothyroidism; of the three, one had Hirschsprung's disease and two had duodenal atresia. Thyroiditis was uncommon, with only two children having thyroid antibodies present: one had acquired hypothyroidism and the other acquired hyperthyroidism. Twenty-seven percent of the Down syndrome cohort had mildly increased thyrotropin (TSH) and normal thyroxine levels. When compared with children with Down syndrome who had normal TFTs, no significant differences in sex, growth rate, maternal age, associated anomalies, developmental or specific thyroid symptoms were present. Transient elevations of TSH level were common in children with Down syndrome whether or not TSH values were initially normal or elevated. Routine neonatal and sequential thyroid screening in young children with Down syndrome is warranted. (AJDC 1986;140:479-483) References 1. Baxter RG, Marlin FIR, Myles K, et al: Down syndrome and thyroid function in adults . Lancet 1975;2:794-796.Crossref 2. Hughes VC, Cameron J, Zoongoonetilleke AFR, et al: The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in mentally handicapped inpatients . J Ment Defic Res 1982;26:115-120. 3. Aarskog D: Autoimmune thyroid disease in children with mongolism . Arch Dis Child 1969; 44:454-460.Crossref 4. Takahashi H, Bordy MD, Sharma V: Hyperthyroidism in patients with Down syndrome . Clin Pediatr 1979;18:273-275.Crossref 5. Thasi ME: Reversible dementia in Down syndrome . J Ment Defic Res 1982;26:111-113. 6. Pueschel SM, Rynders TE: Down syndrome: Advances in Biomedicine and the Behavioral Sciences . Cambridge, Mass, Ware Press, 1982, pp 243-246. 7. Sare Z, Ruvalcaba RHA, Kelley VC: Prevalence of thyroid disorders in Down syndrome . Clin Genet 1978;14:154-158.Crossref 8. Murdoch JC, Ratcliffe DVA, Mclarty DG, et al: Thyroid function in adults with Down syndrome . J Clin Endocrinol 1977;44:453-458.Crossref 9. Hollingsworth DR, McKean HE, Roeckel I: Goiter, immunological observations and thyroid functions tests in Down syndrome . AJDC 1974;127:524-527. 10. Quinn MW: Down syndrome and hypothyroidism . Ir J Med Sci 1980;1:19-22.Crossref 11. Lobo ED, Khan M, Tews J: Community study of hypothyroidism in Down syndrome . Br Med J 1980;280:1253-1255.Crossref 12. Harris F, Koutsoulieris E: Hypothyroidism due to autoimmune thyroiditis in a young child with Down syndrome . Arch Dis Child 1967;42:449-452.Crossref 13. Fort P, Lifshitz F, Blellisano R, et al: Abnormalities of thyroid function in infants with Down syndrome . J Pediatr 1984;104:545-549.Crossref 14. La Franchi SH: Hypothyroidism . Pediatr Clin North Am 1979;26:33-51. 15. Witebsky E, Rose NR: Studies of organ specificity: IV. Production of rabbit thyroid antibodies in the rabbit . J Immunol 1956;76:408-412. 16. Levy HL, Mitchell ML: The current status of newborn screening . Hosp Pract , (July) 1982, pp 89-97. 17. King SL, Lasdda RL, Kulin HE: Hypothyroidism in an infant with Down syndrome . AJDC 1978;132:96-97. 18. Verma IC, Ghai OP: Hypothyroidism in children with mongolism . Indian J Pediatr 1971;38:229-232.Crossref 19. Benda CE: The Child With Mongolism . New York, Grune & Stratton, 1960, pp 166-175. 20. Brown AC, Olkowsici ZL, McLaren J: Alopecia areata and vitiligo associated with Down syndrome . Arch Dermatol 1977;113:1296.Crossref 21. Pabst HF, Pueschel SM, Hillman DA: Etiologic interrelationship in Down syndrome, hypothyroidism and precocious sexual development . Pediatrics 1967;40:590-595. 22. Coleman M, Abassi V: A preventive medicine report on Down syndrome and hypothyroidism , in Coleman M, Lentz GA Jr (eds): Down Syndrome: Papers and Abstracts for Professionals . 1984, vol 17, pp 1-2. 23. Marks JF, Windmiller J, Freeman B, et al: Mongoloid children and thyroid binding capacity . AJDC 1965;110:505-506. 24. Marks JF, Hamlin M: Free thyroxine levels in children with mongolism . J Pediatr 1968;70: 435-436.Crossref 25. Saxena KM, Pryles CV: Thyroid function in mongolism . J Pediatr 1965;67:363-370.Crossref 26. Coleman M, Lentz GA (eds): Down Syndrome: Papers and Abstracts for Professionals . 1983, vol 16, pp 1-4. 27. Samuels AM, Krishnamurthy DS, Kadival GV, et al: Thyroid function studies in young Down syndrome . Indian J Med Res 1981;73:223-227. 28. Pueschel SM, Pezzullo JC: Thyroid dysfunction in Down syndrome . AJDC 1985;139: 636-639. 29. Bright GM, Blizzard RM, Kaiser DL, et al: Organ specific autoantibodies in children with common endocrine diseases . J Pediatr 1982; 100:8-14.Crossref 30. Loeb PB, Drash AL, Kenny FM: Prevalence of low-titer and 'negative' antithyroglobulin antibodies in biopsy-proved juvenile Hashimoto's thyroiditis . J Pediatr 1973;82:17-21.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png American Journal of Diseases of Children American Medical Association

Thyroid Function in Young Children With Down Syndrome

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1986 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0002-922X
DOI
10.1001/archpedi.1986.02140190089034
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract • A retrospective review of thyroid function tests (TFTs) was performed on 49 young children (aged 4 months to 3 years) with Down syndrome compared with age-matched controls screened for hypothyroidism because of developmental delay or failure to thrive. Three of the 49 children with Down syndrome had congenital hypothyroidism; of the three, one had Hirschsprung's disease and two had duodenal atresia. Thyroiditis was uncommon, with only two children having thyroid antibodies present: one had acquired hypothyroidism and the other acquired hyperthyroidism. Twenty-seven percent of the Down syndrome cohort had mildly increased thyrotropin (TSH) and normal thyroxine levels. When compared with children with Down syndrome who had normal TFTs, no significant differences in sex, growth rate, maternal age, associated anomalies, developmental or specific thyroid symptoms were present. Transient elevations of TSH level were common in children with Down syndrome whether or not TSH values were initially normal or elevated. Routine neonatal and sequential thyroid screening in young children with Down syndrome is warranted. (AJDC 1986;140:479-483) References 1. Baxter RG, Marlin FIR, Myles K, et al: Down syndrome and thyroid function in adults . Lancet 1975;2:794-796.Crossref 2. Hughes VC, Cameron J, Zoongoonetilleke AFR, et al: The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in mentally handicapped inpatients . J Ment Defic Res 1982;26:115-120. 3. Aarskog D: Autoimmune thyroid disease in children with mongolism . Arch Dis Child 1969; 44:454-460.Crossref 4. Takahashi H, Bordy MD, Sharma V: Hyperthyroidism in patients with Down syndrome . Clin Pediatr 1979;18:273-275.Crossref 5. Thasi ME: Reversible dementia in Down syndrome . J Ment Defic Res 1982;26:111-113. 6. Pueschel SM, Rynders TE: Down syndrome: Advances in Biomedicine and the Behavioral Sciences . Cambridge, Mass, Ware Press, 1982, pp 243-246. 7. Sare Z, Ruvalcaba RHA, Kelley VC: Prevalence of thyroid disorders in Down syndrome . Clin Genet 1978;14:154-158.Crossref 8. Murdoch JC, Ratcliffe DVA, Mclarty DG, et al: Thyroid function in adults with Down syndrome . J Clin Endocrinol 1977;44:453-458.Crossref 9. Hollingsworth DR, McKean HE, Roeckel I: Goiter, immunological observations and thyroid functions tests in Down syndrome . AJDC 1974;127:524-527. 10. Quinn MW: Down syndrome and hypothyroidism . Ir J Med Sci 1980;1:19-22.Crossref 11. Lobo ED, Khan M, Tews J: Community study of hypothyroidism in Down syndrome . Br Med J 1980;280:1253-1255.Crossref 12. Harris F, Koutsoulieris E: Hypothyroidism due to autoimmune thyroiditis in a young child with Down syndrome . Arch Dis Child 1967;42:449-452.Crossref 13. Fort P, Lifshitz F, Blellisano R, et al: Abnormalities of thyroid function in infants with Down syndrome . J Pediatr 1984;104:545-549.Crossref 14. La Franchi SH: Hypothyroidism . Pediatr Clin North Am 1979;26:33-51. 15. Witebsky E, Rose NR: Studies of organ specificity: IV. Production of rabbit thyroid antibodies in the rabbit . J Immunol 1956;76:408-412. 16. Levy HL, Mitchell ML: The current status of newborn screening . Hosp Pract , (July) 1982, pp 89-97. 17. King SL, Lasdda RL, Kulin HE: Hypothyroidism in an infant with Down syndrome . AJDC 1978;132:96-97. 18. Verma IC, Ghai OP: Hypothyroidism in children with mongolism . Indian J Pediatr 1971;38:229-232.Crossref 19. Benda CE: The Child With Mongolism . New York, Grune & Stratton, 1960, pp 166-175. 20. Brown AC, Olkowsici ZL, McLaren J: Alopecia areata and vitiligo associated with Down syndrome . Arch Dermatol 1977;113:1296.Crossref 21. Pabst HF, Pueschel SM, Hillman DA: Etiologic interrelationship in Down syndrome, hypothyroidism and precocious sexual development . Pediatrics 1967;40:590-595. 22. Coleman M, Abassi V: A preventive medicine report on Down syndrome and hypothyroidism , in Coleman M, Lentz GA Jr (eds): Down Syndrome: Papers and Abstracts for Professionals . 1984, vol 17, pp 1-2. 23. Marks JF, Windmiller J, Freeman B, et al: Mongoloid children and thyroid binding capacity . AJDC 1965;110:505-506. 24. Marks JF, Hamlin M: Free thyroxine levels in children with mongolism . J Pediatr 1968;70: 435-436.Crossref 25. Saxena KM, Pryles CV: Thyroid function in mongolism . J Pediatr 1965;67:363-370.Crossref 26. Coleman M, Lentz GA (eds): Down Syndrome: Papers and Abstracts for Professionals . 1983, vol 16, pp 1-4. 27. Samuels AM, Krishnamurthy DS, Kadival GV, et al: Thyroid function studies in young Down syndrome . Indian J Med Res 1981;73:223-227. 28. Pueschel SM, Pezzullo JC: Thyroid dysfunction in Down syndrome . AJDC 1985;139: 636-639. 29. Bright GM, Blizzard RM, Kaiser DL, et al: Organ specific autoantibodies in children with common endocrine diseases . J Pediatr 1982; 100:8-14.Crossref 30. Loeb PB, Drash AL, Kenny FM: Prevalence of low-titer and 'negative' antithyroglobulin antibodies in biopsy-proved juvenile Hashimoto's thyroiditis . J Pediatr 1973;82:17-21.Crossref

Journal

American Journal of Diseases of ChildrenAmerican Medical Association

Published: May 1, 1986

References