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Theophylline Effects on Cognition, Behavior, and Learning

Theophylline Effects on Cognition, Behavior, and Learning Abstract Objective: To compare a group of hospitalized asthmatic children taking theophylline with a similar group of hospitalized nonasthmatic children on standardized measures of distractibility, attention, hyperactivity, and academic achievement. Design: Standardized psychological tests were used to measure cognition, attention, and learning, and results for the two groups were compared. Setting: All subjects were hospitalized in an intermediate care facility. Patients: Up to 63 asthmatic children taking theophylline were compared with a group of 46 nonasthmatic children matched for age, sex, socioeconomic status, and full-scale IQ. Children with head injuries, mental retardation, or known learning disabilities were not included. Interventions: All asthmatic children and none of the nonasthmatic children maintained therapeutic levels of theophylline during the evaluation period. Main Outcome Measures: Independent t tests were used to examine differences between groups on psychological tests of cognition, attention, and learning. Results: No significant differences were found between groups on any variables at the 95% level of confidence. Conclusions: While idiosyncratic side effects of theophylline are possible, most children are not more hyperactive, distractible, short of memory, different in academic achievement, or more impulsive than other children with chronic illness.(Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1995;149:90-93) References 1. Rachelefsky G, Wo J, Adelsa J, et al. Behavior abnormalities and poor school performance due to oral theophylline use . Pediatrics . 1986;78:1133-1138. 2. Furukawa C, Duhamel J, Weimer L, Shapiro G, Pierson W, Bierman C. Cognitive and behavioral findings in children taking theophylline . J Allergy Clin Immunol . 1988;81:83-88.Crossref 3. Springer C, Goldenberg B, Ben Dov I, Godfrey S. Clinical, physiologic and psychologic comparison of treatment by cromolyn or theophylline in childhood asthma . JAllergy Clin Immunol . 1985;76:64-69.Crossref 4. Joad J, Ahrens R, Lindgren S, Weinberger M. Extrapulmonary effects of maintenance therapy with theophylline and inhaled albuterol in patients with chronic asthma . J Allergy Clin Immunol . 1986;78:1147-1153.Crossref 5. Rappoport L, Coffinan H, Duare R, et al. Effects of theophylline on behavior and learning in children with asthma . AJDC . 1989;143:368-372. 6. Bender B, Milgrom H. Theophylline-induced behavior change in children . JAMA . 1992;267:2621-2624.Crossref 7. Weinberger M, Lindgren S, Bender B, Lerner J, Szefler S. Effects of theophylline on learning and behavior: reason for concern or concern without reason? JPediatr . 1987;111:471-474.Crossref 8. Creer TL, Gustafson HE. Psychological problems associated with drug therapy in childhood asthma . J Pediatr . 1989:115:850-855.Crossref 9. Curatolo PW, Robertson D. The health consequences of caffeine . Ann Intern Med . 1983;98:641-653.Crossref 10. McLoughlin J, Nall M, Isaacs B, Petrosko J, Karlbo J, Lindsey B. The relationship of allergies and allergy treatment to school performance and student behavior . Ann Allergy . 1983:51:506-510. 11. Hollingshead A, Redlich F. Social Class and Mental Illness: A Community Study . New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc; 1958. 12. Kaufmann AS. Intelligence Testing With the WISC-R . New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc; 1979. 13. Gordon M, McClure FD. Interpretive Guide to the Gordon Diagnostic System . Syracuse, NY: Gordon Systems Inc; 1986. 14. Taylor J. The Hyperactive Child and the Family . New York, NY: Dodd Mead & Co; 1983. 15. Rapoport JL, Berg CJ, Ismond DR, Zahn TP, Neims A. Behavioral effects of caffeine in children: relationship between dietary choice and effects of caffeine challenge . Arch Gen Psychiatry . 1983:41:1073.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine American Medical Association

Theophylline Effects on Cognition, Behavior, and Learning

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1995 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
1072-4710
eISSN
1538-3628
DOI
10.1001/archpedi.1995.02170130092021
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract Objective: To compare a group of hospitalized asthmatic children taking theophylline with a similar group of hospitalized nonasthmatic children on standardized measures of distractibility, attention, hyperactivity, and academic achievement. Design: Standardized psychological tests were used to measure cognition, attention, and learning, and results for the two groups were compared. Setting: All subjects were hospitalized in an intermediate care facility. Patients: Up to 63 asthmatic children taking theophylline were compared with a group of 46 nonasthmatic children matched for age, sex, socioeconomic status, and full-scale IQ. Children with head injuries, mental retardation, or known learning disabilities were not included. Interventions: All asthmatic children and none of the nonasthmatic children maintained therapeutic levels of theophylline during the evaluation period. Main Outcome Measures: Independent t tests were used to examine differences between groups on psychological tests of cognition, attention, and learning. Results: No significant differences were found between groups on any variables at the 95% level of confidence. Conclusions: While idiosyncratic side effects of theophylline are possible, most children are not more hyperactive, distractible, short of memory, different in academic achievement, or more impulsive than other children with chronic illness.(Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1995;149:90-93) References 1. Rachelefsky G, Wo J, Adelsa J, et al. Behavior abnormalities and poor school performance due to oral theophylline use . Pediatrics . 1986;78:1133-1138. 2. Furukawa C, Duhamel J, Weimer L, Shapiro G, Pierson W, Bierman C. Cognitive and behavioral findings in children taking theophylline . J Allergy Clin Immunol . 1988;81:83-88.Crossref 3. Springer C, Goldenberg B, Ben Dov I, Godfrey S. Clinical, physiologic and psychologic comparison of treatment by cromolyn or theophylline in childhood asthma . JAllergy Clin Immunol . 1985;76:64-69.Crossref 4. Joad J, Ahrens R, Lindgren S, Weinberger M. Extrapulmonary effects of maintenance therapy with theophylline and inhaled albuterol in patients with chronic asthma . J Allergy Clin Immunol . 1986;78:1147-1153.Crossref 5. Rappoport L, Coffinan H, Duare R, et al. Effects of theophylline on behavior and learning in children with asthma . AJDC . 1989;143:368-372. 6. Bender B, Milgrom H. Theophylline-induced behavior change in children . JAMA . 1992;267:2621-2624.Crossref 7. Weinberger M, Lindgren S, Bender B, Lerner J, Szefler S. Effects of theophylline on learning and behavior: reason for concern or concern without reason? JPediatr . 1987;111:471-474.Crossref 8. Creer TL, Gustafson HE. Psychological problems associated with drug therapy in childhood asthma . J Pediatr . 1989:115:850-855.Crossref 9. Curatolo PW, Robertson D. The health consequences of caffeine . Ann Intern Med . 1983;98:641-653.Crossref 10. McLoughlin J, Nall M, Isaacs B, Petrosko J, Karlbo J, Lindsey B. The relationship of allergies and allergy treatment to school performance and student behavior . Ann Allergy . 1983:51:506-510. 11. Hollingshead A, Redlich F. Social Class and Mental Illness: A Community Study . New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc; 1958. 12. Kaufmann AS. Intelligence Testing With the WISC-R . New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc; 1979. 13. Gordon M, McClure FD. Interpretive Guide to the Gordon Diagnostic System . Syracuse, NY: Gordon Systems Inc; 1986. 14. Taylor J. The Hyperactive Child and the Family . New York, NY: Dodd Mead & Co; 1983. 15. Rapoport JL, Berg CJ, Ismond DR, Zahn TP, Neims A. Behavioral effects of caffeine in children: relationship between dietary choice and effects of caffeine challenge . Arch Gen Psychiatry . 1983:41:1073.Crossref

Journal

Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent MedicineAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jan 1, 1995

References