Abstract VOMITING, or emesis, is perhaps the reflex response which makes most widespread use of the motor systems of the animal organism. Involved in this complex pattern of activity are salivation; spasmodic respiratory movement, effected by the antagonistic action of the inspiratory and expiratory musculature; gastrointestinal reactions of a specialized nature, and postural characteristics of the head, body and appendages typically adapted to the process of expulsion of the gastric contents. In addition, there are psychic and cardiovascular effects which fit into the total integrated response. Although the movements of the different muscle groups used in vomiting were not understood until the publication of the classic work of Cannon,2 the orderly sequence of events during emesis had already led Giannuzzi,3 in 1865, to postulate the existence of a "vomiting center." In the past few decades it has been the vogue for physiologists to label as a center any part References 1. Footnote deleted. 2. Cannon, W. B.: The Movements of the Stomach Studied by Means of the Roentgen Rays , Am. J. Physiol. 1:359-382, 1898. 3. Giannuzzi, G.: Ueber die Wirkung des Tartarus stibiatus , Centralbl. f. d. med. Wissensch. 3:129-131, 1865. 4. Miller, F. R., and Sherrington, C. S.: Some Observations on the Bucco-Pharyngeal Stage of Reflex Deglutition in the Cat , Quart. J. Exper. Physiol. 9:147-186, 1915. 5. Laughton, N. B.: The Effect on the Stomach of the Stimulation of the Dorsal Vagus Nuclei , Am. J. Physiol. 89:18-23, 1929. 6. Walton, F. E.; Moore, R. M., and Graham, E. A.: The Nerve Pathways in the Vomiting of Peritonitis , Arch. Surg. 22:829-837 ( (May) ) 1931.Crossref 7. Hatcher, R. A., and Weiss, S.: Studies on Vomiting , J. Pharmacol. & Exper. Therap. 22:139-193, 1923. 8. Wang, S. C., and Ranson, S. W.: Autonomic Responses to Electrical Stimulation of the Lower Brain Stem , J. Comp. Neurol. 71:437-455, 1939. 9. Borison, H. L.: Electrical Stimulation of the Neural Mechanism Regulating Spasmodic Respiratory Acts in the Cat , Am. J. Physiol. 154:55-62, 1948. 10. Borison, H. L., and Wang, S. C.: Functional Localization of Central Coordinating Mechanism for Emesis in Cat , J. Neurophysiol. 12:305-313, 1949. 11. Thumas, L. I.: Ueber das Brechcentrum und über die Wirkung einiger pharmakologischer Mittel auf dasselbe , Virchows Arch. f. path. Anat. 123:44-69, 1891. 12. Koppanyi, T.: Studies in Defecation, with Special Reference to a Medullary Defecation Center , J. Lab. & Clin. Med. 16:225-238, 1930. 13. Sollmann, T.: A Manual of Pharmacology and Its Applications to Therapeutics and Toxicology , ed. 6, Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Company, 1943, p. 574. 14. Copper sulfate was used in the blue crystalline form, CuSO4. 5H2O; all amounts were calculated without including the weight of water. 15. A single apparent exception is to be noted in dog 59 (protocol, page 934). The elevated copper sulfate threshold in this dog is undoubtedly due to the fact that the stomach was not empty at the time the test was made. 16. Lederle Laboratories, E. R. Squibb & Sons and Merck & Co. provided us with generous supplies of penicillin preparations. 17. The brains were perfused with solution of formaldehyde U. S. P. (1:10) and embedded in pyroxylin. The location and size of the lesions were mapped out by histologic examination of serial sections. 18. Lower thoracic and lumbar sympathectomy was performed twenty-four days prior to this test, for another purpose; however, sympathectomy was shown to have no effect on the threshold to apomorphine (unpublished data). 19. Tilney, F., and Riley, H. A.: The Form and Functions of the Central Nervous System , ed. 3, New York, Paul B. Hoeber, Inc., 1938, p. 267. 20. Mettler, F. A.: Neuroanatomy , ed. 2, St. Louis, C. V. Mosby Company, 1948, p. 278. 21. Wang, S. C.: Localization of the Salivatory Center in the Medulla of the Cat , J. Neurophysiol. 6:195-202, 1943. 22. Pitts, R. F.; Magoun, H. W., and Ranson, S. W.: Localization of the Medullary Respiratory Centers in the Cat , Am. J. Physiol. 126:673-688, 1939.
Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry – American Medical Association
Published: Jun 1, 1950
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