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The Threshold Sensitivity of the Tympanic Muscle Reflexes

The Threshold Sensitivity of the Tympanic Muscle Reflexes Abstract That the muscles of the middle ear are normally made to contract through a reflex action of sound was first clearly indicated by the work of Hensen1 in 1878. His experiments were carried out on dogs and were concerned only with the tensor tympani muscle, which was seen to contract when a loud sound was applied to the ear. Similar observations were made by Kato2 in 1913 on the stapedius muscle, with cats and rabbits as the experimental animals. Since then there have been many further experiments on these and other animals, including man, in which the reflex responses of these muscles have been demonstrated. So far, however, little has been reported on the intensities of the sounds required to elicit the reflexes. The most extensive quantitative results were obtained by Lorente de Nó and Harris3 on the rabbit by visual observations of the muscle action. They References 1. For further details of the strain-gauge measurements, see Wever, Vernon, and Lawrence.8 2. References 9 and 10. 3. Hensen, V.: Beobachtungen über die Thätigkeit des Trommelfellspanners bei Hund und Katze , Arch. Physiol. 2:312-319, 1878. 4. Kato, T.: Zur Physiolgie der Binnenmuskeln des Ohres , Arch. ges. Physiol. 150:569-625, 1913.Crossref 5. Lorente de Nó, R., and Harris, A. S.: Experimental Studies in Hearing: I. The Thresholds of the Reflexes of the Middle Ear; II. The Hearing-Loss After Extirpation of the Tympanic Membrane , Laryngoscope 43:315-326, 1933.Crossref 6. Jepsen, O.: The Threshold of the Reflexes of the Intratympanic Muscles in a Normal Material Examined by Means of the Impedance Method , Acta oto-laryng. 39:406-408, 1951.Crossref 7. Hammerschlag, V.: Über den Tensorreflex , Arch. Ohrenh. 46:1-13Crossref 8. Über die Reflexbewegung des Musculus tensor tympani und ihre centralen Bahnen 47:251-275, 1899. 9. Lücher, E.: Die Funktion des Musculus stapedius beim Menschen , Ztschr. Hals- Nasen- u. Ohrenh. 23:105-132, 1929. 10. Lindsay, J. R.; Kobrak, H., and Perlman, H. B.: Relation of the Stapedius Reflex to Hearing Sensation in Man , Arch. Otolaryng. 23:671-678, 1936.Crossref 11. Wever, E. G.; Vernon, J. A., and Lawrence, M.: The Maximum Strength of the Tympanic Muscles, Ann. Otol. Rhin. & Laryng., to be published. 12. Wever, E. G.; Bray, C. W., and Lawrence, M.: The Interference of Tones in the Cochlea , J. Acoust. Soc. America 12:268-280, 1940.Crossref 13. Wever, E. G., and Lawrence, M.: Physiological Acoustics , Princeton, N. J., Princeton University Press, 1954. 14. Wever, E. G., and Lawrence, M.: The Patterns of Response in the Cochlea , J. Acoust. Soc. America 21:127-134, 1949.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png A.M.A. Archives of Otolaryngology American Medical Association

The Threshold Sensitivity of the Tympanic Muscle Reflexes

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1955 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0096-6894
DOI
10.1001/archotol.1955.03830020086016
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract That the muscles of the middle ear are normally made to contract through a reflex action of sound was first clearly indicated by the work of Hensen1 in 1878. His experiments were carried out on dogs and were concerned only with the tensor tympani muscle, which was seen to contract when a loud sound was applied to the ear. Similar observations were made by Kato2 in 1913 on the stapedius muscle, with cats and rabbits as the experimental animals. Since then there have been many further experiments on these and other animals, including man, in which the reflex responses of these muscles have been demonstrated. So far, however, little has been reported on the intensities of the sounds required to elicit the reflexes. The most extensive quantitative results were obtained by Lorente de Nó and Harris3 on the rabbit by visual observations of the muscle action. They References 1. For further details of the strain-gauge measurements, see Wever, Vernon, and Lawrence.8 2. References 9 and 10. 3. Hensen, V.: Beobachtungen über die Thätigkeit des Trommelfellspanners bei Hund und Katze , Arch. Physiol. 2:312-319, 1878. 4. Kato, T.: Zur Physiolgie der Binnenmuskeln des Ohres , Arch. ges. Physiol. 150:569-625, 1913.Crossref 5. Lorente de Nó, R., and Harris, A. S.: Experimental Studies in Hearing: I. The Thresholds of the Reflexes of the Middle Ear; II. The Hearing-Loss After Extirpation of the Tympanic Membrane , Laryngoscope 43:315-326, 1933.Crossref 6. Jepsen, O.: The Threshold of the Reflexes of the Intratympanic Muscles in a Normal Material Examined by Means of the Impedance Method , Acta oto-laryng. 39:406-408, 1951.Crossref 7. Hammerschlag, V.: Über den Tensorreflex , Arch. Ohrenh. 46:1-13Crossref 8. Über die Reflexbewegung des Musculus tensor tympani und ihre centralen Bahnen 47:251-275, 1899. 9. Lücher, E.: Die Funktion des Musculus stapedius beim Menschen , Ztschr. Hals- Nasen- u. Ohrenh. 23:105-132, 1929. 10. Lindsay, J. R.; Kobrak, H., and Perlman, H. B.: Relation of the Stapedius Reflex to Hearing Sensation in Man , Arch. Otolaryng. 23:671-678, 1936.Crossref 11. Wever, E. G.; Vernon, J. A., and Lawrence, M.: The Maximum Strength of the Tympanic Muscles, Ann. Otol. Rhin. & Laryng., to be published. 12. Wever, E. G.; Bray, C. W., and Lawrence, M.: The Interference of Tones in the Cochlea , J. Acoust. Soc. America 12:268-280, 1940.Crossref 13. Wever, E. G., and Lawrence, M.: Physiological Acoustics , Princeton, N. J., Princeton University Press, 1954. 14. Wever, E. G., and Lawrence, M.: The Patterns of Response in the Cochlea , J. Acoust. Soc. America 21:127-134, 1949.Crossref

Journal

A.M.A. Archives of OtolaryngologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Aug 1, 1955

References