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The Sleep of Depressed Patients: An EEG and Eye Movement Study

The Sleep of Depressed Patients: An EEG and Eye Movement Study Abstract Introduction IT IS A common clinical impression that depressed patients obtain less sleep, experience early morning awakening, and complain of less restful sleep. Diaz-Guerrero et al5 studied the sleep of six manic-depressive psychotics, depressive type, by recording their all-night electroencephalogram (EEG). They report that, after excluding the waking record time, the patients had twice as much low voltage recording of light sleep as controls, half as much spindles plus random, and more sleep depth changes.Oswald et al7 studied the effect of heptabarbital on six depressed patients and six controls by recording for each the all-night EEG and electro-oculogram (EOG) for four successive nights. The drug was administered in 400 mg doses on two of the four nights. They report no abnormality in the sleep which was characteristic of this group of depressed patients other than excessive wakefulness, which was equally References 1. Beck, A.T., et al: An Inventory for Measuring Depression , Arch Gen Psychiat 4:561-571, 1961.Crossref 2. Cutler, R.P., and Kurland, H.D.: Clinical Quantification of Depressive Reactions , Arch Gen Psychiat 5:280-285, 1961.Crossref 3. Dement, W., and Kleitman, N.: Cyclic Variation in EEG During Sleep and Their Relation to Eye Movements, Body Motility, and Sleep , Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 9:673-690, 1957.Crossref 4. Dement, W.: REM Scoring Manual, Personal communication to the authors. 5. Diaz-Guerrero, R.; Gottlieb, J.; and Knott, J.: The Sleep of Patients With Manic-Depressive Psychosis, Depressive Type: An Electroencephalgraphic Study , Psychosom Med 8:399-404, 1946.Crossref 6. Kleitman, N.: Sleep and Wakefulness , Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1962. 7. Oswald, I., et al: Melancholia and Barbiturates: A Controlled EKG, Body and Eye Movement Study of Sleep , Brit J Psychiat 109:66-78, 1963.Crossref 8. Overall, J.E., and Gorham, D.R.: Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale , Psychol Rep 10:799-812, 1962.Crossref 9. Williams, R.L.; Agnew, Jr., H.W.; and Webb, W.B.: Sleep Patterns in Young Adults: An EEG Study , Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 17:386-391, 1964. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of General Psychiatry American Medical Association

The Sleep of Depressed Patients: An EEG and Eye Movement Study

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1965 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-990X
eISSN
1598-3636
DOI
10.1001/archpsyc.1965.01730060021003
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract Introduction IT IS A common clinical impression that depressed patients obtain less sleep, experience early morning awakening, and complain of less restful sleep. Diaz-Guerrero et al5 studied the sleep of six manic-depressive psychotics, depressive type, by recording their all-night electroencephalogram (EEG). They report that, after excluding the waking record time, the patients had twice as much low voltage recording of light sleep as controls, half as much spindles plus random, and more sleep depth changes.Oswald et al7 studied the effect of heptabarbital on six depressed patients and six controls by recording for each the all-night EEG and electro-oculogram (EOG) for four successive nights. The drug was administered in 400 mg doses on two of the four nights. They report no abnormality in the sleep which was characteristic of this group of depressed patients other than excessive wakefulness, which was equally References 1. Beck, A.T., et al: An Inventory for Measuring Depression , Arch Gen Psychiat 4:561-571, 1961.Crossref 2. Cutler, R.P., and Kurland, H.D.: Clinical Quantification of Depressive Reactions , Arch Gen Psychiat 5:280-285, 1961.Crossref 3. Dement, W., and Kleitman, N.: Cyclic Variation in EEG During Sleep and Their Relation to Eye Movements, Body Motility, and Sleep , Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 9:673-690, 1957.Crossref 4. Dement, W.: REM Scoring Manual, Personal communication to the authors. 5. Diaz-Guerrero, R.; Gottlieb, J.; and Knott, J.: The Sleep of Patients With Manic-Depressive Psychosis, Depressive Type: An Electroencephalgraphic Study , Psychosom Med 8:399-404, 1946.Crossref 6. Kleitman, N.: Sleep and Wakefulness , Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1962. 7. Oswald, I., et al: Melancholia and Barbiturates: A Controlled EKG, Body and Eye Movement Study of Sleep , Brit J Psychiat 109:66-78, 1963.Crossref 8. Overall, J.E., and Gorham, D.R.: Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale , Psychol Rep 10:799-812, 1962.Crossref 9. Williams, R.L.; Agnew, Jr., H.W.; and Webb, W.B.: Sleep Patterns in Young Adults: An EEG Study , Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 17:386-391, 1964.

Journal

Archives of General PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Dec 1, 1965

References