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THE SIGNIFICANCE OF FAT EMBOLISM

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF FAT EMBOLISM Abstract INTRODUCTION Fat embolism is that condition which occurs when a liquid oil enters the circulating blood and is transported in globules large enough to obstruct the lumen of blood vessels in different parts of the body. It has been described frequently as an important complication of trauma in human beings, and occasionally may be severe enough to be a definite cause of death. Two well defined clinical and pathologic varieties of fat embolism are now recognized: (1) the pulmonary form, in which the emboli obstruct the smaller blood vessels of the lungs and produce symptoms of asphyxia, and (2) the cerebral form, in which the emboli gain entrance to the arterial circulation, block the arterioles in the different organs, especially the brain, and produce symptoms referable to the central nervous system.Fat embolism of a less serious nature has been found at necropsy not only in persons who have suffered References 1. Gauss, Harry: The Pathology of Fat Embolism , Arch. Surg. 9:592 ( (Nov.) ) 1924.Crossref 2. Landois: Deutsche med. Wchnschr. 52:283 ( (Feb. 12) ) 1926.Crossref 3. Busch, F.: Virchows Arch. f. path. Anat. 35:321, 1866.Crossref 4. Bergemann, E.: Berl. klin. Wchnschr. 47:1112 ( (June 13) ) 1910. 5. Siegmund, H.: München. med. Wchnschr. 65:1076 ( (Sept. 24) ) 1918. 6. Sutton, George E.: Brit. M. J. 2:368 ( (Oct. 15) ) 1918.Crossref 7. Ziemke: Deutsche Ztschr. f. d. ges. gerichtl. Med. 1:193, 1922. 8. Beitzke: Centralbl. f. allg. Path. u. path. Anat. 24:824 ( (Sept. 30) ) 1913. 9. Busse: Cor.-Bl. f. schweiz. Aerzte 43:154 ( (Feb. 1) ) 1913. 10. Ribbert, Hugo: Cor.-Bl. f. schweiz. Aerzte 24:457 ( (Aug. 1) ) 1894 11. Deutsche med. Wchnschr. 26:419 ( (June 28) ) 1900.Crossref 12. Frauendorfer, Otto: Beitr. z. gerichtl. Med. 6:1, 1924. 13. Schultze, Ernst O. P.: Arch. f. klin. Chir. 111:573, 1918-1919. 14. Lucke: Centralbl. f. Chir. 6:719 ( (Nov. 1) ) 1879. 15. Vogt, P.: Centralbl. f. Chir. 10:377 ( (June 16) ) 1883. 16. Kirschner, M.: Centralbl. f. Chir. 51:465 ( (March 15) ) 1924. 17. Colley, Fritz: Deutsche Ztschr. f. Chir. 36:322, 1893.Crossref 18. Lymphius, M.: Centralbl. f. Chir. 23:800 ( (Aug. 15) ) 1896. 19. Eberth, J. C.: Fortschr. d. Med. 16:251 ( (April 1) ) 1898. 20. Payr, E.: München. med. Wchnschr. 45:885 ( (July 12) ) 1898. 21. Clarke, B. Earl: Fat Embolism , J. A. M. A. 88:919 ( (March 19) ) 1927.Crossref 22. Flournoy: Centralbl. f. Chir. 5:703 ( (Oct. 19) ) 1878. 23. Pinner, O.: Berl. klin. Wchnschr. 20:185 ( (March 26) ) 1883. 24. Buerger: Vrtljschr. f. gerichtl. Med. 39:159, 1910. 25. Warthin, Aldred Scott: Internat. Clin. 4:171, 1913. 26. Virchow, R.: Berl. klin. Wchnschr. 23:489 ( (July 26) ) 1886. 27. Ferguson, H. F.: Brit. M. J. 1:584 ( (March 16) ) 1895.Crossref 28. Bissel, Wayne W.: Surg. Gynec. Obst. 25:8 ( (July) ) 1917. 29. Hamilton, D. J.: Brit. M. J. 2:474 ( (Oct. 6) ) 1877.Crossref 30. Engel, H.: München. med. Wchnschr. 48:1046 ( (June 25) ) 1901. 31. Weingarten, R.: Schweiz. med. Wchnschr. 7:248 ( (March 20) ) 1926. 32. Koch, Herman: Deutsche Ztschr. f. Chir. 186:273, 1924.Crossref 33. Groendahl: Deutsche Ztschr. f. Chir. 111:56, 1911Crossref 34. Wegelin: Schweiz. med. Wchnschr. 4:133 ( (Feb. 8) ) 1923. 35. Olbrycht, J.: Deutsche Ztschr. f. d. ges. gerichtl. Med. 1:642, 1922. 36. Groendahl, Nils Backer: Deutsche Ztschr. f. Chir. 111:56, 1911.Crossref 37. Weimann, W.: Virchows Arch. f. path. Anat. 264:1, 1927.Crossref 38. Harbitz, Francis: Vrtljschr. f. gerichtl. Med. 45:34, 1913. 39. Westenhoeffer, M.: Virchows Arch. f. path. Anat. 170:517 and 528, 1902Crossref 40. Vrtljschr. f. gerichtl. Med. , 1904, (supp.) , p. 184. 41. Neureiter, F., and Strassman, G.: Deutsche Ztschr. f. d. ges. gerichtl. Med. 1:204, 1922. 42. Puppe: Vrtljschr. f. gerichtl. Med. , 1896, (supp.) , p. 94. 43. MacMahon, H. E., and Weiss, S.: Am. J. Path. 5:623 ( (Nov.) ) 1929. 44. Winogradow, B.: Virchows Arch. f. path. Anat. 190:92, 1907.Crossref 45. Burns, E. L., and Bromberg, L.: Am. J. Syph. 14:43 ( (Jan.) ) 1930. 46. Scriba, J.: Deutsche Ztschr. f. Chir. 12:118, 1880.Crossref 47. Jurgens: Berl. klin. Wchnschr. 23:519 ( (Aug. 2) ) 1886. 48. Fischer, Bernhard: München. med. Wchnschr. 69:814 ( (June 2) ) 1922. 49. Ebstein, W.: Virchows Arch. f. path. Anat. 155:571, 1899.Crossref 50. Saundby and Barling: Brit. M. J. 1:781, 1882.Crossref 51. Graham, G. S.: J. M. Research 11:459, 1907. 52. Katasa, A.: Cor.-Bl. f. schweiz. Aerzte 47:545 ( (May 5) ) 1917. 53. Lehman, E. P., and McNattin, R. F.: Fat Embolism , Arch. Surg. 17:179 ( (Aug.) ) 1928.Crossref 54. Heitzmann: Centralbl. f. allg. Path. u. path. Anat. 28:405 ( (Aug. 31) ) 1917. 55. Bacon, L. H., and LeCount, E. R.: Automobile Injuries , Arch. Surg. 18:769 ( (March) ) 1929.Crossref 56. Fischer, Bernhard: Verhandl. d. deutsch. path. Gesellsch. 17:279, 1914. 57. Payr, E.: Ztschr. f. orthop. Chir. 7:338, 1900. 58. Wegelin, C.: Schweiz. med. Wchnschr. 4:133 ( (Feb. 8) ) 1923. 59. Elting, A. W., and Martin, C. E.: Ann. Surg. 82:336 ( (Sept.) ) 1925.Crossref 60. Gold, E., and Loeffler, E.: Ztschr. f. d. ges. exper. Med. 38:155, 1923.Crossref 61. Vance, B. M.: Fatal Fat Embolism , Arch. Path. 7:554 ( (March) ) 1929 62. Proc. New York Path. Soc. , (Dec. 15) , 1928. 63. Kaufmann, E.: Lehrbuch der speziellen pathologischen Anatomie , Berlin, G. Reimer, 1911. 64. Naville, F., and Fromberg, C.: Arch. de méd. expér. et d'anat. path. 25:405 ( (July) ) 1913. 65. Fromberg, C.: Mitt. a. d. Grenzgeb. d. Med. u. Chir. 26:23, 1913. 66. Melchior: Mitt. a. d. Grenzgeb. d. Med. u. Chir. 38:178, 1924-1925. 67. Weimann, Waldemar: Deutsche Ztschr. f. d. ges. gerichtl. Med. 13:95 ( (Feb.) ) 1929. 68. Buerger, L.: Med. Klin. 11:996 ( (Sept. 5) ) 1915. 69. Toenniessen, Otto: München. med. Wchnschr. 68:1280 ( (Oct. 7) ) 1921. 70. Paul, Fritz; and Windholz, Franz: Mitt. a. d. Grenzgeb. d. Med. u. Chir 38:614, 1924-1925. 71. Flick, K., and Traum, E.: Deutsche Ztschr. f. Chir. 222:274, 1930.Crossref 72. Ribbert (footnote 10, first reference). 73. Wilke: München. med. Wchnschr. 60:1970 ( (Sept. 2) ) 1913. 74. Naville and Fromberg (footnote 60, first reference). 75. Schridde: Verhandl. d. deutsch. path. Gesellsch. 11:234, 1907. 76. Field, Merton: Fat Embolism from a Chronic Osteomyelitis , J. A. M. A. 59:2065 ( (Dec. 7) ) 1912.Crossref 77. Bernhardt, Friedrich: München. med. Wchnschr. 72:1590 ( (Sept. 18) ) 1925. 78. Wilms: Semaine méd. 30:138 ( (March 23) ) 1910. 79. Benestadt, George: Deutsche Ztschr. f. Chir. 112:194 ( (Oct.) ) 1911.Crossref 80. Oppenheimer, H.: Klin. Wchnschr. 8:24 ( (Jan. 1) ) 1929.Crossref 81. Tobler, J.: Schweiz. med. Wchnschr. 3:452 ( (May 11) ) 1922. 82. Reiner: München. med. Wchnschr. 54:2004 ( (Oct. 1) ) 1907. 83. Majendie, quoted by Scriba (footnote 43). 84. Virchow, Rudolph: Virchows Arch. f. path. Anat. 5:308, 1853. 85. Fritzsche, E.: Deutsche Ztschr. f. Chir. 107:456, 1910.Crossref 86. Caldwell, George T., and Huber, Harry L.: Surg. Gynec. Obst. 25:650 ( (Dec.) ) 1917. 87. Ribbert (footnote 10, first reference). 88. McKibben, P. S.: Am. J. Physiol. 48:331 ( (April) ) 1919. 89. Wuttig, H.: Zieglers Beitr. z. path. Anat. 37:378, 1905. 90. Lehman, E. P., and Moore, R. M.: Fat Embolism Including Experimental Production Without Trauma , Arch. Surg. 14:621 ( (March) ) 1927.Crossref 91. Markowitz, Cecile; and Mann, F. C.: Am. J. Physiol. 73:521 ( (June) ) 1930. 92. Wiener, M.: Arch. f. exper. Path. u. Pharmacol. 11:275 ( (Sept. 3) ) 1879.Crossref 93. Riedel, B.: Deutsche Ztschr. f. Chir. 8:571, 1877.Crossref 94. Fuchsig, Ernst: Ztschr. f. exper. Path. u. Therap. 7:702, 1910.Crossref 95. Kretz, quoted by Wegelin (footnote 55). 96. Simonds, J. P.: A Study of Low Blood Pressures Associated with Peptone Shock and Experimental Fat Embolism , J. A. M. A. 69:883 ( (Sept. 15) ) 1917Crossref 97. J. Exper. Med. 27:539 ( (May 1) ) 1918.Crossref 98. Wiggers, Carl B.: Circulatory Failure , J. A. M. A. 70:508 ( (Feb. 23) ) 1918.Crossref 99. Porter, W. T.: Boston M. & S. J. 180:531 ( (May 8) ) 1919. 100. Cannon, W. B.: A Consideration of the Nature of Wound Shock , J. A. M. A. 70:611 ( (March 2) ) 1918. 101. Reuter, Wolfgang: Frankfurt. Ztschr. f. Path. 17:205, 1915. 102. Kojo. quoted by Wegelin (footnote 55). 103. Leo, H.: Deutsche med. Wchnschr. 48:155 ( (Feb. 2) ) 1922. 104. Lepehne: Klin. Wchnschr. 1:670 ( (April 1) ) 1922. 105. Bencke, R.: Zieglers Beitr. z. path. Anat. 22:343, 1897. 106. Lehman, E. P., and McNattin, R. F.: South. M. J. 22:201 ( (March) ) 1929. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Surgery American Medical Association

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF FAT EMBOLISM

Archives of Surgery , Volume 23 (3) – Sep 1, 1931

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American Medical Association
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Copyright © 1931 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
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0004-0010
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1538-3644
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10.1001/archsurg.1931.01160090071002
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Abstract

Abstract INTRODUCTION Fat embolism is that condition which occurs when a liquid oil enters the circulating blood and is transported in globules large enough to obstruct the lumen of blood vessels in different parts of the body. It has been described frequently as an important complication of trauma in human beings, and occasionally may be severe enough to be a definite cause of death. Two well defined clinical and pathologic varieties of fat embolism are now recognized: (1) the pulmonary form, in which the emboli obstruct the smaller blood vessels of the lungs and produce symptoms of asphyxia, and (2) the cerebral form, in which the emboli gain entrance to the arterial circulation, block the arterioles in the different organs, especially the brain, and produce symptoms referable to the central nervous system.Fat embolism of a less serious nature has been found at necropsy not only in persons who have suffered References 1. Gauss, Harry: The Pathology of Fat Embolism , Arch. Surg. 9:592 ( (Nov.) ) 1924.Crossref 2. Landois: Deutsche med. Wchnschr. 52:283 ( (Feb. 12) ) 1926.Crossref 3. Busch, F.: Virchows Arch. f. path. Anat. 35:321, 1866.Crossref 4. Bergemann, E.: Berl. klin. Wchnschr. 47:1112 ( (June 13) ) 1910. 5. Siegmund, H.: München. med. Wchnschr. 65:1076 ( (Sept. 24) ) 1918. 6. Sutton, George E.: Brit. M. J. 2:368 ( (Oct. 15) ) 1918.Crossref 7. Ziemke: Deutsche Ztschr. f. d. ges. gerichtl. Med. 1:193, 1922. 8. Beitzke: Centralbl. f. allg. Path. u. path. Anat. 24:824 ( (Sept. 30) ) 1913. 9. Busse: Cor.-Bl. f. schweiz. Aerzte 43:154 ( (Feb. 1) ) 1913. 10. Ribbert, Hugo: Cor.-Bl. f. schweiz. Aerzte 24:457 ( (Aug. 1) ) 1894 11. Deutsche med. Wchnschr. 26:419 ( (June 28) ) 1900.Crossref 12. Frauendorfer, Otto: Beitr. z. gerichtl. Med. 6:1, 1924. 13. Schultze, Ernst O. P.: Arch. f. klin. Chir. 111:573, 1918-1919. 14. Lucke: Centralbl. f. Chir. 6:719 ( (Nov. 1) ) 1879. 15. Vogt, P.: Centralbl. f. Chir. 10:377 ( (June 16) ) 1883. 16. Kirschner, M.: Centralbl. f. Chir. 51:465 ( (March 15) ) 1924. 17. Colley, Fritz: Deutsche Ztschr. f. Chir. 36:322, 1893.Crossref 18. Lymphius, M.: Centralbl. f. Chir. 23:800 ( (Aug. 15) ) 1896. 19. Eberth, J. C.: Fortschr. d. Med. 16:251 ( (April 1) ) 1898. 20. Payr, E.: München. med. Wchnschr. 45:885 ( (July 12) ) 1898. 21. Clarke, B. Earl: Fat Embolism , J. A. M. A. 88:919 ( (March 19) ) 1927.Crossref 22. Flournoy: Centralbl. f. Chir. 5:703 ( (Oct. 19) ) 1878. 23. Pinner, O.: Berl. klin. Wchnschr. 20:185 ( (March 26) ) 1883. 24. Buerger: Vrtljschr. f. gerichtl. Med. 39:159, 1910. 25. Warthin, Aldred Scott: Internat. Clin. 4:171, 1913. 26. Virchow, R.: Berl. klin. Wchnschr. 23:489 ( (July 26) ) 1886. 27. Ferguson, H. F.: Brit. M. J. 1:584 ( (March 16) ) 1895.Crossref 28. Bissel, Wayne W.: Surg. Gynec. Obst. 25:8 ( (July) ) 1917. 29. Hamilton, D. J.: Brit. M. J. 2:474 ( (Oct. 6) ) 1877.Crossref 30. Engel, H.: München. med. Wchnschr. 48:1046 ( (June 25) ) 1901. 31. Weingarten, R.: Schweiz. med. Wchnschr. 7:248 ( (March 20) ) 1926. 32. Koch, Herman: Deutsche Ztschr. f. Chir. 186:273, 1924.Crossref 33. Groendahl: Deutsche Ztschr. f. Chir. 111:56, 1911Crossref 34. Wegelin: Schweiz. med. Wchnschr. 4:133 ( (Feb. 8) ) 1923. 35. Olbrycht, J.: Deutsche Ztschr. f. d. ges. gerichtl. Med. 1:642, 1922. 36. Groendahl, Nils Backer: Deutsche Ztschr. f. Chir. 111:56, 1911.Crossref 37. Weimann, W.: Virchows Arch. f. path. Anat. 264:1, 1927.Crossref 38. Harbitz, Francis: Vrtljschr. f. gerichtl. Med. 45:34, 1913. 39. Westenhoeffer, M.: Virchows Arch. f. path. Anat. 170:517 and 528, 1902Crossref 40. Vrtljschr. f. gerichtl. Med. , 1904, (supp.) , p. 184. 41. Neureiter, F., and Strassman, G.: Deutsche Ztschr. f. d. ges. gerichtl. Med. 1:204, 1922. 42. Puppe: Vrtljschr. f. gerichtl. Med. , 1896, (supp.) , p. 94. 43. MacMahon, H. E., and Weiss, S.: Am. J. Path. 5:623 ( (Nov.) ) 1929. 44. Winogradow, B.: Virchows Arch. f. path. Anat. 190:92, 1907.Crossref 45. Burns, E. L., and Bromberg, L.: Am. J. Syph. 14:43 ( (Jan.) ) 1930. 46. Scriba, J.: Deutsche Ztschr. f. Chir. 12:118, 1880.Crossref 47. Jurgens: Berl. klin. Wchnschr. 23:519 ( (Aug. 2) ) 1886. 48. Fischer, Bernhard: München. med. Wchnschr. 69:814 ( (June 2) ) 1922. 49. Ebstein, W.: Virchows Arch. f. path. Anat. 155:571, 1899.Crossref 50. Saundby and Barling: Brit. M. J. 1:781, 1882.Crossref 51. Graham, G. S.: J. M. Research 11:459, 1907. 52. Katasa, A.: Cor.-Bl. f. schweiz. Aerzte 47:545 ( (May 5) ) 1917. 53. Lehman, E. P., and McNattin, R. F.: Fat Embolism , Arch. Surg. 17:179 ( (Aug.) ) 1928.Crossref 54. Heitzmann: Centralbl. f. allg. Path. u. path. Anat. 28:405 ( (Aug. 31) ) 1917. 55. Bacon, L. H., and LeCount, E. R.: Automobile Injuries , Arch. Surg. 18:769 ( (March) ) 1929.Crossref 56. Fischer, Bernhard: Verhandl. d. deutsch. path. Gesellsch. 17:279, 1914. 57. Payr, E.: Ztschr. f. orthop. Chir. 7:338, 1900. 58. Wegelin, C.: Schweiz. med. Wchnschr. 4:133 ( (Feb. 8) ) 1923. 59. Elting, A. W., and Martin, C. E.: Ann. Surg. 82:336 ( (Sept.) ) 1925.Crossref 60. Gold, E., and Loeffler, E.: Ztschr. f. d. ges. exper. Med. 38:155, 1923.Crossref 61. Vance, B. M.: Fatal Fat Embolism , Arch. Path. 7:554 ( (March) ) 1929 62. Proc. New York Path. Soc. , (Dec. 15) , 1928. 63. Kaufmann, E.: Lehrbuch der speziellen pathologischen Anatomie , Berlin, G. Reimer, 1911. 64. Naville, F., and Fromberg, C.: Arch. de méd. expér. et d'anat. path. 25:405 ( (July) ) 1913. 65. Fromberg, C.: Mitt. a. d. Grenzgeb. d. Med. u. Chir. 26:23, 1913. 66. Melchior: Mitt. a. d. Grenzgeb. d. Med. u. Chir. 38:178, 1924-1925. 67. Weimann, Waldemar: Deutsche Ztschr. f. d. ges. gerichtl. Med. 13:95 ( (Feb.) ) 1929. 68. Buerger, L.: Med. Klin. 11:996 ( (Sept. 5) ) 1915. 69. Toenniessen, Otto: München. med. Wchnschr. 68:1280 ( (Oct. 7) ) 1921. 70. Paul, Fritz; and Windholz, Franz: Mitt. a. d. Grenzgeb. d. Med. u. Chir 38:614, 1924-1925. 71. Flick, K., and Traum, E.: Deutsche Ztschr. f. Chir. 222:274, 1930.Crossref 72. Ribbert (footnote 10, first reference). 73. Wilke: München. med. Wchnschr. 60:1970 ( (Sept. 2) ) 1913. 74. Naville and Fromberg (footnote 60, first reference). 75. Schridde: Verhandl. d. deutsch. path. Gesellsch. 11:234, 1907. 76. Field, Merton: Fat Embolism from a Chronic Osteomyelitis , J. A. M. A. 59:2065 ( (Dec. 7) ) 1912.Crossref 77. Bernhardt, Friedrich: München. med. Wchnschr. 72:1590 ( (Sept. 18) ) 1925. 78. Wilms: Semaine méd. 30:138 ( (March 23) ) 1910. 79. Benestadt, George: Deutsche Ztschr. f. Chir. 112:194 ( (Oct.) ) 1911.Crossref 80. Oppenheimer, H.: Klin. Wchnschr. 8:24 ( (Jan. 1) ) 1929.Crossref 81. Tobler, J.: Schweiz. med. Wchnschr. 3:452 ( (May 11) ) 1922. 82. Reiner: München. med. Wchnschr. 54:2004 ( (Oct. 1) ) 1907. 83. Majendie, quoted by Scriba (footnote 43). 84. Virchow, Rudolph: Virchows Arch. f. path. Anat. 5:308, 1853. 85. Fritzsche, E.: Deutsche Ztschr. f. Chir. 107:456, 1910.Crossref 86. Caldwell, George T., and Huber, Harry L.: Surg. Gynec. Obst. 25:650 ( (Dec.) ) 1917. 87. Ribbert (footnote 10, first reference). 88. McKibben, P. S.: Am. J. Physiol. 48:331 ( (April) ) 1919. 89. Wuttig, H.: Zieglers Beitr. z. path. Anat. 37:378, 1905. 90. Lehman, E. P., and Moore, R. M.: Fat Embolism Including Experimental Production Without Trauma , Arch. Surg. 14:621 ( (March) ) 1927.Crossref 91. Markowitz, Cecile; and Mann, F. C.: Am. J. Physiol. 73:521 ( (June) ) 1930. 92. Wiener, M.: Arch. f. exper. Path. u. Pharmacol. 11:275 ( (Sept. 3) ) 1879.Crossref 93. Riedel, B.: Deutsche Ztschr. f. Chir. 8:571, 1877.Crossref 94. Fuchsig, Ernst: Ztschr. f. exper. Path. u. Therap. 7:702, 1910.Crossref 95. Kretz, quoted by Wegelin (footnote 55). 96. Simonds, J. P.: A Study of Low Blood Pressures Associated with Peptone Shock and Experimental Fat Embolism , J. A. M. A. 69:883 ( (Sept. 15) ) 1917Crossref 97. J. Exper. Med. 27:539 ( (May 1) ) 1918.Crossref 98. Wiggers, Carl B.: Circulatory Failure , J. A. M. A. 70:508 ( (Feb. 23) ) 1918.Crossref 99. Porter, W. T.: Boston M. & S. J. 180:531 ( (May 8) ) 1919. 100. Cannon, W. B.: A Consideration of the Nature of Wound Shock , J. A. M. A. 70:611 ( (March 2) ) 1918. 101. Reuter, Wolfgang: Frankfurt. Ztschr. f. Path. 17:205, 1915. 102. Kojo. quoted by Wegelin (footnote 55). 103. Leo, H.: Deutsche med. Wchnschr. 48:155 ( (Feb. 2) ) 1922. 104. Lepehne: Klin. Wchnschr. 1:670 ( (April 1) ) 1922. 105. Bencke, R.: Zieglers Beitr. z. path. Anat. 22:343, 1897. 106. Lehman, E. P., and McNattin, R. F.: South. M. J. 22:201 ( (March) ) 1929.

Journal

Archives of SurgeryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Sep 1, 1931

References