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The Search for a Schizotype: Crossing the Border Again

The Search for a Schizotype: Crossing the Border Again Abstract • We reexamined case records from the Danish Extended Family Study to find so-called borderline schizophrenic (B3) persons who were clustered in the biologic relatives of chronic schizophrenic adoptees. A syndrome can be identified in these B3 cases that is distinguishable from borderline personality disorder and other personality disorders. Its discriminating features suggest that current DSM III criteria for schizotypal personality disorder be revised to include new criteria for somatization and social role dysfunction and a shift away from the past emphasis on psychoticlike experiences. Although the methodological limitations in this and other studies that have searched for a schizotype necessitate further research on the criteria for this new category, there is growing evidence to support its validity as a psychiatric diagnosis. References 1. Shields J, Heston L, Gottesman I: Schizophrenia and the schizoid: The problem for genetic analysis , in Fieve R, Rosenthal D, Brill H (eds): Genetic Research In Psychiatry . Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1975, pp 147-169. 2. Gunderson J, Singer M: Defining borderline patients: An overview . Am J Psychiatry 1975;132:1-10. 3. Siever L: Schizoid and schizotypal personality disorders , in Lion J (ed): Personality Disorders: Diagnosis and Treatment , ed 2. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Co, 1981, pp 32-64. 4. Kety S, Rosenthal D, Wender P, et al: The types and prevalence of mental illness in the biological and adoptive families of adopted schizophrenics , in Rosenthal D, Kety S (eds): The Transmission of Schizophrenia . New York, Pergamon Press, 1968, pp 342-362. 5. Kety S, Rosenthal D, Wender P, et al: Mental illness in the biological and adoptive families of adopted individuals who have become schizophrenic: A preliminary report based on psychiatric interviews , in Fieve R, Rosenthal D, Brill H (eds): Genetic Research in Psychiatry . Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1975, pp 147-165. 6. Spitzer R, Endicott J, Gibbon M: Crossing the border into borderline personality and borderline schizophrenia: The development of criteria . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1979;36:17-24.Crossref 7. Rosenthal D, Wender P, Kety S: The Transmission of Schizophrenia . New York, Pergamon Press, 1968, pp 377-391. 8. Kendler KS, Gruenberg AM, Strauss JS: An independent analysis of the Copenhagen sample of the Danish adoption study of schizophrenia: II. The relationship between schizotypal personality disorder and schizophrenia . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1981;38:962-977. 9. Khouri P, Haier R, Rieder R: A symptom schedule for the diagnosis of borderline schizophrenia: A first report . Br J Psychiatry 1980;137:140-147.Crossref 10. Gunderson J, Carpenter W, Strauss J: Borderline and schizophrenic patients: A comparative study . Am J Psychiatry 1975;132:1257-1264. 11. Gunderson J, Kolb J: Discriminating features of borderline patients . Am J Psychiatry 1978;135:792-796. 12. Grinker R, Werble B, Dry R: The Borderline Syndrome: A Behavioral Study of Ego Functions . New York, Basic Books Inc, 1968. 13. Kernberg O: Borderline personality organization . J Am Psychoanal Assoc 1967;15:641-685.Crossref 14. Sheehy M, Goldsmith L, Charles E: A comparative study of borderline patients in a psychiatric outpatient clinic . Am J Psychiatry 1980; 137:1374-1379. 15. Perry J, Klerman G: Clinical features of the borderline personality disorder . Am J Psychiatry 1980;137:165-173. 16. Rado S: Dynamics and classification of disordered behavior . Am J Psychiatry 1953;110:406-416. 17. Meehl P: Schizotaxia, schizotypy, schizophrenia . Am Psychol 1962; 17:827-838.Crossref 18. Stone M: The Borderline Syndromes . New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co, 1980. 19. Andrulonis P, Glueck B, Stoebel C, et al: Organic brain dysfunction and the borderline syndrome . Psychiatr Clin North Am 1981;4( (1) ):61-66. 20. Akiskal H: Subaffective disorders: Dysthymic, cyclothymic, and bipolar II disorders in the 'borderline' realm . Psychiatr Clin North Am 1981;4( (1) ):25-46. 21. Loranger A, Oldham J, Tulis E: Familial transmission of DSM-III borderline personality disorder . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1982;39:795-799.Crossref 22. Siever L, Gunderson J: Genetic determinants of borderline conditions . Schizophr Bull 1979;5:59-86.Crossref 23. Gunderson J: Psychotic regressions in borderline patients , in Tupin JP (ed): Transient Psychosis, Diagnosis and Management . Ft Washington, Pa, McNeilLab Inc, 1980, pp 20-25. 24. Gunderson J: DSM III diagnoses of personality disorder. Read before the annual meeting of the American Psychiatric Association, Toronto, May 18, 1982. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of General Psychiatry American Medical Association

The Search for a Schizotype: Crossing the Border Again

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1983 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-990X
eISSN
1598-3636
DOI
10.1001/archpsyc.1983.01790010017002
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract • We reexamined case records from the Danish Extended Family Study to find so-called borderline schizophrenic (B3) persons who were clustered in the biologic relatives of chronic schizophrenic adoptees. A syndrome can be identified in these B3 cases that is distinguishable from borderline personality disorder and other personality disorders. Its discriminating features suggest that current DSM III criteria for schizotypal personality disorder be revised to include new criteria for somatization and social role dysfunction and a shift away from the past emphasis on psychoticlike experiences. Although the methodological limitations in this and other studies that have searched for a schizotype necessitate further research on the criteria for this new category, there is growing evidence to support its validity as a psychiatric diagnosis. References 1. Shields J, Heston L, Gottesman I: Schizophrenia and the schizoid: The problem for genetic analysis , in Fieve R, Rosenthal D, Brill H (eds): Genetic Research In Psychiatry . Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1975, pp 147-169. 2. Gunderson J, Singer M: Defining borderline patients: An overview . Am J Psychiatry 1975;132:1-10. 3. Siever L: Schizoid and schizotypal personality disorders , in Lion J (ed): Personality Disorders: Diagnosis and Treatment , ed 2. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Co, 1981, pp 32-64. 4. Kety S, Rosenthal D, Wender P, et al: The types and prevalence of mental illness in the biological and adoptive families of adopted schizophrenics , in Rosenthal D, Kety S (eds): The Transmission of Schizophrenia . New York, Pergamon Press, 1968, pp 342-362. 5. Kety S, Rosenthal D, Wender P, et al: Mental illness in the biological and adoptive families of adopted individuals who have become schizophrenic: A preliminary report based on psychiatric interviews , in Fieve R, Rosenthal D, Brill H (eds): Genetic Research in Psychiatry . Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1975, pp 147-165. 6. Spitzer R, Endicott J, Gibbon M: Crossing the border into borderline personality and borderline schizophrenia: The development of criteria . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1979;36:17-24.Crossref 7. Rosenthal D, Wender P, Kety S: The Transmission of Schizophrenia . New York, Pergamon Press, 1968, pp 377-391. 8. Kendler KS, Gruenberg AM, Strauss JS: An independent analysis of the Copenhagen sample of the Danish adoption study of schizophrenia: II. The relationship between schizotypal personality disorder and schizophrenia . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1981;38:962-977. 9. Khouri P, Haier R, Rieder R: A symptom schedule for the diagnosis of borderline schizophrenia: A first report . Br J Psychiatry 1980;137:140-147.Crossref 10. Gunderson J, Carpenter W, Strauss J: Borderline and schizophrenic patients: A comparative study . Am J Psychiatry 1975;132:1257-1264. 11. Gunderson J, Kolb J: Discriminating features of borderline patients . Am J Psychiatry 1978;135:792-796. 12. Grinker R, Werble B, Dry R: The Borderline Syndrome: A Behavioral Study of Ego Functions . New York, Basic Books Inc, 1968. 13. Kernberg O: Borderline personality organization . J Am Psychoanal Assoc 1967;15:641-685.Crossref 14. Sheehy M, Goldsmith L, Charles E: A comparative study of borderline patients in a psychiatric outpatient clinic . Am J Psychiatry 1980; 137:1374-1379. 15. Perry J, Klerman G: Clinical features of the borderline personality disorder . Am J Psychiatry 1980;137:165-173. 16. Rado S: Dynamics and classification of disordered behavior . Am J Psychiatry 1953;110:406-416. 17. Meehl P: Schizotaxia, schizotypy, schizophrenia . Am Psychol 1962; 17:827-838.Crossref 18. Stone M: The Borderline Syndromes . New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co, 1980. 19. Andrulonis P, Glueck B, Stoebel C, et al: Organic brain dysfunction and the borderline syndrome . Psychiatr Clin North Am 1981;4( (1) ):61-66. 20. Akiskal H: Subaffective disorders: Dysthymic, cyclothymic, and bipolar II disorders in the 'borderline' realm . Psychiatr Clin North Am 1981;4( (1) ):25-46. 21. Loranger A, Oldham J, Tulis E: Familial transmission of DSM-III borderline personality disorder . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1982;39:795-799.Crossref 22. Siever L, Gunderson J: Genetic determinants of borderline conditions . Schizophr Bull 1979;5:59-86.Crossref 23. Gunderson J: Psychotic regressions in borderline patients , in Tupin JP (ed): Transient Psychosis, Diagnosis and Management . Ft Washington, Pa, McNeilLab Inc, 1980, pp 20-25. 24. Gunderson J: DSM III diagnoses of personality disorder. Read before the annual meeting of the American Psychiatric Association, Toronto, May 18, 1982.

Journal

Archives of General PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jan 1, 1983

References