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The Role of the Human Tumor Stem Cell Assay in Medical Oncology

The Role of the Human Tumor Stem Cell Assay in Medical Oncology Abstract • The human tumor stem cell assay is a technique that allows in vitro sensitivity testing of antineoplastic agents against cells from tumor specimens removed from patients. This assay predicts clinical response to drugs and permits Individualization of chemotherapy. It is more accurate in predicting drug resistance than drug sensitivity. Although there are technical problems with the assay, it has been successfully applied to nearly every possible type of human solid tumor and can be performed using cells from malignant effusions as well. Screening of new agents for activity against a range of human tumor specimens may prove to be the most important application of the human tumor stem cell assay. (Arch Intern Med 1983;143:111-114) References 1. Hamburger AW, Salmon SE: Primary bioassay of human tumor stem cells. Science 1977;197:461-463.Crossref 2. Salmon SE, Hamburger AW, Soehnlen B, et al: Quantitation of differential sensitivity of human-tumor stem cells to anticancer drugs. N Engl J Med 1978;298:1321-1327.Crossref 3. Roper PR, Drewinko B: Comparison of in vitro methods to determine drug-induced cell lethality. Cancer Res 1976;36:2182-2188. 4. Puck TR, Marcus PI: A rapid method for viable cell titration and clone production with HeLa cells in tissue culture: The use of X-irradiated cells to supply conditioning factors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1955;41:432-437.Crossref 5. Bruce WR, Meeker BE, Valeriote FA: Comparison of the sensitivity of normal hematopoietic and transplanted lymphoma colony-forming cells to chemotherapeutic agents administered in vivo. JNCI 1966;37:233-245. 6. Ogawa M, Bergsagel DE, McCulloch EA: Chemotherapy of mouse myeloma: Quantitive cell culture predictive of response in vivo. Blood 1973;41:7-15. 7. Ogawa M, Bergsagel DE, McCulloch EA: Sensitivity of human and murine hemopoietic precursor cells to chemotherapeutic agents assessed in cell culture. Blood 1973;42:851-856. 8. Park CG, Bergsagel DE, McCulloch EA: Mouse myeloma tumor stem cells: A primary cell culture assay. JNCI 1971;46:411-422. 9. McAllister RM, Reed J: Colonial growth in agar of cells derived from neoplastic and non-neoplastic tissues of children. Pediatr Res 1968;2: 356-360.Crossref 10. Altman AJ, Crussi FG, Rierden WG, et al: Growth of rhabdomyosarcoma colonies from pleural fluid. Cancer Res 1975;35:1809-1812. 11. Salmon SE, Slberts DS, Durie BGM, et al: Clinical correlations of drug sensitivity in the human tumor stem cell assay , in Mathe G, Muggia FM (eds): Cancer Chemo- and Immunopharmacology: I. Chemopharmacology . New York, Springer-Verlag, 1980, pp 300-305. 12. Ozols RF, Willson JKV, Grotzinger KR, et al: Cloning of human ovarian cancer cells in soft agar from malignant effusions and peritoneal washings. Cancer Res 1980;40:2743-2747. 13. Buick RN, MacKillop WJ: Measurement of self-renewal in culture of clonogenic cells from human ovarian carcinoma. Br J Cancer 1981;44: 349-355.Crossref 14. Von Hoff DD, Casper J, Bradley E, et al: Direct cloning of human neuroblastoma cells in soft agar culture. Cancer Res 1980;49:3591-3597. 15. Trent JM, Salmon SE: Human tumor karyology: Marked analytic improvement by short-term agar culture. Br J Cancer 1980;41:867-874.Crossref 16. Hamburger AW, Salmon SE, Kim MB, et al: Direct cloning of human ovarian carcinoma cells in agar. Cancer Res 1978;38:3438-3444. 17. Kern DG, Campbell MA, Cochran AJ, et al: A clonogenic assay for human malignant melanoma. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res and Am Soc Clin Oncol 1980;21:222. 18. Von Hoff DD, Johnson E: Secretion of tumor markers in the human tumor stem cell system. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res and Am Soc Clin Oncol 1979;20:51. 19. Carney DN, Gazdar AF, Bunn PA Jr, et al: Demonstration of the stem cell nature of clonogenic tumor cells from lung cancer patients. Stem Cells 1981;1:149-164. 20. Alberts DS, Chen HSG: Tabular summary of pharmacokinetic parameters relevant to in vitro drug assay , in Salmon SE (ed): Cloning of Human Tumor Cells . New York, Alan R Liss, 1980, pp 351-359. 21. Epstein LB, Marcus SG: Review of experience with interferon and drug sensitivity testing of ovarian carcinoma in semisolid agar culture. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1981;6:273-277.Crossref 22. Kaiser LR, Holmes EG, Kern D: In vitro assessment of antineoplastic therapy: A new indication for thoracotomy. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1981;82:538-541. 23. Natale RB, Kushner B: Applications of the human tumor cloning assay (HTCA) to ovarian cancer (OC). Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res and Am Soc Clin Oncol 1981;22:156. 24. Natale RB, Kushner B: Use of the human tumor cloning assay (HTCA) to assess chemotherapy sensitivity of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res and Am Soc Clin Oncol 1981;22:464. 25. Tisman G, Wu SJG: The clinical and laboratory evaluation of a modified tumor stem cell assay for the in vitro determination of human tumor cell drug sensitivity. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res and Am Soc Clin Oncol 1981;22:364. 26. Von Hoff DD, Casper J, Bradley E, et al: Association between human tumor colony-forming assay results and response of an individual patient's tumor to chemotherapy. Am J Med 1981;70:1027-1032.Crossref 27. McGuire WL: An update on estrogen and progesterone receptors in prognosis for primary and advanced breast cancer , in Iacobelli S, King RJB, Lindner HR, et al (eds): Hormones and Cancer . New York, Raven Press, 1980, pp 337-343. 28. Sandbach J, O'Brien J, Welch D, et al: Assay for clonogenic cells in human breast cancer. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res and Am Soc Clin Oncol 1980;21:139. 29. Sandbach J, O'Brien M, Cruz A, et al: Direct cloning of human breast cancer in soft agar. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res and Am Soc Clin Oncol 1981;22:350. 30. Gangji D, Legros N, Mattheim WH, et al: Stem cell assay in human breast carcinoma. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res and Am Soc Clin Oncol 1981;22:156. 31. Rosenblum ML, Dougherty DV, Reese C, et al: Potentials and possible pitfalls of human tumor stem cell analysis. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1981;6:227-235.Crossref 32. Rosenblum ML: Chemosensitivity testing for human brain tumors , in Salmon SE (ed): Cloning of Human Tumor Cells . New York, Alan R Liss, 1980, pp 259-276. 33. Ozols RF, Wilson JKV, Weltz MD, et al: Inhibition of human ovarian cancer colony formation by adriamycin and its major metabolites. Cancer Res 1981;40:4109-4112. 34. Natale BB, Kushner B: Applications of the human tumor cloning assay (HTCA) to ovarian cancer (OC). Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res and Am Soc Clin Oncol 1981;22:156. 35. Hamburger AW, Salmon SE, Kim MB, et al: Direct cloning of human ovarian carcinoma cells in agar. Cancer Res 1978;38:3438-3444. 36. Alberts DS, Salmon SE, Chen HSG, et al: In vitro detection of cross-resistance (XR) and sensitivity (S) in relapsing ovarian cancer (OV) with the human tumor stem cell assay (HTSCA). Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res and Am Soc Clin Oncol 1980;21:181. 37. Alberts DS, Chen HSG, Salmon SE, et al: Chemotherapy of ovarian cancer directed by the human tumor stem cell assay. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1981;6:279-285. 38. Alberts DS, Chen HSG, Soehnlen B, et al: In vitro clonogenic assay for predicting response of ovarian cancer to chemotherapy. Lancet 1980; 2:340-342.Crossref 39. Stansic TH, Buick RN: An in vitro clonal assay for bladder cancer: clinical correlation with the status of the urothelium in 33 patients. J Urol 1980;124:30-33. 40. Stansic TH, Buick RN, Trent JM, et al: An in vitro clonal assay for bladder cancer: Studies of the biologic potential of the urothelium and determination of in vitro sensitivity of cytotoxic agents. J Surg Oncol 1981;18:67-72.Crossref 41. Buick RN, Stansic TH, Fry SE, et al: Development of an agar-methyl cellulose clonogenic assay for cells in transitional cell carcinoma of the human bladder. Cancer Res 1979;39:5051-5056. 42. Mattox DE, Von Hoff DD: In vitro stem cell assay in head and neck squamous carcinoma. Am J Surg 1980;140:527-530.Crossref 43. Von Hoff DD, Mattox DE, Cortes E, et al: The human tumor stem cell assay system: A potential aid for intraarterial drug trials in head and neck cancer. Rev Sud Oncol 1979;3:15-17. 44. Kaiser LR, Kern DH, Campbell MA, et al. In vitro assessment of antineoplastic therapy: New indication of thoracotomy? J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1981;82:538-541. 45. Carney DN, Gazdar AF, Bunn PA Jr: In vitro cloning of small cell carcinoma of the lung , in Greco FA, Oldham RK, Bunn PA Jr (eds): Small Cell Lung Cancer . New York, Grune & Stratton Inc, 1981, pp 79-94. 46. Von Hoff DD, Weisenthal LM, Ihde DC, et al: Growth of lung cancer colonies from bronchoscopy washings. Cancer 1981;48:400-403.Crossref 47. Gross H, Kim SH, Warth P: In vitro sensitivity testing of lung cancer using a human tumor stem cell colony assay. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res and Am Soc Clin Oncol 1981;22:498. 48. Dana B, Meyskens FL Jr, Franks DH, et al: In vitro chemosensitivity of human melanoma tumor stem cells (HMTSC) in soft agar and in vitro/in vivo correlations. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res and Am Soc Clin Oncol 1981;22:524. 49. Asano S, Riglar C: Colony growth in agar by human melanoma cells. Cancer Res 1981;41:1199-1204. 50. Kern DH, Campbell MA, Cochran AJ, et al: A clonogenic assay for human malignant melanoma. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res and Am Soc Clin Oncol 1980;21:222. 51. Meyskens FL Jr, Salmon SE: Modulation of clonogenic human melanoma cells by follicle-stimulating hormone, melatonin, and nerve growth factor. Br J Cancer 1981;43:111-115.Crossref 52. Meyskens FL Jr, Soehnlen B, Saxe DF, et al: In vitro clonal assay for human metastatic melanoma cells. Stem Cells 1981;1:61-72. 53. Meyskens FL Jr, Moon TE, Dana B, et al: Quantitation of drug sensitivity by human metastatic melanoma colony-forming units. Br J Cancer 1981;44:787-797.Crossref 54. Hamburger A, Salmon SE: Primary bioassay of human myeloma stem cells. J Clin Invest 1977;60:846-854.Crossref 55. Von Hoff DD, Casper J, Bradley E, et al: Direct cloning of human neuroblastoma cells in soft agar culture. Cancer Res 1980;40:3591-3597. 56. Rupniak HT, Hill BT: The poor cloning ability in agar of human tumor cells from biopsies of primary tumors. Cell Biol Int Rep 1980;4:479-486.Crossref 57. Von Hoff DD, Cowan J, Harris G, et al: Human tumor cloning: Feasibility and clinical correlations. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1981; 6:265-271.Crossref 58. Forseth B, Paque RE, Von Hoff DD: Exploration of media changes and growth factors to enhance tumor growth in soft agar. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res and Am Soc Clin Oncol 1981;22:54. 59. Hamburger AW, White CP, Brown RW: Effect of epidermal growth factor on proliferation of human tumor cells in soft agar. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res and Am Soc Clin Oncol 1981;22:215. 60. Gupta V, Krishan A: Effect of oxygen concentration on the growth and drug sensitivity of human melanoma cells in soft-agar clonogenic assay. Cancer Res 1982;42:1005-1007. 61. Johnson PA, Rossof AH: Lithium carbonate fails to stimulate clonogenicity in the human tumor stem cell assay. Blood 1981;58( (suppl 1) ):111a. 62. Daniels JR, Daniels AM, Luck EF, et al: Chemosensitivity of human neoplasms with in vitro clone formation. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1981;6:245-251.Crossref 63. Slocum HK, Pavelic ZP, Kanter PM, et al: The soft agar clonogenicity and characterization of cells obtained from human solid tumors by mechanical and enzymatic means. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1981;6:219-225.Crossref 64. Slocum HK, Pavelic ZP, Rustum YM, et al: Characterization of cells obtained by mechanical and enzymatic means from human melanoma, sarcoma, and lung tumors. Cancer Res 1981;41:1428-1434. 65. Hamburger AW, White CP, Tencer K: Effect of enzymatic disaggregation of proliferation of human tumor cells in soft agar. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 1982;23:182. 66. Shrivastav S, Stone KR, Paulson DF, et al: Activation of cyclophosphamide for in vitro testing of cell sensitivity. Cancer Res 1980;40: 4443-4445. 67. Kressner BE, Morton PR, Martens AC, et al: Use of an image analysis system to count colonies in stem cell assays of human tumors , in Salmon SE (ed): Cloning of Human Tumor Stem Cells . New York, Alan R Liss, 1980, pp 179-193. 68. Alberts DS, Surwit EA, Leigh S, et al: Improved survival for relapsing ovarian cancer (OV CA) patients (pts) using the human tumor stem cell assay (HTSCA) to select chemotherapy (CRx). Stem Cells , in press. 69. Salmon SE, Von Hoff DD: In vitro evaluation of anticancer drugs with the human tumor stem cell assay. Semin Oncol 1981;8:377-385. 70. Johnson PA, Rossof AH, Kimmell BD, et al: Evaluation of activity of cisplatin and three new analogs in various human cancers using the human tumor stem cell assay. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 1982;23:168. 71. Rossof AH, Johnson PA, Economou SG, et al: In vitro phase II evaluation of vindesine in breast cancer and other human malignancies. Proc ASCO 1982;1:77. 72. Salmon SE, Liu RM, Casazza AM: Evaluation of new anthracycline analogs with the human tumor stem cell assay. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1981;6:103-110.Crossref 73. Salmon SE, Meyskens FL, Alberts DS, et al: New drugs in ovarian cancer and malignant melnoma: In vitro phase II screening with the human tumor stem cell assay. Cancer Treat Rep 1981;65:1-12. 74. Von Hoff DD, Coltman CA Jr, Forseth B: Activity of mitoxantrone in a human tumor cloning system. Cancer Res 1981;41:1853-1855. 75. Alberts DS, Mackle C, Salmon SE: Use of the human tumor stem cell assay to prospectively select patients for phase I and II clinical trials of bisantrene (BIS). Stem Cells , in press. 76. Von Hoff DD, Coltman CA Jr, Forseth B: Activity of 9,10-anthracene dicarboxaldehyde bis (4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl) hydrazone dihydrochloride (CL-216, 942) in a human tumor cloning system. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1981;6:141-144.Crossref 77. Alberts DS, Mackel C, Pocelinko R: Phase I clinical investigation of 9, 10-anthracenedecarboxaldehyde bis (4,5-dehydro-1H-irudazole-2-yl) hydrochlor dehydrochlor with correlative in vitro human tumor clonogenic assay. Cancer Res 1982;42:1170-1175. 78. Shoemaker RH, Wolpert-DeFilippes MK, Makuch RW, et al: Application of the human tumor clonogenic assay to drug screening. Stem Cells , in press. 79. Pollard EB, Tio F, Myers JW, et al: Utilization of a human tumor cloning system to monitor for marrow involvement with small cell carcinoma of the lung. Cancer Res 1981;41:1015-1020. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Internal Medicine American Medical Association

The Role of the Human Tumor Stem Cell Assay in Medical Oncology

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American Medical Association
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Copyright © 1983 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
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0003-9926
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1538-3679
DOI
10.1001/archinte.1983.00350010117020
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Abstract

Abstract • The human tumor stem cell assay is a technique that allows in vitro sensitivity testing of antineoplastic agents against cells from tumor specimens removed from patients. This assay predicts clinical response to drugs and permits Individualization of chemotherapy. It is more accurate in predicting drug resistance than drug sensitivity. Although there are technical problems with the assay, it has been successfully applied to nearly every possible type of human solid tumor and can be performed using cells from malignant effusions as well. Screening of new agents for activity against a range of human tumor specimens may prove to be the most important application of the human tumor stem cell assay. (Arch Intern Med 1983;143:111-114) References 1. Hamburger AW, Salmon SE: Primary bioassay of human tumor stem cells. Science 1977;197:461-463.Crossref 2. Salmon SE, Hamburger AW, Soehnlen B, et al: Quantitation of differential sensitivity of human-tumor stem cells to anticancer drugs. N Engl J Med 1978;298:1321-1327.Crossref 3. Roper PR, Drewinko B: Comparison of in vitro methods to determine drug-induced cell lethality. Cancer Res 1976;36:2182-2188. 4. Puck TR, Marcus PI: A rapid method for viable cell titration and clone production with HeLa cells in tissue culture: The use of X-irradiated cells to supply conditioning factors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1955;41:432-437.Crossref 5. Bruce WR, Meeker BE, Valeriote FA: Comparison of the sensitivity of normal hematopoietic and transplanted lymphoma colony-forming cells to chemotherapeutic agents administered in vivo. JNCI 1966;37:233-245. 6. Ogawa M, Bergsagel DE, McCulloch EA: Chemotherapy of mouse myeloma: Quantitive cell culture predictive of response in vivo. Blood 1973;41:7-15. 7. Ogawa M, Bergsagel DE, McCulloch EA: Sensitivity of human and murine hemopoietic precursor cells to chemotherapeutic agents assessed in cell culture. Blood 1973;42:851-856. 8. Park CG, Bergsagel DE, McCulloch EA: Mouse myeloma tumor stem cells: A primary cell culture assay. JNCI 1971;46:411-422. 9. McAllister RM, Reed J: Colonial growth in agar of cells derived from neoplastic and non-neoplastic tissues of children. Pediatr Res 1968;2: 356-360.Crossref 10. Altman AJ, Crussi FG, Rierden WG, et al: Growth of rhabdomyosarcoma colonies from pleural fluid. Cancer Res 1975;35:1809-1812. 11. Salmon SE, Slberts DS, Durie BGM, et al: Clinical correlations of drug sensitivity in the human tumor stem cell assay , in Mathe G, Muggia FM (eds): Cancer Chemo- and Immunopharmacology: I. Chemopharmacology . New York, Springer-Verlag, 1980, pp 300-305. 12. Ozols RF, Willson JKV, Grotzinger KR, et al: Cloning of human ovarian cancer cells in soft agar from malignant effusions and peritoneal washings. Cancer Res 1980;40:2743-2747. 13. Buick RN, MacKillop WJ: Measurement of self-renewal in culture of clonogenic cells from human ovarian carcinoma. Br J Cancer 1981;44: 349-355.Crossref 14. Von Hoff DD, Casper J, Bradley E, et al: Direct cloning of human neuroblastoma cells in soft agar culture. Cancer Res 1980;49:3591-3597. 15. Trent JM, Salmon SE: Human tumor karyology: Marked analytic improvement by short-term agar culture. Br J Cancer 1980;41:867-874.Crossref 16. Hamburger AW, Salmon SE, Kim MB, et al: Direct cloning of human ovarian carcinoma cells in agar. Cancer Res 1978;38:3438-3444. 17. Kern DG, Campbell MA, Cochran AJ, et al: A clonogenic assay for human malignant melanoma. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res and Am Soc Clin Oncol 1980;21:222. 18. Von Hoff DD, Johnson E: Secretion of tumor markers in the human tumor stem cell system. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res and Am Soc Clin Oncol 1979;20:51. 19. Carney DN, Gazdar AF, Bunn PA Jr, et al: Demonstration of the stem cell nature of clonogenic tumor cells from lung cancer patients. Stem Cells 1981;1:149-164. 20. Alberts DS, Chen HSG: Tabular summary of pharmacokinetic parameters relevant to in vitro drug assay , in Salmon SE (ed): Cloning of Human Tumor Cells . New York, Alan R Liss, 1980, pp 351-359. 21. Epstein LB, Marcus SG: Review of experience with interferon and drug sensitivity testing of ovarian carcinoma in semisolid agar culture. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1981;6:273-277.Crossref 22. Kaiser LR, Holmes EG, Kern D: In vitro assessment of antineoplastic therapy: A new indication for thoracotomy. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1981;82:538-541. 23. Natale RB, Kushner B: Applications of the human tumor cloning assay (HTCA) to ovarian cancer (OC). Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res and Am Soc Clin Oncol 1981;22:156. 24. Natale RB, Kushner B: Use of the human tumor cloning assay (HTCA) to assess chemotherapy sensitivity of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res and Am Soc Clin Oncol 1981;22:464. 25. Tisman G, Wu SJG: The clinical and laboratory evaluation of a modified tumor stem cell assay for the in vitro determination of human tumor cell drug sensitivity. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res and Am Soc Clin Oncol 1981;22:364. 26. Von Hoff DD, Casper J, Bradley E, et al: Association between human tumor colony-forming assay results and response of an individual patient's tumor to chemotherapy. Am J Med 1981;70:1027-1032.Crossref 27. McGuire WL: An update on estrogen and progesterone receptors in prognosis for primary and advanced breast cancer , in Iacobelli S, King RJB, Lindner HR, et al (eds): Hormones and Cancer . New York, Raven Press, 1980, pp 337-343. 28. Sandbach J, O'Brien J, Welch D, et al: Assay for clonogenic cells in human breast cancer. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res and Am Soc Clin Oncol 1980;21:139. 29. Sandbach J, O'Brien M, Cruz A, et al: Direct cloning of human breast cancer in soft agar. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res and Am Soc Clin Oncol 1981;22:350. 30. Gangji D, Legros N, Mattheim WH, et al: Stem cell assay in human breast carcinoma. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res and Am Soc Clin Oncol 1981;22:156. 31. Rosenblum ML, Dougherty DV, Reese C, et al: Potentials and possible pitfalls of human tumor stem cell analysis. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1981;6:227-235.Crossref 32. Rosenblum ML: Chemosensitivity testing for human brain tumors , in Salmon SE (ed): Cloning of Human Tumor Cells . New York, Alan R Liss, 1980, pp 259-276. 33. Ozols RF, Wilson JKV, Weltz MD, et al: Inhibition of human ovarian cancer colony formation by adriamycin and its major metabolites. Cancer Res 1981;40:4109-4112. 34. Natale BB, Kushner B: Applications of the human tumor cloning assay (HTCA) to ovarian cancer (OC). Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res and Am Soc Clin Oncol 1981;22:156. 35. Hamburger AW, Salmon SE, Kim MB, et al: Direct cloning of human ovarian carcinoma cells in agar. Cancer Res 1978;38:3438-3444. 36. Alberts DS, Salmon SE, Chen HSG, et al: In vitro detection of cross-resistance (XR) and sensitivity (S) in relapsing ovarian cancer (OV) with the human tumor stem cell assay (HTSCA). Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res and Am Soc Clin Oncol 1980;21:181. 37. Alberts DS, Chen HSG, Salmon SE, et al: Chemotherapy of ovarian cancer directed by the human tumor stem cell assay. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1981;6:279-285. 38. Alberts DS, Chen HSG, Soehnlen B, et al: In vitro clonogenic assay for predicting response of ovarian cancer to chemotherapy. Lancet 1980; 2:340-342.Crossref 39. Stansic TH, Buick RN: An in vitro clonal assay for bladder cancer: clinical correlation with the status of the urothelium in 33 patients. J Urol 1980;124:30-33. 40. Stansic TH, Buick RN, Trent JM, et al: An in vitro clonal assay for bladder cancer: Studies of the biologic potential of the urothelium and determination of in vitro sensitivity of cytotoxic agents. J Surg Oncol 1981;18:67-72.Crossref 41. Buick RN, Stansic TH, Fry SE, et al: Development of an agar-methyl cellulose clonogenic assay for cells in transitional cell carcinoma of the human bladder. Cancer Res 1979;39:5051-5056. 42. Mattox DE, Von Hoff DD: In vitro stem cell assay in head and neck squamous carcinoma. Am J Surg 1980;140:527-530.Crossref 43. Von Hoff DD, Mattox DE, Cortes E, et al: The human tumor stem cell assay system: A potential aid for intraarterial drug trials in head and neck cancer. Rev Sud Oncol 1979;3:15-17. 44. Kaiser LR, Kern DH, Campbell MA, et al. In vitro assessment of antineoplastic therapy: New indication of thoracotomy? J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1981;82:538-541. 45. Carney DN, Gazdar AF, Bunn PA Jr: In vitro cloning of small cell carcinoma of the lung , in Greco FA, Oldham RK, Bunn PA Jr (eds): Small Cell Lung Cancer . New York, Grune & Stratton Inc, 1981, pp 79-94. 46. Von Hoff DD, Weisenthal LM, Ihde DC, et al: Growth of lung cancer colonies from bronchoscopy washings. Cancer 1981;48:400-403.Crossref 47. Gross H, Kim SH, Warth P: In vitro sensitivity testing of lung cancer using a human tumor stem cell colony assay. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res and Am Soc Clin Oncol 1981;22:498. 48. Dana B, Meyskens FL Jr, Franks DH, et al: In vitro chemosensitivity of human melanoma tumor stem cells (HMTSC) in soft agar and in vitro/in vivo correlations. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res and Am Soc Clin Oncol 1981;22:524. 49. Asano S, Riglar C: Colony growth in agar by human melanoma cells. Cancer Res 1981;41:1199-1204. 50. Kern DH, Campbell MA, Cochran AJ, et al: A clonogenic assay for human malignant melanoma. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res and Am Soc Clin Oncol 1980;21:222. 51. Meyskens FL Jr, Salmon SE: Modulation of clonogenic human melanoma cells by follicle-stimulating hormone, melatonin, and nerve growth factor. Br J Cancer 1981;43:111-115.Crossref 52. Meyskens FL Jr, Soehnlen B, Saxe DF, et al: In vitro clonal assay for human metastatic melanoma cells. Stem Cells 1981;1:61-72. 53. Meyskens FL Jr, Moon TE, Dana B, et al: Quantitation of drug sensitivity by human metastatic melanoma colony-forming units. Br J Cancer 1981;44:787-797.Crossref 54. Hamburger A, Salmon SE: Primary bioassay of human myeloma stem cells. J Clin Invest 1977;60:846-854.Crossref 55. Von Hoff DD, Casper J, Bradley E, et al: Direct cloning of human neuroblastoma cells in soft agar culture. Cancer Res 1980;40:3591-3597. 56. Rupniak HT, Hill BT: The poor cloning ability in agar of human tumor cells from biopsies of primary tumors. Cell Biol Int Rep 1980;4:479-486.Crossref 57. Von Hoff DD, Cowan J, Harris G, et al: Human tumor cloning: Feasibility and clinical correlations. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1981; 6:265-271.Crossref 58. Forseth B, Paque RE, Von Hoff DD: Exploration of media changes and growth factors to enhance tumor growth in soft agar. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res and Am Soc Clin Oncol 1981;22:54. 59. Hamburger AW, White CP, Brown RW: Effect of epidermal growth factor on proliferation of human tumor cells in soft agar. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res and Am Soc Clin Oncol 1981;22:215. 60. Gupta V, Krishan A: Effect of oxygen concentration on the growth and drug sensitivity of human melanoma cells in soft-agar clonogenic assay. Cancer Res 1982;42:1005-1007. 61. Johnson PA, Rossof AH: Lithium carbonate fails to stimulate clonogenicity in the human tumor stem cell assay. Blood 1981;58( (suppl 1) ):111a. 62. Daniels JR, Daniels AM, Luck EF, et al: Chemosensitivity of human neoplasms with in vitro clone formation. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1981;6:245-251.Crossref 63. Slocum HK, Pavelic ZP, Kanter PM, et al: The soft agar clonogenicity and characterization of cells obtained from human solid tumors by mechanical and enzymatic means. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1981;6:219-225.Crossref 64. Slocum HK, Pavelic ZP, Rustum YM, et al: Characterization of cells obtained by mechanical and enzymatic means from human melanoma, sarcoma, and lung tumors. Cancer Res 1981;41:1428-1434. 65. Hamburger AW, White CP, Tencer K: Effect of enzymatic disaggregation of proliferation of human tumor cells in soft agar. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 1982;23:182. 66. Shrivastav S, Stone KR, Paulson DF, et al: Activation of cyclophosphamide for in vitro testing of cell sensitivity. Cancer Res 1980;40: 4443-4445. 67. Kressner BE, Morton PR, Martens AC, et al: Use of an image analysis system to count colonies in stem cell assays of human tumors , in Salmon SE (ed): Cloning of Human Tumor Stem Cells . New York, Alan R Liss, 1980, pp 179-193. 68. Alberts DS, Surwit EA, Leigh S, et al: Improved survival for relapsing ovarian cancer (OV CA) patients (pts) using the human tumor stem cell assay (HTSCA) to select chemotherapy (CRx). Stem Cells , in press. 69. Salmon SE, Von Hoff DD: In vitro evaluation of anticancer drugs with the human tumor stem cell assay. Semin Oncol 1981;8:377-385. 70. Johnson PA, Rossof AH, Kimmell BD, et al: Evaluation of activity of cisplatin and three new analogs in various human cancers using the human tumor stem cell assay. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 1982;23:168. 71. Rossof AH, Johnson PA, Economou SG, et al: In vitro phase II evaluation of vindesine in breast cancer and other human malignancies. Proc ASCO 1982;1:77. 72. Salmon SE, Liu RM, Casazza AM: Evaluation of new anthracycline analogs with the human tumor stem cell assay. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1981;6:103-110.Crossref 73. Salmon SE, Meyskens FL, Alberts DS, et al: New drugs in ovarian cancer and malignant melnoma: In vitro phase II screening with the human tumor stem cell assay. Cancer Treat Rep 1981;65:1-12. 74. Von Hoff DD, Coltman CA Jr, Forseth B: Activity of mitoxantrone in a human tumor cloning system. Cancer Res 1981;41:1853-1855. 75. Alberts DS, Mackle C, Salmon SE: Use of the human tumor stem cell assay to prospectively select patients for phase I and II clinical trials of bisantrene (BIS). Stem Cells , in press. 76. Von Hoff DD, Coltman CA Jr, Forseth B: Activity of 9,10-anthracene dicarboxaldehyde bis (4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl) hydrazone dihydrochloride (CL-216, 942) in a human tumor cloning system. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1981;6:141-144.Crossref 77. Alberts DS, Mackel C, Pocelinko R: Phase I clinical investigation of 9, 10-anthracenedecarboxaldehyde bis (4,5-dehydro-1H-irudazole-2-yl) hydrochlor dehydrochlor with correlative in vitro human tumor clonogenic assay. Cancer Res 1982;42:1170-1175. 78. Shoemaker RH, Wolpert-DeFilippes MK, Makuch RW, et al: Application of the human tumor clonogenic assay to drug screening. Stem Cells , in press. 79. Pollard EB, Tio F, Myers JW, et al: Utilization of a human tumor cloning system to monitor for marrow involvement with small cell carcinoma of the lung. Cancer Res 1981;41:1015-1020.

Journal

Archives of Internal MedicineAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jan 1, 1983

References