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The Role of Glucocorticoids in Endotoxin-Mediated Otitis Media With Effusion

The Role of Glucocorticoids in Endotoxin-Mediated Otitis Media With Effusion Abstract Objective: To understand the actions of glucocorticoids on the development and progression of endotoxin-mediated otitis media with effusion. Methods and Design: The middle ears of 20 Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 35 μL of either 300-mOsm Krebs-Ringer solution (control; n=5) or lipopolysaccharide, 1 mg/mL, dissolved in Krebs-Ringer solution (n=15). Among the group that received lipopolysaccharide, 10 rats were randomly selected to receive dexamethasone (1 mg/kg intramuscularly), either 2 hours (n=5) or 24 hours (n=5) before the introduction of lipopolysaccharide. Middle ear fluid was sampled after 2, 4, and 6 hours of exposure. Outcome Measures: Middle ear fluid volume and albumin content were determined as measures of vascular extravasation. Histological sections of the middle ear mucosa were used to quantify the degree of leukocyte exudation. Data were analyzed by 1- or 2-way analysis of variance with the significance level set at P<.05. Results: Lipopolysaccharide exposure caused a significant increase in the mean±SEM middle ear fluid volume from 29.9±0.99 to 45.8±1.4 μLbetween the 2- and 6-hour samplings. Lipopolysaccharide exposure caused a significant increase in the albumin content of middle ear fluid from 70.1±19.2 to 271.0±93.1 μg between the 2- and 6-hour samplings. Both increases were significant compared with controls. Lipopolysaccharide also caused a significant increase in leukocytes localized to the middle ear mucosa. Pretreatment of animals with dexamethasone for either 2 or 24 hours inhibited the lipopolysaccharide-induced changes. There were no differences between 2- and 24-hour pretreatment with dexamethasone. Conclusions: Dexamethasone inhibits the development of endotoxin-induced otitis media with effusion.Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1997;123:41-46 References 1. Bluestone CD, Klein JO, Paradise JL, et al. Workshop on the effects of otitis media on the child . Pediatrics . 1983;71:639-652. 2. Williams LW, Chalmers TC, Strange KC, Chalmers FT, Bowlin SJ. Use of antibiotics in preventing recurrent acute otitis media and in treating otitis media with effusion: a meta-analytic attempt to resolve the brouhaha . JAMA . 1993; 270:1344-1351.Crossref 3. DeMaria TF, Briggs BR, Lim DJ, Okazaki N. Experimental otitis media with effusion following middle ear inoculation of nonviable H. influenzae . Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol . 1984;93:52-56. 4. DeMaria TF, Prior RB, Briggs BR, Lim DJ, Birck HG. Endotoxin in middle ear effusions from patients with chronic otitis media with effusion . J Clin Microbiol . 1984;20:15-17. 5. Ball SS, Prazma J, Rosbe KW, Dais CG, Pillsbury HC. Nitric oxide, a mediator of endotoxin-induced middle ear effusions . Laryngoscope . 1996;106:1021-1027.Crossref 6. Ball SS, Prazma J, Dais CG, Triana RJ, Pillsbury HC. Role of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 in endotoxin-induced middle ear effusions. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. In press. 7. Rosenfeld RM, Mandel EM, Bluestone CD. Systemic steroids for otitis media with effusion in children . Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg . 1991;117:984-989.Crossref 8. Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources . Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals . Bethesda, Md: US Dept of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health; 1995. 9. Yi ES, Ulich TR. Endotoxin, interleukin-1, and tumor necrosis factor cause neutrophil-dependent microvascular leakage in postcapillary venules . Am J Pathol . 1992;140:659-663. 10. Laszlo F, Whittle BJR, Moncada S. Time-dependent enhancement or inhibition of endotoxin-induced vascular injury in rat intestine by nitric oxide synthase inhibitors . Br J Pharmacol . 1994;111:1309-1315.Crossref 11. Harald HH, Schmidt W, Walter U. NO at work . Cell . 1994;78:919-925.Crossref 12. Ishii Y, Wang Y, Haziot A, Del Vecchio PJ, Goyert SM, Malik AB. Lipopolysaccharide binding protein and CD14 interaction induces tumor necrosis factor-α generation and neutrophil sequestration in lungs after intratracheal endotoxin . Circ Res . 1993;73:15-23.Crossref 13. Ulich TR, Guo K, Irwin B, Remick DG, Davatelis GN. Endotoxin-induced cytokine gene expression in vivo: regulation of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin1α/β expression and suppression . Am J Pathol . 1990;137:1173-1185. 14. Mitchell JA, Belvisi MG, Akarasereenont P, et al. Induction of cyclooxygenase-2 by cytokines in human pulmonary epithelial cells: regulation by dexamethasone . Br J Pharmacol . 1994;113:1008-1014.Crossref 15. Jung TTK. Prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and other arachidonic acid metabolites in the pathogenesis of otitis media . Laryngoscope . 1988;98:980-992.Crossref 16. Munro JM. Endothelial-leukocyte adhesive interactions in inflammatory diseases . Eur Heart J . 1993;14( (suppl K) ):72-77. 17. Cronstein BN, Kimmel SC, Levin RI, Martiniuk F, Weissmann G. A mechanism for the antiinflammatory effects of corticosteroids: the glucocorticoid receptor regulates leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells and expression of endothelialleukocyte adhesion molecule 1 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 . Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A . 1992;89:9991-9995.Crossref 18. Kolls J, Xie J, LeBlanc R, et al. Rapid induction of messenger RNA for nitric oxide synthase II in rat neutrophils in vivo by endotoxin and its suppression by prednisolone . Proc Soc Exp Biol Med . 1994;205:220-225.Crossref 19. Balligand J, Ungureanu-Longrois D, Simmons WW, et al. Cytokine-inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in cardiac myocytes . J Biol Chem . 1994; 269:27580-27588. 20. Vidal MJ, Zocchi MR, Poggi A, Pellegatta F, Chierchia SL. Involvement of nitric oxide in tumor cell adhesion to cytokine-activated endothelial cells . J Cardiovasc Pharmacol . 1992;20( (suppl 12) ):S155-S159.Crossref 21. Boschetto P, Rogers DF, Fabbri LM, Barnes PJ. Corticosteroid inhibition of airway microvascular leakage . Am Rev Respir Dis . 1991;143:605-609.Crossref 22. Yellon RF, Doyle WJ, Whiteside TL, Diven WF, March AR, Fireman P. Cytokines, immunoglobulins, and bacterial pathogens in middle ear effusions . Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg . 1995;121:865-869.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery American Medical Association

The Role of Glucocorticoids in Endotoxin-Mediated Otitis Media With Effusion

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1997 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0886-4470
eISSN
1538-361X
DOI
10.1001/archotol.1997.01900010049006
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract Objective: To understand the actions of glucocorticoids on the development and progression of endotoxin-mediated otitis media with effusion. Methods and Design: The middle ears of 20 Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 35 μL of either 300-mOsm Krebs-Ringer solution (control; n=5) or lipopolysaccharide, 1 mg/mL, dissolved in Krebs-Ringer solution (n=15). Among the group that received lipopolysaccharide, 10 rats were randomly selected to receive dexamethasone (1 mg/kg intramuscularly), either 2 hours (n=5) or 24 hours (n=5) before the introduction of lipopolysaccharide. Middle ear fluid was sampled after 2, 4, and 6 hours of exposure. Outcome Measures: Middle ear fluid volume and albumin content were determined as measures of vascular extravasation. Histological sections of the middle ear mucosa were used to quantify the degree of leukocyte exudation. Data were analyzed by 1- or 2-way analysis of variance with the significance level set at P<.05. Results: Lipopolysaccharide exposure caused a significant increase in the mean±SEM middle ear fluid volume from 29.9±0.99 to 45.8±1.4 μLbetween the 2- and 6-hour samplings. Lipopolysaccharide exposure caused a significant increase in the albumin content of middle ear fluid from 70.1±19.2 to 271.0±93.1 μg between the 2- and 6-hour samplings. Both increases were significant compared with controls. Lipopolysaccharide also caused a significant increase in leukocytes localized to the middle ear mucosa. Pretreatment of animals with dexamethasone for either 2 or 24 hours inhibited the lipopolysaccharide-induced changes. There were no differences between 2- and 24-hour pretreatment with dexamethasone. Conclusions: Dexamethasone inhibits the development of endotoxin-induced otitis media with effusion.Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1997;123:41-46 References 1. Bluestone CD, Klein JO, Paradise JL, et al. Workshop on the effects of otitis media on the child . Pediatrics . 1983;71:639-652. 2. Williams LW, Chalmers TC, Strange KC, Chalmers FT, Bowlin SJ. Use of antibiotics in preventing recurrent acute otitis media and in treating otitis media with effusion: a meta-analytic attempt to resolve the brouhaha . JAMA . 1993; 270:1344-1351.Crossref 3. DeMaria TF, Briggs BR, Lim DJ, Okazaki N. Experimental otitis media with effusion following middle ear inoculation of nonviable H. influenzae . Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol . 1984;93:52-56. 4. DeMaria TF, Prior RB, Briggs BR, Lim DJ, Birck HG. Endotoxin in middle ear effusions from patients with chronic otitis media with effusion . J Clin Microbiol . 1984;20:15-17. 5. Ball SS, Prazma J, Rosbe KW, Dais CG, Pillsbury HC. Nitric oxide, a mediator of endotoxin-induced middle ear effusions . Laryngoscope . 1996;106:1021-1027.Crossref 6. Ball SS, Prazma J, Dais CG, Triana RJ, Pillsbury HC. Role of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 in endotoxin-induced middle ear effusions. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. In press. 7. Rosenfeld RM, Mandel EM, Bluestone CD. Systemic steroids for otitis media with effusion in children . Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg . 1991;117:984-989.Crossref 8. Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources . Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals . Bethesda, Md: US Dept of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health; 1995. 9. Yi ES, Ulich TR. Endotoxin, interleukin-1, and tumor necrosis factor cause neutrophil-dependent microvascular leakage in postcapillary venules . Am J Pathol . 1992;140:659-663. 10. Laszlo F, Whittle BJR, Moncada S. Time-dependent enhancement or inhibition of endotoxin-induced vascular injury in rat intestine by nitric oxide synthase inhibitors . Br J Pharmacol . 1994;111:1309-1315.Crossref 11. Harald HH, Schmidt W, Walter U. NO at work . Cell . 1994;78:919-925.Crossref 12. Ishii Y, Wang Y, Haziot A, Del Vecchio PJ, Goyert SM, Malik AB. Lipopolysaccharide binding protein and CD14 interaction induces tumor necrosis factor-α generation and neutrophil sequestration in lungs after intratracheal endotoxin . Circ Res . 1993;73:15-23.Crossref 13. Ulich TR, Guo K, Irwin B, Remick DG, Davatelis GN. Endotoxin-induced cytokine gene expression in vivo: regulation of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin1α/β expression and suppression . Am J Pathol . 1990;137:1173-1185. 14. Mitchell JA, Belvisi MG, Akarasereenont P, et al. Induction of cyclooxygenase-2 by cytokines in human pulmonary epithelial cells: regulation by dexamethasone . Br J Pharmacol . 1994;113:1008-1014.Crossref 15. Jung TTK. Prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and other arachidonic acid metabolites in the pathogenesis of otitis media . Laryngoscope . 1988;98:980-992.Crossref 16. Munro JM. Endothelial-leukocyte adhesive interactions in inflammatory diseases . Eur Heart J . 1993;14( (suppl K) ):72-77. 17. Cronstein BN, Kimmel SC, Levin RI, Martiniuk F, Weissmann G. A mechanism for the antiinflammatory effects of corticosteroids: the glucocorticoid receptor regulates leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells and expression of endothelialleukocyte adhesion molecule 1 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 . Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A . 1992;89:9991-9995.Crossref 18. Kolls J, Xie J, LeBlanc R, et al. Rapid induction of messenger RNA for nitric oxide synthase II in rat neutrophils in vivo by endotoxin and its suppression by prednisolone . Proc Soc Exp Biol Med . 1994;205:220-225.Crossref 19. Balligand J, Ungureanu-Longrois D, Simmons WW, et al. Cytokine-inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in cardiac myocytes . J Biol Chem . 1994; 269:27580-27588. 20. Vidal MJ, Zocchi MR, Poggi A, Pellegatta F, Chierchia SL. Involvement of nitric oxide in tumor cell adhesion to cytokine-activated endothelial cells . J Cardiovasc Pharmacol . 1992;20( (suppl 12) ):S155-S159.Crossref 21. Boschetto P, Rogers DF, Fabbri LM, Barnes PJ. Corticosteroid inhibition of airway microvascular leakage . Am Rev Respir Dis . 1991;143:605-609.Crossref 22. Yellon RF, Doyle WJ, Whiteside TL, Diven WF, March AR, Fireman P. Cytokines, immunoglobulins, and bacterial pathogens in middle ear effusions . Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg . 1995;121:865-869.Crossref

Journal

Archives of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck SurgeryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jan 1, 1997

References

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