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The Pro-Heroin Effects of Anti-Opium Laws in Asia

The Pro-Heroin Effects of Anti-Opium Laws in Asia Abstract • Over 25 years anti-opium laws were enacted by three Asian governments in countries where opium use was traditional. Within months, heroin use suddenly appeared; and within a decade, heroin addiction surpassed opium addiction. The laws led to (1) increased price of narcotic drugs, (2) a heroin "industry," (3) corruption of the law enforcement system, and (4) major health problems involving parenteral drug use. The Asian experience indicates that antinarcotic laws can be effective only with careful preparations: (1) changing society's attitude toward the traditional drug from ambivalence to opposition; (2) mobilizing resources to treat and rehabilitate all addicts within a short period of time; (3) developing the social will to incarcerate all "recidivist" addicts for a prolonged period; and (4) preventing narcotic production or importation. References 1. Westermeyer J: Use of alcohol and opium by the Meo of Laos . Am J Psychiatry 127:1019-1023, 1971. 2. Westermeyer J: Opium smoking in Laos: A survey of 40 addicts . Am J Psychiatry 131:165-170, 1974. 3. Westermeyer J: Opium dens: A social resource for addicts in Laos . Arch Gen Psychiatry 31:237-240, 1974.Crossref 4. Westermeyer J: Folk treatments for opium addiction in Laos . Br J Addict 68:345-349, 1973.Crossref 5. Fort J: Giver of delight or liberator of sin: Drug use and "addiction" in Asia . Bull Narc 17:1-11 6. 17:13-19, 1965. 7. Way EL: Control and treatment of drug addiction in Hong Kong , in Wilner DM, Kassebaum GG (eds): Narcotics . New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co Inc, 1965, pp 274-289. 8. Lau MP, Yap PM: An Epidemiological Study of Narcotic Addiction in Hong Kong. Hong Kong, Government Press, 1967. 9. Society for the Aid and Rehabilitation of Drug Addicts : Annual Report, January 1971-March 1972 . Hong Kong, Sarda Press, 1972. 10. Hong Kong Legislative Council: The Problem of Narcotic Drugs in Hong Kong: A White Paper, 11 Nov 1959. Hong Kong, Government Press, 1962. 11. Thanyarak Hospital Report: The Management of Drug Dependence Project. Thanyarak, Thailand, Thanyarak Hospital mimeograph report, 1972. 12. Skinner GW: Leadership and Power in the Chinese Community in Thailand . Ithica, NY, Cornell University Press, 1968. 13. Marks TA: The Meo hill tribe problem in north Thailand . Asian Survey 13:929-944, 1973.Crossref 14. Dessaint AY: The poppies are beautiful this time of year . Natural History 81:31-37, 92-96, 1972. 15. Everingham J: The Golden Triangle trade . The Asia Magazine 15:24-30, 1975. 16. Kwanmitra S, Showanasai A, Mongkolcheep S, et al: Drug Abuse in the Royal Thai Army and General Population . Bangkok, Thailand: Pramongkutklao Hospital report, 1974. 17. LeBar F, Suddard A; Laos: Its People, Its Society, Its Culture . New Haven, Conn, Human Relations Area Files Press, 1960. 18. Halpern J: Economy and Society of Laos . New York, Inblinger, 1964. 19. Westermeyer J, Soudaly C: Addiction treatment in Laos: The first year's experience. Read before the 31st International Congress on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence, Bangkok, Thailand, 1975. 20. Simmons LRS, Gold MB: The myth of international control: American foreign policy and the heroin traffic . Int J Addict 8:779-800, 1973. 21. Delaney WP: On capturing an opium king: The politics of Law Sik Han's arrest . Society 11:62-71, 1974.Crossref 22. Clayne C: Legal strategies for dealing with heroin addiction . Am Econ Rev 63:263-269, 1973. 23. Koch JV, Grupp SE: Police and illicit drug markets: Some economic considerations . Br J Addict 68:351-362, 1973.Crossref 24. Baden MM: Medical aspects of drug abuse . NY State J Med 24:464-474, 1968. 25. Helpern M, Rho Y: Death from narcotism in New York City . NY State J Med 66:2391-2408, 1966. 26. Baden MM: Narcotic abuse—a medical examiner's view . NY State J Med 72:834-840, 1972. 27. Richter RW, Pearson J, Brunn B: Neurological complications of addiction to heroin . Bull NY Acad Med 49:3-21, 1973. 28. Dreyer NP, Fields BN: Heroin-associated infective endocarditis . Ann Intern Med 78:699-702, 1973.Crossref 29. Levine SB, Grimes ET: Pulmonary edema and heroin overdose in Vietnam . Arch Pathol 95:330-332, 1973. 30. Geller SA, Stimmel B: Diagnostic confusion from lymphatic lesions in heroin addicts . Ann Intern Med 78:703-705, 1973.Crossref 31. Neviaser RJ, Butterfield WC, Wieche DR: The puffy hand of drug addiction . J Bone Joint Surg 54A:629-633, 1972. 32. Dunne JH, Johnson WC: Necrotizing skin lesions in heroin addicts . Arch Dermatol 105:544-546, 1972.Crossref 33. Cherubin C: Epidemiology of death in narcotic addicts . Am J Epidemiol 96:11-22, 1972. 34. Rosenblate HJ, Eisenstein R, Baddwin D, et al: Nonviral hepatitis in drug addicts . Arch Pathol 95:18-21, 1973. 35. Menda KB, Gorbach SL: Favorable experience with bacterial endocarditis in heroin addicts . Ann Intern Med 70:25-32, 1973.Crossref 36. Force EE, Fisher RS, Millar JW: Epidemiological and ecological study of risk factors for narcotics overdose . Arch Environ Health 26:111-119, 1973.Crossref 37. Hall JH: Acute progressive ventral positive disease in heroin abuse . Neurology 23:6-7, 1973.Crossref 38. Richter RW, Rosenberg RN: Transverse myelitis associated with heroin addiction . JAMA 206:1255-1257, 1968.Crossref 39. Kurtzman RS: Complications of narcotic addiction . Radiology 96:767-774, 1970.Crossref 40. Rosenblatt JE, Marsh VH: Induced malaria in narcotic addicts . Lancet 2:189-190, 1971.Crossref 41. Citron BP, Halpern M, McCarron M, et al: Necrotizing angitis in drug addicts . N Engl J Med 283:1003-1010, 1970.Crossref 42. Young AW, Rosenberg FR: Cutaneous stigmas of heroin addiction . Arch Dermatol 104:80-86, 1971.Crossref 43. Committee on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence: United States-Japan cooperative drug abuse study . JAMA 224:1632-1633, 1973.Crossref 44. Lowinger P: How the People's Republic of China solved the drug abuse problem . Am J Chinese Med 1:275-282, 1973.Crossref 45. Lowinger P: How the Chinese solved their drug problem . Medical Opinion , 1973, pp 81-92. 46. Kim KI: Epidemiology of addictive or habit-forming drug use in Korea . Korean Medi Assoc J 14:207-209, 1969. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of General Psychiatry American Medical Association

The Pro-Heroin Effects of Anti-Opium Laws in Asia

Archives of General Psychiatry , Volume 33 (9) – Sep 1, 1976

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1976 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-990X
eISSN
1598-3636
DOI
10.1001/archpsyc.1976.01770090125014
Publisher site
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Abstract

Abstract • Over 25 years anti-opium laws were enacted by three Asian governments in countries where opium use was traditional. Within months, heroin use suddenly appeared; and within a decade, heroin addiction surpassed opium addiction. The laws led to (1) increased price of narcotic drugs, (2) a heroin "industry," (3) corruption of the law enforcement system, and (4) major health problems involving parenteral drug use. The Asian experience indicates that antinarcotic laws can be effective only with careful preparations: (1) changing society's attitude toward the traditional drug from ambivalence to opposition; (2) mobilizing resources to treat and rehabilitate all addicts within a short period of time; (3) developing the social will to incarcerate all "recidivist" addicts for a prolonged period; and (4) preventing narcotic production or importation. References 1. Westermeyer J: Use of alcohol and opium by the Meo of Laos . Am J Psychiatry 127:1019-1023, 1971. 2. Westermeyer J: Opium smoking in Laos: A survey of 40 addicts . Am J Psychiatry 131:165-170, 1974. 3. Westermeyer J: Opium dens: A social resource for addicts in Laos . Arch Gen Psychiatry 31:237-240, 1974.Crossref 4. Westermeyer J: Folk treatments for opium addiction in Laos . Br J Addict 68:345-349, 1973.Crossref 5. Fort J: Giver of delight or liberator of sin: Drug use and "addiction" in Asia . Bull Narc 17:1-11 6. 17:13-19, 1965. 7. Way EL: Control and treatment of drug addiction in Hong Kong , in Wilner DM, Kassebaum GG (eds): Narcotics . New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co Inc, 1965, pp 274-289. 8. Lau MP, Yap PM: An Epidemiological Study of Narcotic Addiction in Hong Kong. Hong Kong, Government Press, 1967. 9. Society for the Aid and Rehabilitation of Drug Addicts : Annual Report, January 1971-March 1972 . Hong Kong, Sarda Press, 1972. 10. Hong Kong Legislative Council: The Problem of Narcotic Drugs in Hong Kong: A White Paper, 11 Nov 1959. Hong Kong, Government Press, 1962. 11. Thanyarak Hospital Report: The Management of Drug Dependence Project. Thanyarak, Thailand, Thanyarak Hospital mimeograph report, 1972. 12. Skinner GW: Leadership and Power in the Chinese Community in Thailand . Ithica, NY, Cornell University Press, 1968. 13. Marks TA: The Meo hill tribe problem in north Thailand . Asian Survey 13:929-944, 1973.Crossref 14. Dessaint AY: The poppies are beautiful this time of year . Natural History 81:31-37, 92-96, 1972. 15. Everingham J: The Golden Triangle trade . The Asia Magazine 15:24-30, 1975. 16. Kwanmitra S, Showanasai A, Mongkolcheep S, et al: Drug Abuse in the Royal Thai Army and General Population . Bangkok, Thailand: Pramongkutklao Hospital report, 1974. 17. LeBar F, Suddard A; Laos: Its People, Its Society, Its Culture . New Haven, Conn, Human Relations Area Files Press, 1960. 18. Halpern J: Economy and Society of Laos . New York, Inblinger, 1964. 19. Westermeyer J, Soudaly C: Addiction treatment in Laos: The first year's experience. Read before the 31st International Congress on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence, Bangkok, Thailand, 1975. 20. Simmons LRS, Gold MB: The myth of international control: American foreign policy and the heroin traffic . Int J Addict 8:779-800, 1973. 21. Delaney WP: On capturing an opium king: The politics of Law Sik Han's arrest . Society 11:62-71, 1974.Crossref 22. Clayne C: Legal strategies for dealing with heroin addiction . Am Econ Rev 63:263-269, 1973. 23. Koch JV, Grupp SE: Police and illicit drug markets: Some economic considerations . Br J Addict 68:351-362, 1973.Crossref 24. Baden MM: Medical aspects of drug abuse . NY State J Med 24:464-474, 1968. 25. Helpern M, Rho Y: Death from narcotism in New York City . NY State J Med 66:2391-2408, 1966. 26. Baden MM: Narcotic abuse—a medical examiner's view . NY State J Med 72:834-840, 1972. 27. Richter RW, Pearson J, Brunn B: Neurological complications of addiction to heroin . Bull NY Acad Med 49:3-21, 1973. 28. Dreyer NP, Fields BN: Heroin-associated infective endocarditis . Ann Intern Med 78:699-702, 1973.Crossref 29. Levine SB, Grimes ET: Pulmonary edema and heroin overdose in Vietnam . Arch Pathol 95:330-332, 1973. 30. Geller SA, Stimmel B: Diagnostic confusion from lymphatic lesions in heroin addicts . Ann Intern Med 78:703-705, 1973.Crossref 31. Neviaser RJ, Butterfield WC, Wieche DR: The puffy hand of drug addiction . J Bone Joint Surg 54A:629-633, 1972. 32. Dunne JH, Johnson WC: Necrotizing skin lesions in heroin addicts . Arch Dermatol 105:544-546, 1972.Crossref 33. Cherubin C: Epidemiology of death in narcotic addicts . Am J Epidemiol 96:11-22, 1972. 34. Rosenblate HJ, Eisenstein R, Baddwin D, et al: Nonviral hepatitis in drug addicts . Arch Pathol 95:18-21, 1973. 35. Menda KB, Gorbach SL: Favorable experience with bacterial endocarditis in heroin addicts . Ann Intern Med 70:25-32, 1973.Crossref 36. Force EE, Fisher RS, Millar JW: Epidemiological and ecological study of risk factors for narcotics overdose . Arch Environ Health 26:111-119, 1973.Crossref 37. Hall JH: Acute progressive ventral positive disease in heroin abuse . Neurology 23:6-7, 1973.Crossref 38. Richter RW, Rosenberg RN: Transverse myelitis associated with heroin addiction . JAMA 206:1255-1257, 1968.Crossref 39. Kurtzman RS: Complications of narcotic addiction . Radiology 96:767-774, 1970.Crossref 40. Rosenblatt JE, Marsh VH: Induced malaria in narcotic addicts . Lancet 2:189-190, 1971.Crossref 41. Citron BP, Halpern M, McCarron M, et al: Necrotizing angitis in drug addicts . N Engl J Med 283:1003-1010, 1970.Crossref 42. Young AW, Rosenberg FR: Cutaneous stigmas of heroin addiction . Arch Dermatol 104:80-86, 1971.Crossref 43. Committee on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence: United States-Japan cooperative drug abuse study . JAMA 224:1632-1633, 1973.Crossref 44. Lowinger P: How the People's Republic of China solved the drug abuse problem . Am J Chinese Med 1:275-282, 1973.Crossref 45. Lowinger P: How the Chinese solved their drug problem . Medical Opinion , 1973, pp 81-92. 46. Kim KI: Epidemiology of addictive or habit-forming drug use in Korea . Korean Medi Assoc J 14:207-209, 1969.

Journal

Archives of General PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Sep 1, 1976

References