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The Pharmacology of the Pigeon Pupil

The Pharmacology of the Pigeon Pupil Abstract The avian ciliary body and iris contain striated muscle rather than smooth muscle. Only reptiles share this unique feature.1 Both Boehm and Iske reported successful mydriasis in birds with local curare2,3; however, Wood obtained no mydriasis with either local curare or atropine, but he did report modest success with local nicotine.4 Presumably the oculomotor nerve controls the pigeon pupil, because stimulation of the oculomotor nerve, ciliary ganglion, or ciliary nerve causes miosis, while stimulation of the cervical sympathetic ganglia and fibers has no effect upon the pupil.3 This study was performed as an attempt to clarify the pharmacology of the pigeon pupil. Materials and Methods The common pigeon, Columba livia, was used. Representative skeletal muscle relaxants, parasympatholytics, sympathomimetics, and surface-active agents were selected. Five pigeons (10 eyes) were used for each drug except nicotine, in which case only 2 birds (4 eyes) were used. Two to References 1. Prince, J. H.: Comparative Anatomy of the Eye , Springfield, Ill., Charles C Thomas, Publisher, 1956. 2. Boehm, R.: Curare and Curarealkaloide, Handbuch der Experimentellen Pharmakologie , Berlin, Springer-Verlag, Vol. 2, 1920, p. 213. 3. Iske, M. S.: A Study of the Iris Mechanism of the Alligator , Anat. Rec. 44:57, 1929.Crossref 4. Wood, C. A.: The Fundus Oculi of Birds , Chicago, Lakeside Press, 1917. 5. Goodman, L. S., and Gilman, A. Z.: The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics , New York, The Macmillan Company, 1956. 6. Cogan, D. G.; Hirsch, E. O., and Kinsey, V. E.: The Cornea: VI. Permeability Characteristics of the Excised Cornea , Arch. Ophthal. 31:408, 1944.Crossref 7. O'Brien, C. S., and Swan, K. C.: Carbaminoylcholine Chloride in the Treatment of Glaucoma Simplex , Arch. Ophthal. 27:253, 1942.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Ophthalmology American Medical Association

The Pharmacology of the Pigeon Pupil

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1962 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9950
eISSN
1538-3687
DOI
10.1001/archopht.1962.00960020501020
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract The avian ciliary body and iris contain striated muscle rather than smooth muscle. Only reptiles share this unique feature.1 Both Boehm and Iske reported successful mydriasis in birds with local curare2,3; however, Wood obtained no mydriasis with either local curare or atropine, but he did report modest success with local nicotine.4 Presumably the oculomotor nerve controls the pigeon pupil, because stimulation of the oculomotor nerve, ciliary ganglion, or ciliary nerve causes miosis, while stimulation of the cervical sympathetic ganglia and fibers has no effect upon the pupil.3 This study was performed as an attempt to clarify the pharmacology of the pigeon pupil. Materials and Methods The common pigeon, Columba livia, was used. Representative skeletal muscle relaxants, parasympatholytics, sympathomimetics, and surface-active agents were selected. Five pigeons (10 eyes) were used for each drug except nicotine, in which case only 2 birds (4 eyes) were used. Two to References 1. Prince, J. H.: Comparative Anatomy of the Eye , Springfield, Ill., Charles C Thomas, Publisher, 1956. 2. Boehm, R.: Curare and Curarealkaloide, Handbuch der Experimentellen Pharmakologie , Berlin, Springer-Verlag, Vol. 2, 1920, p. 213. 3. Iske, M. S.: A Study of the Iris Mechanism of the Alligator , Anat. Rec. 44:57, 1929.Crossref 4. Wood, C. A.: The Fundus Oculi of Birds , Chicago, Lakeside Press, 1917. 5. Goodman, L. S., and Gilman, A. Z.: The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics , New York, The Macmillan Company, 1956. 6. Cogan, D. G.; Hirsch, E. O., and Kinsey, V. E.: The Cornea: VI. Permeability Characteristics of the Excised Cornea , Arch. Ophthal. 31:408, 1944.Crossref 7. O'Brien, C. S., and Swan, K. C.: Carbaminoylcholine Chloride in the Treatment of Glaucoma Simplex , Arch. Ophthal. 27:253, 1942.Crossref

Journal

Archives of OphthalmologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Apr 1, 1962

References