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The Management of Hospital-Acquired Staphylococcal Infections

The Management of Hospital-Acquired Staphylococcal Infections Abstract Two conclusions regarding staphylococcal infections appear to be increasingly clear. One is that staphylococci are producing significant numbers of infections among hospitalized patients in all parts of the civilized world, and the other is that the control of this problem requires more than good medical care of the individually infected patient by his personal physician. The increased concern over staphylococcal disease is evidenced by the number of reports of hospital outbreaks appearing in the medical literature.1-8 In some hospitals the incidence of infections has reached epidemic proportions, and in others there has been an insidious but definite increase in the number of infections following surgical procedures, complicating viral infections and chronic pulmonary diseases, and associated with the parenteral administration of fluids and drugs. Hospital personnel have contracted infections from patients and in turn spread infection to other patients and members of their families. The relative importance of the various References 1. Members of the Standing Committee on Infections and Antimicrobial Therapy: Dr. Phil Davis, Dr. James D. McMurrey, Dr. Martha Yow, Dr. Harold Daily, Dr. Benjamin Sher, Dr. George Ellis, Dr. John Gannon, Dr. John Vaughn, Dr. James Crawley, Dr. John Knox, Dr. Russell Scott Jr., Dr. Robert R. Jackson, Dr. Moses Ashkenazy, Dr. Ben T. Withers, Dr. Don Ford, Dr. Jane Telford, Miss Elinor Hamner, Mrs. Dorothy Harper, Mr. A. S. Reaves, Dr. S. B. Hardy, Dr. William Bell, Dr. Richard Eppright, Dr. Harry Davis, and Dr. Ellard M. Yow. 2. Phage typing was performed by Dr. J. V. Irons, Director of Laboratories, State of Texas Department of Health, Austin, Texas. 3. Oleandomycin was supplied by Pfizer Laboratories, Division of Chas. Pfizer & Company, Inc., as Tao and by Wyeth Laboratories, Inc., as Cyclamycin. 4. Vancomycin was supplied by Eli Lilly & Company as Vancocin. 5. Kanamycin was supplied by Bristol Laboratories, Inc., as Kantrex. 6. Ristocetin was supplied by Abbott Laboratories as Spontin. 7. Spink, W. W.: Clinical Problems of Antimicrobial-Resistant Staphylococci , Ann. New York Acad. Sc. 65:175-190 ( (Aug. 31) ) 1956.Crossref 8. Finland, M., and Jones, W. F., Jr.: Staphylococcal Infections Currently Encountered in Large Municipal Hospital: Some Problems in Evaluating Anti-Microbial Therapy in Such Infections , Ann. New York Acad. Sc. 65:191-205 ( (Aug. 31) ) 1956.Crossref 9. Ravenholt, R. T.: Staphylococcal Infections in Hospital and Community: Hospital Environment and Staphylococcal Disease , Am. J. Pub. Health 48:277-287 ( (March) ) 1958.Crossref 10. Caswell, H. T.; Schreck, K. M.; Burnett, W. E.; Carrington, E. R.; Learner, S.; Steel, H. H.; Tyson, R. R., and Wright, W. C.: Bacteriological and Clinical Experiences and the Methods of Control of Hospital Infections Due to Antibiotic-Resistant Staphylococci , Surg. Gynec. & Obst. 106:1-10 ( (Jan.) ) 1958. 11. Wysham, D. N.; Mulhern, M. E.; Navare, G. C.; La Veck, G. G.; Hennan, A. L., and Giedt, W. R.: Staphylococcal Infections in an Obstetric Unit , New England J. Med. 257:295-306 ( (Aug. 15) ) 1957. 12. Shaffer, T. E.; Baldwin, J. N.; Rheins, M. S., and Sylvester, R. F., Jr.: Staphylococcal Infections in Newborn Infants: I. Study of Epidemic Among 1 Nurses and Mothers , Pediatrics 18:750-761 ( (Nov.) ) 1956. 13. Mathew, A. G., and Manessis, C.: Experience with Staphylococcal Infections in Maternity Hospital , M. J. Australia 2:781-786 ( (Nov. 24) ) 1956. 14. Wentworth, F. H.; Miller, A. L., and Wentworth, B. B.: Observations Relative to the Nature and Control of Epidemic Staphylococcal Disease , Am. J. Pub. Health 48:287-298 ( (March) ) 1958. 15. Loh, W. P., and Street, R. B. J.: Study of Use of Antimicrobial Agents in Community Hospital , N. England J. Med. 251:659-660 ( (Oct. 14) ) 1954. 16. Yow, E. M.: Development of Proteus and Pseudomonas Infections During Antibiotic Therapy , J. A. M. A. 149:1184-1188 ( (July 26) ) 1952. 17. Yow, E. M.: Clinical Significance of Rising Incidence of Infections Due to Gram-Negative Bacilli , Postgrad. Med. 17:413-419 ( (May) ) 1955. 18. Barton, J: What to do About Hospital Infections , Mod. Hosp. 90:51 ( (March) ) 1958. 19. Brown, J. W.: Hygiene and Education Within Hospitals to Prevent Staphylococcic Infections , J. A. M. A. 166:1185-1191 ( (March 8) ) 1958. 20. Barber, M., and Burston, J.: Antibiotic-Resistant Staphylococcal Infection: Study of Antibiotic Sensitivity in Relationship to Bacteriophage Types , Lancet 2:578-583 ( (Sept. 17) ) 1955. 21. Bass, J. A.; Stinebring, W. R.; Willard, C., and Felton, H. M.: Epidemiologic Study of a Hospital Outbreak of Micrococcic Infections , J. A. M. A. 166:731-734 ( (Feb. 15) ) 1958. 22. Rountree, P. N.; Hesseltine, M.; Rheuben, J., and Shearman, R. P.: The Control of Staphylococcal Infections of Newborn by the Treatment of Nasal Carriers in the Staff , M. J. Australia 1:528-532 ( (March 31) ) 1956. 23. Wise, R. I.: Principles of Management of Staphylococcic Infections , J. A. M. A. 166:1178-1182 ( (March 8) ) 1956. 24. Yow, M. D., and Womack, G. K.: The Use of Kanamycin in a Staphylococcal Epidemic in Infants and Children , Ann. New York Acad. Sc. , to be published. 25. Yow, E. M., and Monzon, O. T.: Clinical and Laboratory Evaluation of Kanamycin in Resistant Bacterial Infections , Ann. New York Acad. Sc. , to be published. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png A.M.A. Archives of Internal Medicine American Medical Association

The Management of Hospital-Acquired Staphylococcal Infections

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1958 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0888-2479
DOI
10.1001/archinte.1958.00260230094013
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract Two conclusions regarding staphylococcal infections appear to be increasingly clear. One is that staphylococci are producing significant numbers of infections among hospitalized patients in all parts of the civilized world, and the other is that the control of this problem requires more than good medical care of the individually infected patient by his personal physician. The increased concern over staphylococcal disease is evidenced by the number of reports of hospital outbreaks appearing in the medical literature.1-8 In some hospitals the incidence of infections has reached epidemic proportions, and in others there has been an insidious but definite increase in the number of infections following surgical procedures, complicating viral infections and chronic pulmonary diseases, and associated with the parenteral administration of fluids and drugs. Hospital personnel have contracted infections from patients and in turn spread infection to other patients and members of their families. The relative importance of the various References 1. Members of the Standing Committee on Infections and Antimicrobial Therapy: Dr. Phil Davis, Dr. James D. McMurrey, Dr. Martha Yow, Dr. Harold Daily, Dr. Benjamin Sher, Dr. George Ellis, Dr. John Gannon, Dr. John Vaughn, Dr. James Crawley, Dr. John Knox, Dr. Russell Scott Jr., Dr. Robert R. Jackson, Dr. Moses Ashkenazy, Dr. Ben T. Withers, Dr. Don Ford, Dr. Jane Telford, Miss Elinor Hamner, Mrs. Dorothy Harper, Mr. A. S. Reaves, Dr. S. B. Hardy, Dr. William Bell, Dr. Richard Eppright, Dr. Harry Davis, and Dr. Ellard M. Yow. 2. Phage typing was performed by Dr. J. V. Irons, Director of Laboratories, State of Texas Department of Health, Austin, Texas. 3. Oleandomycin was supplied by Pfizer Laboratories, Division of Chas. Pfizer & Company, Inc., as Tao and by Wyeth Laboratories, Inc., as Cyclamycin. 4. Vancomycin was supplied by Eli Lilly & Company as Vancocin. 5. Kanamycin was supplied by Bristol Laboratories, Inc., as Kantrex. 6. Ristocetin was supplied by Abbott Laboratories as Spontin. 7. Spink, W. W.: Clinical Problems of Antimicrobial-Resistant Staphylococci , Ann. New York Acad. Sc. 65:175-190 ( (Aug. 31) ) 1956.Crossref 8. Finland, M., and Jones, W. F., Jr.: Staphylococcal Infections Currently Encountered in Large Municipal Hospital: Some Problems in Evaluating Anti-Microbial Therapy in Such Infections , Ann. New York Acad. Sc. 65:191-205 ( (Aug. 31) ) 1956.Crossref 9. Ravenholt, R. T.: Staphylococcal Infections in Hospital and Community: Hospital Environment and Staphylococcal Disease , Am. J. Pub. Health 48:277-287 ( (March) ) 1958.Crossref 10. Caswell, H. T.; Schreck, K. M.; Burnett, W. E.; Carrington, E. R.; Learner, S.; Steel, H. H.; Tyson, R. R., and Wright, W. C.: Bacteriological and Clinical Experiences and the Methods of Control of Hospital Infections Due to Antibiotic-Resistant Staphylococci , Surg. Gynec. & Obst. 106:1-10 ( (Jan.) ) 1958. 11. Wysham, D. N.; Mulhern, M. E.; Navare, G. C.; La Veck, G. G.; Hennan, A. L., and Giedt, W. R.: Staphylococcal Infections in an Obstetric Unit , New England J. Med. 257:295-306 ( (Aug. 15) ) 1957. 12. Shaffer, T. E.; Baldwin, J. N.; Rheins, M. S., and Sylvester, R. F., Jr.: Staphylococcal Infections in Newborn Infants: I. Study of Epidemic Among 1 Nurses and Mothers , Pediatrics 18:750-761 ( (Nov.) ) 1956. 13. Mathew, A. G., and Manessis, C.: Experience with Staphylococcal Infections in Maternity Hospital , M. J. Australia 2:781-786 ( (Nov. 24) ) 1956. 14. Wentworth, F. H.; Miller, A. L., and Wentworth, B. B.: Observations Relative to the Nature and Control of Epidemic Staphylococcal Disease , Am. J. Pub. Health 48:287-298 ( (March) ) 1958. 15. Loh, W. P., and Street, R. B. J.: Study of Use of Antimicrobial Agents in Community Hospital , N. England J. Med. 251:659-660 ( (Oct. 14) ) 1954. 16. Yow, E. M.: Development of Proteus and Pseudomonas Infections During Antibiotic Therapy , J. A. M. A. 149:1184-1188 ( (July 26) ) 1952. 17. Yow, E. M.: Clinical Significance of Rising Incidence of Infections Due to Gram-Negative Bacilli , Postgrad. Med. 17:413-419 ( (May) ) 1955. 18. Barton, J: What to do About Hospital Infections , Mod. Hosp. 90:51 ( (March) ) 1958. 19. Brown, J. W.: Hygiene and Education Within Hospitals to Prevent Staphylococcic Infections , J. A. M. A. 166:1185-1191 ( (March 8) ) 1958. 20. Barber, M., and Burston, J.: Antibiotic-Resistant Staphylococcal Infection: Study of Antibiotic Sensitivity in Relationship to Bacteriophage Types , Lancet 2:578-583 ( (Sept. 17) ) 1955. 21. Bass, J. A.; Stinebring, W. R.; Willard, C., and Felton, H. M.: Epidemiologic Study of a Hospital Outbreak of Micrococcic Infections , J. A. M. A. 166:731-734 ( (Feb. 15) ) 1958. 22. Rountree, P. N.; Hesseltine, M.; Rheuben, J., and Shearman, R. P.: The Control of Staphylococcal Infections of Newborn by the Treatment of Nasal Carriers in the Staff , M. J. Australia 1:528-532 ( (March 31) ) 1956. 23. Wise, R. I.: Principles of Management of Staphylococcic Infections , J. A. M. A. 166:1178-1182 ( (March 8) ) 1956. 24. Yow, M. D., and Womack, G. K.: The Use of Kanamycin in a Staphylococcal Epidemic in Infants and Children , Ann. New York Acad. Sc. , to be published. 25. Yow, E. M., and Monzon, O. T.: Clinical and Laboratory Evaluation of Kanamycin in Resistant Bacterial Infections , Ann. New York Acad. Sc. , to be published.

Journal

A.M.A. Archives of Internal MedicineAmerican Medical Association

Published: Dec 1, 1958

References