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The Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation: A Comprehensive Method for Assessing Outcome in Prospective Longitudinal Studies

The Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation: A Comprehensive Method for Assessing Outcome in... Abstract • The Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation (LIFE) is an integrated system for assessing the longitudinal course of psychiatric disorders. It consists of a semistructured interview, an instruction booklet, a coding sheet, and a set of training materials. An interviewer uses the LIFE to collect detailed psychosocial, psychopathologic, and treatment information for a six-month follow-up interval. The weekly psychopathology measures ("psychiatric status ratings") are ordinal symptom-based scales with categories defined to match the levels of symptoms used in the Research Diagnostic Criteria. The ratings provide a separate, concurrent record of the course of each disorder initially diagnosed in patients or developing during the follow-up. Any DSM-III or Research Diagnostic Criteria disorder can be rated with the LIFE, and any length or number of follow-up intervals can be accommodated. The psychosocial and treatment information is recorded so that these data can be linked temporally to the psychiatric status ratings. References 1. Kraepelin E: Manic-Depressive Insanity and Paranoia . Edinburgh, E & S Livingstone, 1921. 2. Robins E, Guze SB: Classification of affective disorders: The primarysecondary, the endogenous-reactive, and the neurotic-psychotic , in Williams TA, Katz MM, Shield JA (eds): Recent Advances in the Psychobiology of the Depressive Illnesses , Dept of Health, Education, and Welfare publication 145 M. 1972. 3. Zis AP, Goodwin FK: Major affective disorder as a recurrent illness: A critical review . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1979;36:835-839.Crossref 4. Klerman GL: Affective disorders , in Kaplan A, Freedman A, Sadock B (eds): Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry , ed 3. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Co, 1980, vol 2, pp 1305-1319. 5. Beck AT, Ward CH, Mendelson M, Muck J, Erbaugh J: An inventory for measuring depression . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1961;4:516-571.Crossref 6. Hamilton M: A rating scale for depression . J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1960;23:56-62.Crossref 7. Zung WWK: A self-rating depression scale . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1965;12:63-70.Crossref 8. Endicott J, Spitzer RL: A diagnostic interview: The Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1978;35:837-844.Crossref 9. Spitzer RL, Endicott J: Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia: Life-time Version , ed 3. New York, Biometrics Research Division, New York State Psychiatric Institute, 1979. 10. Robins LN, Helzer JE, Croughan J, Ratcliff K: National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule: Its history, characteristics and validity . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1981;38:381-389.Crossref 11. Spitzer RL, Endicott J, Robins E: Research Diagnostic Criteria: Rationale and reliability . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1978;35:773-782.Crossref 12. American Psychiatric Association Committee on Nomenclature and Statistics: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , ed 3. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 1980. 13. Shapiro R, Keller M: Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation (LIFE) . Boston, Massachusetts General Hospital, 1979. 14. Weissman MM: The assessment of social adjustment: A review of techniques . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1975;32:357-365.Crossref 15. Weissman MM, Sholomskas D: The assessment of social adjustment: An update . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1981;38:1250-1258.Crossref 16. Weissman MM, Sholomskas D: The assessment of social adjustment by the clinician, the patient and the family , in Burdock EI, Sudilovsky A, Gershon S (eds): The Behavior of Psychiatric Patients: Quantitative Techniques for Evaluation . New York, Marcel Dekker Inc, 1982, chap 10. 17. Hirschfeld RMA, Klerman GL, Schless AP, Endicott J, Lichtenstaedt S, Clayton PJ: Modified Life Events Section of Psychiatric Epidemiology Research Interview (PERI-M) . Rockville, Md, National Institute of Mental Health Clinical Research Branch, 1977. 18. Keller MB, Shapiro RW: Initial results from a one-year prospective naturalistic follow-up study . J Nerv Ment Dis 1981;12:761-768.Crossref 19. Keller MB, Shapiro RW: Double depression: Superimposition of acute depressive episodes on chronic depressive disorders . Am J Psychiatry 1982;139:438-442. 20. Keller MB, Shapiro RW, Lavori PW, Wolfe N: Recovery in RDC major depressive disorder: Analysis with the life table and regression models . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1982;39:905-910.Crossref 21. Keller MB, Shapiro RW, Lavori PW, Wolfe N: Relapse in RDC major depressive disorder: Analysis with the life table . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1982;39:911-915.Crossref 22. Keller MB, Lavori PW, Klerman GL, Andreasen NC, Endicott J, Coryell W, Fawcett J, Rice JP, Hirschfeld RMA: Low levels and lack of predictors of somatotherapy and psychotherapy received by depressed patients . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1986;43:458-466.Crossref 23. Keller MB, Klerman GL, Lavori PW, Coryell W, Endicott J, Taylor J: Long-term outcome of episodes of major depression: Clinical and public health significance . JAMA 1984;252:788-792.Crossref 24. Keller MB, Klerman GL, Lavori PW, Fawcett JA, Coryell W, Endicott J: Treatment received by depressed patients . JAMA 1982;248:1848-1855.Crossref 25. Keller MB, Shapiro RW: LIFE Base Schedule . Boston, Massachusetts General Hospital, 1979. 26. Endicott J, Spitzer R, Fleiss J, Cohen J: The Global Assessment Scale: A procedure for measuring overall severity of psychiatric disturbance . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1977;33:766-771.Crossref 27. Keller MB, Lavori PW, McDonald-Scott P: The reliability of retrospective treatment reports . Psychiatry Res 1983;9:81-88.Crossref 28. Shrout PE, Fleiss JL: Intraclass correlations: Uses in assessing rater reliability . Psychol Bull 1979;86:420-428.Crossref 29. Cohen J, Cohen P: Applied Multiple Regression/Correlation Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences . Hillsdale, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers, 1975, pp 102-111. 30. Grove WM, Andreasen NC, McDonald-Scott P, Keller MB, Shapiro RW: Reliability studies of psychiatric diagnoses: Theory and practice . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1981;38:408-413.Crossref 31. Andreasen NC, Grove WM, Shapiro RW, Keller MB, Hirschfeld RMA, McDonald-Scott P: Reliability of lifetime diagnosis: A multicenter collaborative perspective . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1978;38:400-405.Crossref 32. Keller MB, Lavori PW, Andreasen NC, Grove WM, Shapiro RW, Scheftner WA, McDonald-Scott P: Test-retest reliability of assessing psychiatrically ill patients in a multi-center design . J Psychiatr Res 1981;16:213-227.Crossref 33. Cook TD, Campbell TD: Quasi-Experimentation: Design and Analysis Issues for Field Settings . Boston, Houghton Mifflin Co, 1979. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of General Psychiatry American Medical Association

The Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation: A Comprehensive Method for Assessing Outcome in Prospective Longitudinal Studies

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1987 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-990X
eISSN
1598-3636
DOI
10.1001/archpsyc.1987.01800180050009
Publisher site
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Abstract

Abstract • The Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation (LIFE) is an integrated system for assessing the longitudinal course of psychiatric disorders. It consists of a semistructured interview, an instruction booklet, a coding sheet, and a set of training materials. An interviewer uses the LIFE to collect detailed psychosocial, psychopathologic, and treatment information for a six-month follow-up interval. The weekly psychopathology measures ("psychiatric status ratings") are ordinal symptom-based scales with categories defined to match the levels of symptoms used in the Research Diagnostic Criteria. The ratings provide a separate, concurrent record of the course of each disorder initially diagnosed in patients or developing during the follow-up. Any DSM-III or Research Diagnostic Criteria disorder can be rated with the LIFE, and any length or number of follow-up intervals can be accommodated. The psychosocial and treatment information is recorded so that these data can be linked temporally to the psychiatric status ratings. References 1. Kraepelin E: Manic-Depressive Insanity and Paranoia . Edinburgh, E & S Livingstone, 1921. 2. Robins E, Guze SB: Classification of affective disorders: The primarysecondary, the endogenous-reactive, and the neurotic-psychotic , in Williams TA, Katz MM, Shield JA (eds): Recent Advances in the Psychobiology of the Depressive Illnesses , Dept of Health, Education, and Welfare publication 145 M. 1972. 3. Zis AP, Goodwin FK: Major affective disorder as a recurrent illness: A critical review . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1979;36:835-839.Crossref 4. Klerman GL: Affective disorders , in Kaplan A, Freedman A, Sadock B (eds): Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry , ed 3. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Co, 1980, vol 2, pp 1305-1319. 5. Beck AT, Ward CH, Mendelson M, Muck J, Erbaugh J: An inventory for measuring depression . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1961;4:516-571.Crossref 6. Hamilton M: A rating scale for depression . J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1960;23:56-62.Crossref 7. Zung WWK: A self-rating depression scale . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1965;12:63-70.Crossref 8. Endicott J, Spitzer RL: A diagnostic interview: The Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1978;35:837-844.Crossref 9. Spitzer RL, Endicott J: Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia: Life-time Version , ed 3. New York, Biometrics Research Division, New York State Psychiatric Institute, 1979. 10. Robins LN, Helzer JE, Croughan J, Ratcliff K: National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule: Its history, characteristics and validity . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1981;38:381-389.Crossref 11. Spitzer RL, Endicott J, Robins E: Research Diagnostic Criteria: Rationale and reliability . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1978;35:773-782.Crossref 12. American Psychiatric Association Committee on Nomenclature and Statistics: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , ed 3. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 1980. 13. Shapiro R, Keller M: Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation (LIFE) . Boston, Massachusetts General Hospital, 1979. 14. Weissman MM: The assessment of social adjustment: A review of techniques . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1975;32:357-365.Crossref 15. Weissman MM, Sholomskas D: The assessment of social adjustment: An update . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1981;38:1250-1258.Crossref 16. Weissman MM, Sholomskas D: The assessment of social adjustment by the clinician, the patient and the family , in Burdock EI, Sudilovsky A, Gershon S (eds): The Behavior of Psychiatric Patients: Quantitative Techniques for Evaluation . New York, Marcel Dekker Inc, 1982, chap 10. 17. Hirschfeld RMA, Klerman GL, Schless AP, Endicott J, Lichtenstaedt S, Clayton PJ: Modified Life Events Section of Psychiatric Epidemiology Research Interview (PERI-M) . Rockville, Md, National Institute of Mental Health Clinical Research Branch, 1977. 18. Keller MB, Shapiro RW: Initial results from a one-year prospective naturalistic follow-up study . J Nerv Ment Dis 1981;12:761-768.Crossref 19. Keller MB, Shapiro RW: Double depression: Superimposition of acute depressive episodes on chronic depressive disorders . Am J Psychiatry 1982;139:438-442. 20. Keller MB, Shapiro RW, Lavori PW, Wolfe N: Recovery in RDC major depressive disorder: Analysis with the life table and regression models . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1982;39:905-910.Crossref 21. Keller MB, Shapiro RW, Lavori PW, Wolfe N: Relapse in RDC major depressive disorder: Analysis with the life table . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1982;39:911-915.Crossref 22. Keller MB, Lavori PW, Klerman GL, Andreasen NC, Endicott J, Coryell W, Fawcett J, Rice JP, Hirschfeld RMA: Low levels and lack of predictors of somatotherapy and psychotherapy received by depressed patients . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1986;43:458-466.Crossref 23. Keller MB, Klerman GL, Lavori PW, Coryell W, Endicott J, Taylor J: Long-term outcome of episodes of major depression: Clinical and public health significance . JAMA 1984;252:788-792.Crossref 24. Keller MB, Klerman GL, Lavori PW, Fawcett JA, Coryell W, Endicott J: Treatment received by depressed patients . JAMA 1982;248:1848-1855.Crossref 25. Keller MB, Shapiro RW: LIFE Base Schedule . Boston, Massachusetts General Hospital, 1979. 26. Endicott J, Spitzer R, Fleiss J, Cohen J: The Global Assessment Scale: A procedure for measuring overall severity of psychiatric disturbance . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1977;33:766-771.Crossref 27. Keller MB, Lavori PW, McDonald-Scott P: The reliability of retrospective treatment reports . Psychiatry Res 1983;9:81-88.Crossref 28. Shrout PE, Fleiss JL: Intraclass correlations: Uses in assessing rater reliability . Psychol Bull 1979;86:420-428.Crossref 29. Cohen J, Cohen P: Applied Multiple Regression/Correlation Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences . Hillsdale, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers, 1975, pp 102-111. 30. Grove WM, Andreasen NC, McDonald-Scott P, Keller MB, Shapiro RW: Reliability studies of psychiatric diagnoses: Theory and practice . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1981;38:408-413.Crossref 31. Andreasen NC, Grove WM, Shapiro RW, Keller MB, Hirschfeld RMA, McDonald-Scott P: Reliability of lifetime diagnosis: A multicenter collaborative perspective . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1978;38:400-405.Crossref 32. Keller MB, Lavori PW, Andreasen NC, Grove WM, Shapiro RW, Scheftner WA, McDonald-Scott P: Test-retest reliability of assessing psychiatrically ill patients in a multi-center design . J Psychiatr Res 1981;16:213-227.Crossref 33. Cook TD, Campbell TD: Quasi-Experimentation: Design and Analysis Issues for Field Settings . Boston, Houghton Mifflin Co, 1979.

Journal

Archives of General PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jun 1, 1987

References