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The Long-term Effects of Visible Light on the Eye

The Long-term Effects of Visible Light on the Eye Abstract • The relationship between exposure to sunlight and senile cataract, age-related macular degeneration, pterygium, and climatic droplet keratopathy was examined in 838 watermen who work on the Chesapeake Bay. The presence and severity of lenticular, corneal, and macular changes were assessed by either clinical examination or from stereo macular photographs. From detailed exposure histories, ocular exposure was estimated for three bands of visible radiation—violet (400 to 450 nm), blue (400 to 500 nm), or all visible (400 to 700 nm)—as well as for UV-A (320 to 340 nm) and UV-B (290 to 320 nm). The results with each band of visible radiation were similar. Neither cortical nor nuclear cataract was associated with ocular exposure to blue or all visible radiation, but pterygium and climatic droplet keratopathy were more common with higher exposures. Compared with age-matched controls, patients with advanced age-related macular degeneration (geographic atrophy or disciform scarring) had significantly higher exposure to blue or visible light over the preceding 20 years (odds ratio, 1.36 [1.00 to 1.85]) but were not different in respect to exposure to UV-A or UV-B. These data suggest that high levels of exposure to blue or visible light may cause ocular damage, especially later in life, and may be related to the development of age-related macular degeneration. References 1. Van Heyningen R. The human lens, I: a comparison of cataracts extracted in Oxford (England) and Shikapur (W.Pakistan) . Exp Eye Res . 1972;13:136-147.Crossref 2. Hiller R, Giacometti L, Yuen K. Sunlight and cataract: an epidemiologic investigation . Am J Epidemiol . 1977;105:450-459. 3. Zigman S, Datiles M, Torczynski E. Sunlight and human cataracts . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1979;18:462-467. 4. Taylor HR. The environment and the lens . Br J Ophthalmol . 1980;64:303-310.Crossref 5. Hollows F, Moran D. Cataract—the ultraviolet risk factor . Lancet . 1981;2:1249-1250.Crossref 6. Hiller R, Sperduto RD, Ederer F. Epidemiologic associations with nuclear, cortical and posterior subcapsular cataracts . Am J Epidemiol . 1986;124:916-925. 7. Taylor HR, West SK, Rosenthal FS, et al. Effect of ultraviolet radiation on cataract formation . N Engl J Med . 1988;319:1429-1433.Crossref 8. Anderson JR. A pterygium map . Acta Ophthalmol . 1954;3:1631-1642. 9. Cameron ME. Histology of pterygium: an electron microscopic study . Br J Ophthalmol . 1983;67:604-608.Crossref 10. Taylor HR. Aetiology of climatic droplet keratopathy and pterygium . Br J Ophthalmol . 1980;64:154-163.Crossref 11. Moran DJ, Hollows FC. Pterygium and ultraviolet radiation: a positive correlation . Br J Ophthalmol . 1984;68:343-346.Crossref 12. Klintworth GK. The cornea: structure and macromolecules in health and disease . Am J Pathol . 1977;89:717-808. 13. Johnson GJ, Ghosh M. Labrador keratopathy: clinical and pathological findings . Can J Ophthalmol . 1975;10:119-135. 14. Johnson GJ, Overall M. Histology of spheroidal degeneration of the cornea in Labrador . Br J Ophthalmol . 1978;62:53-61.Crossref 15. Taylor HR, West SK, Rosenthal FS, Muñoz B, Newland HS, Emmett EA. Corneal changes associated with chronic ultraviolet radiation . Arch Ophthalmol . 1989;107:1481-1484.Crossref 16. Tso MOM. Photic maculopathy in rhesus monkeys: a light and electron microscopic study . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1973;12:14-34. 17. Ham WT Jr, Mueller HA, Ruffolo JJ, Guerry D III, Guerry RK. Action spectrum for retinal injury from near-ultraviolet radiation in aphakic monkey . Am J Ophthalmol . 1982;933:299-306. 18. Tso MOM. Experiments on visual cells by nature and man: in search of treatment for photoreceptor degeneration . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1989;30:2430-2454. 19. Ewald RA, Ritchey CL. Sun gazing as the cause of foveo-macular retinitis . Am J Ophthalmol . 1970;70:491-497. 20. Noell WK. Possible mechanisms of photoreceptor damage by light in mammalian eyes . Vision Res . 1980;20:1163-1171.Crossref 21. Lawwill T. Three major pathologic processes caused by light in the primate retina: a search for mechanisms . Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc . 1982;80:517-579. 22. Ham WT Jr, Mueller HA, Sliney DH. Retinal sensitivity to damage from short wavelength light . Nature . 1976;260:153-155.Crossref 23. Boettner EA, Wolter JR. Transmission of the ocular media . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1962;1:776-783. 24. Werner JS, Steele VG, Pfoff DS. Loss of human photoreceptor sensitivity associated with chronic exposure to ultraviolet radiation . Ophthalmology . 1989;96:1552-1558.Crossref 25. Liu IY, White L, LaCroix AZ. The association of age-related macular degeneration and lens opacities in the aged . Am J Public Health . 1989;79:765-769.Crossref 26. West SK, Rosenthal FS, Bressler NM, et al. Exposure to sunlight and other risk factors for age-related macular degeneration . Arch Ophthalmol . 1989;107:875-879.Crossref 27. Rosenthal FS, West SK, Munõz B, Emmett EA, Strickland PT, Taylor HR. Ocular and facial skin exposure to ultraviolet radiation in sunlight: a personal exposure model with application to a worker population . Health Physics . 1991;61:77-86.Crossref 28. West SK, Rosenthal F, Newland HS, Taylor HR. Use of photographic techniques to grade nuclear cataracts . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1988;29:73-77. 29. Taylor HR, West SK. A simple system for the clinical grading of lens opacities . Lens Res . 1988;5:175-181. 30. Bressler NM, Bressler SB, West SK, Fine SL, Taylor HR. The grading and prevalence of macular degeneration in Chesapeake Bay watermen . Arch Ophthalmol . 1989;107:847-852.Crossref 31. Green AES, Chai S. Solar spectral irradiance, visible and infrared regions . Photochem Photobiol . 1988;48:477-486.Crossref 32. Rosenthal FS, Phoon C, Bakalian AE, Taylor HR. The ocular dose of ultraviolet radiation to outdoor workers . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1988;29:649-656. 33. Rosenthal FS, Bakalian A, Taylor HR. The effect of prescription eyewear on ocular UV exposure . Am J Public Health . 1986;76:1216-1220.Crossref 34. Smith AH, Waxweiler RJ, Tyroler HA. Epidemiologic investigation of occupational carcinogenesis using a serially additive expected dose model . Am J Epidemiol . 1980;112:787-797. 35. Sliney DH. Eye protective techniques for bright light . Ophthalmology . 1983;90:937-944.Crossref 36. Chylack LT, Ransil BJ, White O. Classification of human senile cataractous change by the American Cooperative Cataract Research Group (CCRG) method, III: the association of nuclear color (sclerosis) with extent of cataract formation, age, and visual acuity . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1984;25:174-180. 37. Taylor HR. Climatic droplet keratopathy and pterygium . Aust J Ophthalmol . 1981;9:199-206.Crossref 38. Young RW. Solar radiation and age-related macular degeneration . Surv Ophthalmol . 1988;32:252-269.Crossref 39. Gottsch JD, Pou S, Bynoe LA, Rosen GM. Hematogenous photosensitization: a mechanism for the development of age related macular degeneration . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1990;31:1674-1682. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Ophthalmology American Medical Association

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1992 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9950
eISSN
1538-3687
DOI
10.1001/archopht.1992.01080130101035
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract • The relationship between exposure to sunlight and senile cataract, age-related macular degeneration, pterygium, and climatic droplet keratopathy was examined in 838 watermen who work on the Chesapeake Bay. The presence and severity of lenticular, corneal, and macular changes were assessed by either clinical examination or from stereo macular photographs. From detailed exposure histories, ocular exposure was estimated for three bands of visible radiation—violet (400 to 450 nm), blue (400 to 500 nm), or all visible (400 to 700 nm)—as well as for UV-A (320 to 340 nm) and UV-B (290 to 320 nm). The results with each band of visible radiation were similar. Neither cortical nor nuclear cataract was associated with ocular exposure to blue or all visible radiation, but pterygium and climatic droplet keratopathy were more common with higher exposures. Compared with age-matched controls, patients with advanced age-related macular degeneration (geographic atrophy or disciform scarring) had significantly higher exposure to blue or visible light over the preceding 20 years (odds ratio, 1.36 [1.00 to 1.85]) but were not different in respect to exposure to UV-A or UV-B. These data suggest that high levels of exposure to blue or visible light may cause ocular damage, especially later in life, and may be related to the development of age-related macular degeneration. References 1. Van Heyningen R. The human lens, I: a comparison of cataracts extracted in Oxford (England) and Shikapur (W.Pakistan) . Exp Eye Res . 1972;13:136-147.Crossref 2. Hiller R, Giacometti L, Yuen K. Sunlight and cataract: an epidemiologic investigation . Am J Epidemiol . 1977;105:450-459. 3. Zigman S, Datiles M, Torczynski E. Sunlight and human cataracts . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1979;18:462-467. 4. Taylor HR. The environment and the lens . Br J Ophthalmol . 1980;64:303-310.Crossref 5. Hollows F, Moran D. Cataract—the ultraviolet risk factor . Lancet . 1981;2:1249-1250.Crossref 6. Hiller R, Sperduto RD, Ederer F. Epidemiologic associations with nuclear, cortical and posterior subcapsular cataracts . Am J Epidemiol . 1986;124:916-925. 7. Taylor HR, West SK, Rosenthal FS, et al. Effect of ultraviolet radiation on cataract formation . N Engl J Med . 1988;319:1429-1433.Crossref 8. Anderson JR. A pterygium map . Acta Ophthalmol . 1954;3:1631-1642. 9. Cameron ME. Histology of pterygium: an electron microscopic study . Br J Ophthalmol . 1983;67:604-608.Crossref 10. Taylor HR. Aetiology of climatic droplet keratopathy and pterygium . Br J Ophthalmol . 1980;64:154-163.Crossref 11. Moran DJ, Hollows FC. Pterygium and ultraviolet radiation: a positive correlation . Br J Ophthalmol . 1984;68:343-346.Crossref 12. Klintworth GK. The cornea: structure and macromolecules in health and disease . Am J Pathol . 1977;89:717-808. 13. Johnson GJ, Ghosh M. Labrador keratopathy: clinical and pathological findings . Can J Ophthalmol . 1975;10:119-135. 14. Johnson GJ, Overall M. Histology of spheroidal degeneration of the cornea in Labrador . Br J Ophthalmol . 1978;62:53-61.Crossref 15. Taylor HR, West SK, Rosenthal FS, Muñoz B, Newland HS, Emmett EA. Corneal changes associated with chronic ultraviolet radiation . Arch Ophthalmol . 1989;107:1481-1484.Crossref 16. Tso MOM. Photic maculopathy in rhesus monkeys: a light and electron microscopic study . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1973;12:14-34. 17. Ham WT Jr, Mueller HA, Ruffolo JJ, Guerry D III, Guerry RK. Action spectrum for retinal injury from near-ultraviolet radiation in aphakic monkey . Am J Ophthalmol . 1982;933:299-306. 18. Tso MOM. Experiments on visual cells by nature and man: in search of treatment for photoreceptor degeneration . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1989;30:2430-2454. 19. Ewald RA, Ritchey CL. Sun gazing as the cause of foveo-macular retinitis . Am J Ophthalmol . 1970;70:491-497. 20. Noell WK. Possible mechanisms of photoreceptor damage by light in mammalian eyes . Vision Res . 1980;20:1163-1171.Crossref 21. Lawwill T. Three major pathologic processes caused by light in the primate retina: a search for mechanisms . Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc . 1982;80:517-579. 22. Ham WT Jr, Mueller HA, Sliney DH. Retinal sensitivity to damage from short wavelength light . Nature . 1976;260:153-155.Crossref 23. Boettner EA, Wolter JR. Transmission of the ocular media . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1962;1:776-783. 24. Werner JS, Steele VG, Pfoff DS. Loss of human photoreceptor sensitivity associated with chronic exposure to ultraviolet radiation . Ophthalmology . 1989;96:1552-1558.Crossref 25. Liu IY, White L, LaCroix AZ. The association of age-related macular degeneration and lens opacities in the aged . Am J Public Health . 1989;79:765-769.Crossref 26. West SK, Rosenthal FS, Bressler NM, et al. Exposure to sunlight and other risk factors for age-related macular degeneration . Arch Ophthalmol . 1989;107:875-879.Crossref 27. Rosenthal FS, West SK, Munõz B, Emmett EA, Strickland PT, Taylor HR. Ocular and facial skin exposure to ultraviolet radiation in sunlight: a personal exposure model with application to a worker population . Health Physics . 1991;61:77-86.Crossref 28. West SK, Rosenthal F, Newland HS, Taylor HR. Use of photographic techniques to grade nuclear cataracts . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1988;29:73-77. 29. Taylor HR, West SK. A simple system for the clinical grading of lens opacities . Lens Res . 1988;5:175-181. 30. Bressler NM, Bressler SB, West SK, Fine SL, Taylor HR. The grading and prevalence of macular degeneration in Chesapeake Bay watermen . Arch Ophthalmol . 1989;107:847-852.Crossref 31. Green AES, Chai S. Solar spectral irradiance, visible and infrared regions . Photochem Photobiol . 1988;48:477-486.Crossref 32. Rosenthal FS, Phoon C, Bakalian AE, Taylor HR. The ocular dose of ultraviolet radiation to outdoor workers . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1988;29:649-656. 33. Rosenthal FS, Bakalian A, Taylor HR. The effect of prescription eyewear on ocular UV exposure . Am J Public Health . 1986;76:1216-1220.Crossref 34. Smith AH, Waxweiler RJ, Tyroler HA. Epidemiologic investigation of occupational carcinogenesis using a serially additive expected dose model . Am J Epidemiol . 1980;112:787-797. 35. Sliney DH. Eye protective techniques for bright light . Ophthalmology . 1983;90:937-944.Crossref 36. Chylack LT, Ransil BJ, White O. Classification of human senile cataractous change by the American Cooperative Cataract Research Group (CCRG) method, III: the association of nuclear color (sclerosis) with extent of cataract formation, age, and visual acuity . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1984;25:174-180. 37. Taylor HR. Climatic droplet keratopathy and pterygium . Aust J Ophthalmol . 1981;9:199-206.Crossref 38. Young RW. Solar radiation and age-related macular degeneration . Surv Ophthalmol . 1988;32:252-269.Crossref 39. Gottsch JD, Pou S, Bynoe LA, Rosen GM. Hematogenous photosensitization: a mechanism for the development of age related macular degeneration . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1990;31:1674-1682.

Journal

Archives of OphthalmologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jan 1, 1992

References