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THE LOCALIZATION OF IMPULSE INITIATION AND CONDUCTION IN THE HEART

THE LOCALIZATION OF IMPULSE INITIATION AND CONDUCTION IN THE HEART Abstract INTRODUCTION It has ever and quite naturally been true that the discovery of a new structure immediately has started an effort on the part of investigators to determine the function thereof, and conversely that the discovery of a new function or property has initiated an effort to discover some structure that could be made the seat of such function or property.The history of the localization of impulse initiation and impulse conduction in the heart illustrates in a striking manner these tendencies and their effects. The heart is spontaneously rhythmical. Does it contain a definite structure whose purpose it is to initiate this spontaneous rhythm? Or, again, in the heart, impulses are carried from one part to another. Is this the function of a special structure? Conversely, a structure is found in the heart which conceivably might act as pace-maker, while still another is found which might well References 1. Reid: In Todd's Encyclopedia of Anatomy and Physiology , London, 1839, p. 607. 2. Kürschner: Wagner's Handwörterbuch der Physiologie , Braunschweig, 1850, p. 80. 3. Kaiser: See Martin, Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. , 1905, xvi, 380. 4. McWilliam: Jour. Physiol. , 1885, vi, 192, from which what follows is largely quoted. 5. His: Anatomie menschlicher Embryonen , Leipzig, 1880, p. 148. 6. The terms sinus reuniens and sinus venosus will be employed interchangeably. 7. Keith and Flack: Jour. Anat. and Physiol. , 1907, xli, 172. 8. Koch: Med. Klin. , 1911, No. (12) . 9. Thorel: Verhandl. d. deutsch. path. Gesellsch. , 1910, p. 71. 10. Meek and Eyster: Am. Jour. Physiol. , 1912, xxxi, 31. 11. Fredericq: Acad. roy. de Belg. Bull. de la cl. sc. , 1901, p. 126 12. Arch. internat. de physiol. , 1912, xii, 109 13. Erlanger and Blackman: Am. Jour. Physiol. , 1907, xix, 125. 14. Erlanger and Blackman: Am. Jour. Physiol. , 1907, xix, 125. 15. Howell, Text-Book of Physiology , Phila., 1911, Ed. 4, p. 529. 16. McWilliam: Jour. Physiol. , 1888, ix, 167. 17. Hering: Pflüger's Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. , 1900, lxxxii, 21. 18. Hering: München. med. Wchnschr. , 1909, lvi, 845. 19. Fredericq: Arch. internat. de physiol. , 1906, iv, 60. 20. Erlanger: Am. Jour. Physiol. , 1910, xxvii, 87. 21. Moorhouse: Am. Jour. Physiol. , 1912, xxx, 358. 22. Verbal communication. 23. Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. , 1906, lxii, 352. 24. Flack: Arch. internat. de physiol. , 1911, xi, 111. 25. Jäger: Deutsch. Arch. f. klin. Med. , 1910, c, 1. 26. Magnus-Alsleben: Arch. f. exper. Pathol. u. Pharmakol. , 1911, lxiv, 228.Crossref 27. Lohmann: Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. , 1908, cxxiii, 628.Crossref 28. Brandenburg and Hoffmann: Med. Klin. , 1912, viii, 16. 29. Cohn and Kessel: The Archives Int. Med. , 1911, vii, 226.Crossref 30. Cohn, Kessel and Mason: Heart , 1912, iii, 311. 31. Adam: Pflüger's Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. , 1906, cxi, 607.Crossref 32. Ganter and Zahn: Pflüger's Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. , 1912, cxlv, 335.Crossref 33. Lewis: Heart , 1910-11, ii, 23. 34. Samoiloff: Pflüger's Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. , 1910, cxxxv, 417.Crossref 35. Lewis, Oppenheimer and Oppenheimer: Heart , 1910-11, ii, 147. 36. Wybauw: Arch. internat. de physiol. , 1910, x, 78. 37. Zahn: Zentralbl. f. Physiol. , 1912, xxvi, 495. 38. Brandenburg and Hoffmann and Ganter and Zahn state that cooking or warming the auricular node after excision of the sinus node changes the rate of the beat. 39. Hering: Pflüger's Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. , 1907, cxvi, 143.Crossref 40. Cohn, Kessel and Mason, etc. 41. Paladino: Arch. ital. d. biol. , 1910, liii, 47. 42. Kent: Proc. Physiol. Soc. (Nov. 12) , 1892 43. Jour. of Physiol. , 1893, xiv, 233. 44. Meltzer: Med. Rec., New York , 1909, (May 22) , p. 873 45. Nov. 27, p. 914. 46. Meltzer, loc. cit., note 41. 47. His: Deutsch. Arch. f. klin. Med. , 1899, lxiv, 316. 48. Cohn: Heart , 1909-10, i, 172. 49. Lhamon: Am. Jour. Anat. , 1912, xiii, 55.Crossref 50. Mall: Am. Jour. Anat. , 1912, xiii, 284. 51. Tigerstedt: Arch. f. Physiol. , 1884, p. 497. 52. Wooldridge: Arch. f. Physiol. , 1883, p. 522. 53. His: Zentralbl. f. Physiol. , 1895, ix, 469. 54. Humblet: Arch. internat. d. physiol. , 1904, c, 278. 55. Hering: Pflüger's Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. , 1905, cvii, 97.Crossref 56. Erlanger: Zentralbl. f. Physiol. , 1905, xix, 9 57. Jour. Exper. Med. , 1906, viii, 8. 58. Lomakina: Ztschr. f. Physiol. , 1900, xxxix, 377. 59. Paukul: Ztschr. f. Physiol. , 1908, li, 177. 60. Kronecker: Brit. Med. Jour. , 1910, i, 135. 61. Cohn and Trendelenburg: Pflüger's Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. , 1910, cxxxi, 1.Crossref 62. Erlanger and Blackman: Heart , 1910, i, 177. 63. Wilson: Anat. Rec. , 1909, viii, 262. 64. Thorel: Lubarsch and Ostertag's Ergebnisse , 1903, ix, 861. 65. Meek: Am. Jour. Physiol. , 1910, xxv, 367. 66. Erlanger: Am. Jour. Physiol. , 1909, xxiv, 375. 67. Cullis and Dixon: Jour. Physiol. , 1911, xlii, 156. 68. Barker and Hirschfelder: The Archives Int. Med. , 1909, iv, 192.Crossref 69. Eppinger and Rothberger: Centralbl. f. Physiol. , 1911, xxiv, 1055. 70. Biggs: Brit. Med. Jour. , 1908, i, 1419.Crossref 71. Shafer's Text Book of Physiology, London , 1900, ii, 10. 72. Saltzmann: Skand. Arch. , 1908, xx, 233Crossref 73. Hering: Pflüger's Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. , 1909, cxxvi, 225.Crossref 74. Hering: Pflüger's Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. , 1910, cxxxi, 572.Crossref 75. Erlanger: Am. Jour. Physiol. , 1912, xxx, 395. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Internal Medicine American Medical Association

THE LOCALIZATION OF IMPULSE INITIATION AND CONDUCTION IN THE HEART

Archives of Internal Medicine , Volume XI (3) – Mar 1, 1913

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American Medical Association
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Copyright © 1913 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
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0730-188X
DOI
10.1001/archinte.1913.00060270088007
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Abstract

Abstract INTRODUCTION It has ever and quite naturally been true that the discovery of a new structure immediately has started an effort on the part of investigators to determine the function thereof, and conversely that the discovery of a new function or property has initiated an effort to discover some structure that could be made the seat of such function or property.The history of the localization of impulse initiation and impulse conduction in the heart illustrates in a striking manner these tendencies and their effects. The heart is spontaneously rhythmical. Does it contain a definite structure whose purpose it is to initiate this spontaneous rhythm? Or, again, in the heart, impulses are carried from one part to another. Is this the function of a special structure? Conversely, a structure is found in the heart which conceivably might act as pace-maker, while still another is found which might well References 1. Reid: In Todd's Encyclopedia of Anatomy and Physiology , London, 1839, p. 607. 2. Kürschner: Wagner's Handwörterbuch der Physiologie , Braunschweig, 1850, p. 80. 3. Kaiser: See Martin, Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. , 1905, xvi, 380. 4. McWilliam: Jour. Physiol. , 1885, vi, 192, from which what follows is largely quoted. 5. His: Anatomie menschlicher Embryonen , Leipzig, 1880, p. 148. 6. The terms sinus reuniens and sinus venosus will be employed interchangeably. 7. Keith and Flack: Jour. Anat. and Physiol. , 1907, xli, 172. 8. Koch: Med. Klin. , 1911, No. (12) . 9. Thorel: Verhandl. d. deutsch. path. Gesellsch. , 1910, p. 71. 10. Meek and Eyster: Am. Jour. Physiol. , 1912, xxxi, 31. 11. Fredericq: Acad. roy. de Belg. Bull. de la cl. sc. , 1901, p. 126 12. Arch. internat. de physiol. , 1912, xii, 109 13. Erlanger and Blackman: Am. Jour. Physiol. , 1907, xix, 125. 14. Erlanger and Blackman: Am. Jour. Physiol. , 1907, xix, 125. 15. Howell, Text-Book of Physiology , Phila., 1911, Ed. 4, p. 529. 16. McWilliam: Jour. Physiol. , 1888, ix, 167. 17. Hering: Pflüger's Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. , 1900, lxxxii, 21. 18. Hering: München. med. Wchnschr. , 1909, lvi, 845. 19. Fredericq: Arch. internat. de physiol. , 1906, iv, 60. 20. Erlanger: Am. Jour. Physiol. , 1910, xxvii, 87. 21. Moorhouse: Am. Jour. Physiol. , 1912, xxx, 358. 22. Verbal communication. 23. Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. , 1906, lxii, 352. 24. Flack: Arch. internat. de physiol. , 1911, xi, 111. 25. Jäger: Deutsch. Arch. f. klin. Med. , 1910, c, 1. 26. Magnus-Alsleben: Arch. f. exper. Pathol. u. Pharmakol. , 1911, lxiv, 228.Crossref 27. Lohmann: Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. , 1908, cxxiii, 628.Crossref 28. Brandenburg and Hoffmann: Med. Klin. , 1912, viii, 16. 29. Cohn and Kessel: The Archives Int. Med. , 1911, vii, 226.Crossref 30. Cohn, Kessel and Mason: Heart , 1912, iii, 311. 31. Adam: Pflüger's Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. , 1906, cxi, 607.Crossref 32. Ganter and Zahn: Pflüger's Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. , 1912, cxlv, 335.Crossref 33. Lewis: Heart , 1910-11, ii, 23. 34. Samoiloff: Pflüger's Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. , 1910, cxxxv, 417.Crossref 35. Lewis, Oppenheimer and Oppenheimer: Heart , 1910-11, ii, 147. 36. Wybauw: Arch. internat. de physiol. , 1910, x, 78. 37. Zahn: Zentralbl. f. Physiol. , 1912, xxvi, 495. 38. Brandenburg and Hoffmann and Ganter and Zahn state that cooking or warming the auricular node after excision of the sinus node changes the rate of the beat. 39. Hering: Pflüger's Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. , 1907, cxvi, 143.Crossref 40. Cohn, Kessel and Mason, etc. 41. Paladino: Arch. ital. d. biol. , 1910, liii, 47. 42. Kent: Proc. Physiol. Soc. (Nov. 12) , 1892 43. Jour. of Physiol. , 1893, xiv, 233. 44. Meltzer: Med. Rec., New York , 1909, (May 22) , p. 873 45. Nov. 27, p. 914. 46. Meltzer, loc. cit., note 41. 47. His: Deutsch. Arch. f. klin. Med. , 1899, lxiv, 316. 48. Cohn: Heart , 1909-10, i, 172. 49. Lhamon: Am. Jour. Anat. , 1912, xiii, 55.Crossref 50. Mall: Am. Jour. Anat. , 1912, xiii, 284. 51. Tigerstedt: Arch. f. Physiol. , 1884, p. 497. 52. Wooldridge: Arch. f. Physiol. , 1883, p. 522. 53. His: Zentralbl. f. Physiol. , 1895, ix, 469. 54. Humblet: Arch. internat. d. physiol. , 1904, c, 278. 55. Hering: Pflüger's Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. , 1905, cvii, 97.Crossref 56. Erlanger: Zentralbl. f. Physiol. , 1905, xix, 9 57. Jour. Exper. Med. , 1906, viii, 8. 58. Lomakina: Ztschr. f. Physiol. , 1900, xxxix, 377. 59. Paukul: Ztschr. f. Physiol. , 1908, li, 177. 60. Kronecker: Brit. Med. Jour. , 1910, i, 135. 61. Cohn and Trendelenburg: Pflüger's Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. , 1910, cxxxi, 1.Crossref 62. Erlanger and Blackman: Heart , 1910, i, 177. 63. Wilson: Anat. Rec. , 1909, viii, 262. 64. Thorel: Lubarsch and Ostertag's Ergebnisse , 1903, ix, 861. 65. Meek: Am. Jour. Physiol. , 1910, xxv, 367. 66. Erlanger: Am. Jour. Physiol. , 1909, xxiv, 375. 67. Cullis and Dixon: Jour. Physiol. , 1911, xlii, 156. 68. Barker and Hirschfelder: The Archives Int. Med. , 1909, iv, 192.Crossref 69. Eppinger and Rothberger: Centralbl. f. Physiol. , 1911, xxiv, 1055. 70. Biggs: Brit. Med. Jour. , 1908, i, 1419.Crossref 71. Shafer's Text Book of Physiology, London , 1900, ii, 10. 72. Saltzmann: Skand. Arch. , 1908, xx, 233Crossref 73. Hering: Pflüger's Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. , 1909, cxxvi, 225.Crossref 74. Hering: Pflüger's Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. , 1910, cxxxi, 572.Crossref 75. Erlanger: Am. Jour. Physiol. , 1912, xxx, 395.

Journal

Archives of Internal MedicineAmerican Medical Association

Published: Mar 1, 1913

References