Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day. Start a 14-Day Trial for You or Your Team.

Learn More →

The Lens Opacities Classification System III

The Lens Opacities Classification System III Abstract • Objective. —To develop the Lens Opacities Classification System III (LOCS III) to overcome the limitations inherent in lens classification using LOCS II. These limitations include unequal intervals between standards, only one standard for color grading, use of integer grading, and wide 95% tolerance limits. Design and Results. —The LOCS III contains an expanded set of standards that were selected from the Longitudinal Study of Cataract slide library at the Center for Clinical Cataract Research, Boston, Mass. It consists of six slitlamp images for grading nuclear color (NC) and nuclear opalescence (NO), five retroillumination images for grading cortical cataract (C), and five retroillumination images for grading posterior subcapsular (P) cataract. Cataract severity is graded on a decimal scale, and the standards have regularly spaced intervals on a decimal scale. The 95% tolerance limits are reduced from 2.0 for each class with LOCS II to 0.7 for nuclear opalescence, 0.7 for nuclear color, 0.5 for cortical cataract, and 1.0 for posterior subcapsular cataract with the LOCS III, with excellent interobserver agreement. Conclusion. —The LOCS III is an improved LOCS system for grading slit-lamp and retroillumination images of age-related cataract. References 1. Chylack LT Jr, Leske MC, McCarthy D, Khu PM, Kashiwagi T, Sperduto, R. Lens Opacities Classification System II (LOCS II) . Arch Ophthalmol . 1989;107:991-997.Crossref 2. Maraini G, Pasquini P, Tomba MC, et al. An independent evaluation of the Lens Opacities Classification System II (LOCS II) . Ophthalmology . 1989;96:611-615.Crossref 3. Maraini G, Pasquini P, Sperduto RD, et al. The effect of cataract severity and morphology on the reliability of the Lens Opacities Classification System II (LOCS II) . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1991;32:2400-2403. 4. Khu PM, Chylack LT Jr, Leske MC, McCarthy D, Wu S-Y. Measuring the rate of age-related cataract formation in vivo using LOCS II standard photographs . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1989;30 ( (ARVO suppl) ):164. Abstract. 5. Leske MC, Chylack LT Jr, Wu S-Y, McCarthy D, Grimson R, the LSC Group. Longitudinal changes in lens photographs with the LOCS II method . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1991;32 ( (ARVO suppl) ):1244. Abstract. 6. Wolfe JK, Chylack LT Jr, Leske MC, et al. Nuclear lens changes with image analysis and LOCS II photograding . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1991;32( (ARVO suppl) ):1991. Abstract. 7. Drews-Bankiewicz MA, Caruso RD, Datiles MB, Kaiser-Kupfer MI. Contrast sensitivity in patients with nuclear cataracts . Arch Ophthalmol . 1992;110:953-959.Crossref 8. Chylack LT Jr, Wolfe JK, McCarthy D. Crosssectional and longitudinal correspondence between LOCS II (subjective) and various objective measures of human cataract and nuclear color . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1990;31( (ARVO suppl) ):374. Abstract. 9. Chylack LT Jr, Jakubicz G, Rosner B, et al. Contrast sensitivity and visual acuity as functions of cataract type and extent. J Cataract Refract Surg. In press. 10. Chylack LT Jr, McCarthy D, Wolfe JK, et al. Monitoring cataracts with LOCS II and counterpart objective methods: lovastatin and the human lens: results of a 2-year study. Optom Vis Sci. In press. 11. Chylack LT Jr, Padhye N, Khu PM, et al. Loss of contrast sensitivity in diabetic patients with LOCS II classified cataracts . Br J Ophthalmol . 1993;77:7-11.Crossref 12. Sparrow JM. Methods of clinical cataract grading: two systems compared . Arch Ophthalmol . 1990;108:1209.Crossref 13. Taylor HR, Lee JA, Wang F, Muñoz B. A comparison of two photographic systems for grading cataract . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1991;32:529-532. 14. Agoston GA. Color Theory and Its Application in Art and Design . New York, NY: Springer-Verlag NY Inc; 1987:53-62. 15. Bailey IL, Bullimore MA, Raasch TW, Taylor HR. Clinical grading and the effects of scaling . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1991;32:422-432. 16. Adamsons I, Taylor KI, Enger C, Taylor HR. A new method for documenting lens opacities . Am J Ophthalmol . 1991;111:65-70. 17. Muñoz B, West S, Wang F, Taylor HR. Measuring cataract progression for longitudinal studies . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1991;32( (ARVO suppl) ):1243. Abstract. 18. Leske MC, Chylack LT Jr, Wu S-Y, the Lens Opacities Case-Control Study Group. The Lens Opacities Case-Control Study: risk factors for cataract . Arch Ophthalmol . 1991;109:244-251.Crossref 19. Chylack LT Jr, Rosner B, Cheng H-M, McCarthy D, Pennett M. Sources of variance in the objective documentation of human cataractous change with Topcon SL-45 and Neitz-CTR retroillumination photography and computerized image analysis . Curr Eye Res . 1987;6:1381-1390.Crossref 20. Wolfe J, Chylack LT Jr, Leske MC, et al. Nuclear lens changes with image analysis and LOCS II photograding . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1991;32( (ARVO suppl) ):1244. Abstract. 21. McCarthy D, Chylack LT Jr, Rosner, B. Quantification of nuclear yellowing and its effect on visual function . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1989;30 ( (ARVO suppl) ):497. Abstract. 22. Herzberg S, McCarthy D, Kansupada K, Wolfe JK, Chylack LT Jr. Positional dependence of objective measures of nuclear color in the lens: correlation with LOCS II score . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1990;31( (ARVO suppl) ):352. Abstract. 23. Wolfe JK, Chylack LT Jr. Objective measurement of cortical and subcapsular opacification in retroillumination photographs . Ophthalmic Res . 1990;22( (suppl 1) ):62-67.Crossref 24. Rosner B. Fundamentals of Biostatistics . 2nd ed. Boston, Mass: Duxbury Press; 1986:106. 25. Chylack LT Jr. How successfully can we measure cataract growth rate? Presented at the Sixth Annual Cooperative Cataract Research Group Meeting; December 3, 1991; Kona, Hawaii. 26. Datiles MB, Podgor MJ, Sperduto RD, Kashima K, Edwards P, Hiller R. Measurement errors in assessing the size of posterior subcapsular cataracts from retroillumination photographs . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1989;30:1848-1854. 27. Taylor HR, West S. A simple system for the clinical grading of lens opacities . Lens Res . 1988;5:175-181. 28. Klein BEK, Magli YL, Neider MW, Klein R. Wisconsin System for Classification of Cataracts From Photographs . Springfield, Va: National Technical Information Service; 1989. Accession No. PB 90-138306. 29. Sparrow JM, Bron AJ, Brown NAP, Ayliffe W, Hill AR. The Oxford clinical cataract classification system . Intl Ophthalmol . 1986;9:207-225.Crossref 30. Sparrow JM, Ayliffe W, Bron AJ, Brown NP, Hill AR. Inter-observer and intra-observer variability of the Oxford clinical cataract classification and grading system . Intl Ophthalmol . 1988;11:151-157.Crossref 31. Laties AM, Keates E, Lippa E, et al. Field test reliability of a new lens opacity rating system utilizing slit-lamp examination . Lens Eye Toxicol Res . 1989;6:443-464. 32. Sasaki K, Shibata T, Obazawa H. Classification system for cataracts: application by the Japanese Cooperative Cataract Epidemiology Study Group . Ophthalmic Res . 1990;22( (suppl 1) ): 46-50.Crossref 33. Khu PM, Chylack LT Jr. Subjective classification and objective quantitation of human cataract. In: Jakobiec FA, Albert DM, eds. The Principles and Practice of Ophthalmology: The Harvard System. Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders Co. In press. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Ophthalmology American Medical Association

Loading next page...
 
/lp/american-medical-association/the-lens-opacities-classification-system-iii-4eVKqV0Z0c

References (31)

Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1993 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9950
eISSN
1538-3687
DOI
10.1001/archopht.1993.01090060119035
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract • Objective. —To develop the Lens Opacities Classification System III (LOCS III) to overcome the limitations inherent in lens classification using LOCS II. These limitations include unequal intervals between standards, only one standard for color grading, use of integer grading, and wide 95% tolerance limits. Design and Results. —The LOCS III contains an expanded set of standards that were selected from the Longitudinal Study of Cataract slide library at the Center for Clinical Cataract Research, Boston, Mass. It consists of six slitlamp images for grading nuclear color (NC) and nuclear opalescence (NO), five retroillumination images for grading cortical cataract (C), and five retroillumination images for grading posterior subcapsular (P) cataract. Cataract severity is graded on a decimal scale, and the standards have regularly spaced intervals on a decimal scale. The 95% tolerance limits are reduced from 2.0 for each class with LOCS II to 0.7 for nuclear opalescence, 0.7 for nuclear color, 0.5 for cortical cataract, and 1.0 for posterior subcapsular cataract with the LOCS III, with excellent interobserver agreement. Conclusion. —The LOCS III is an improved LOCS system for grading slit-lamp and retroillumination images of age-related cataract. References 1. Chylack LT Jr, Leske MC, McCarthy D, Khu PM, Kashiwagi T, Sperduto, R. Lens Opacities Classification System II (LOCS II) . Arch Ophthalmol . 1989;107:991-997.Crossref 2. Maraini G, Pasquini P, Tomba MC, et al. An independent evaluation of the Lens Opacities Classification System II (LOCS II) . Ophthalmology . 1989;96:611-615.Crossref 3. Maraini G, Pasquini P, Sperduto RD, et al. The effect of cataract severity and morphology on the reliability of the Lens Opacities Classification System II (LOCS II) . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1991;32:2400-2403. 4. Khu PM, Chylack LT Jr, Leske MC, McCarthy D, Wu S-Y. Measuring the rate of age-related cataract formation in vivo using LOCS II standard photographs . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1989;30 ( (ARVO suppl) ):164. Abstract. 5. Leske MC, Chylack LT Jr, Wu S-Y, McCarthy D, Grimson R, the LSC Group. Longitudinal changes in lens photographs with the LOCS II method . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1991;32 ( (ARVO suppl) ):1244. Abstract. 6. Wolfe JK, Chylack LT Jr, Leske MC, et al. Nuclear lens changes with image analysis and LOCS II photograding . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1991;32( (ARVO suppl) ):1991. Abstract. 7. Drews-Bankiewicz MA, Caruso RD, Datiles MB, Kaiser-Kupfer MI. Contrast sensitivity in patients with nuclear cataracts . Arch Ophthalmol . 1992;110:953-959.Crossref 8. Chylack LT Jr, Wolfe JK, McCarthy D. Crosssectional and longitudinal correspondence between LOCS II (subjective) and various objective measures of human cataract and nuclear color . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1990;31( (ARVO suppl) ):374. Abstract. 9. Chylack LT Jr, Jakubicz G, Rosner B, et al. Contrast sensitivity and visual acuity as functions of cataract type and extent. J Cataract Refract Surg. In press. 10. Chylack LT Jr, McCarthy D, Wolfe JK, et al. Monitoring cataracts with LOCS II and counterpart objective methods: lovastatin and the human lens: results of a 2-year study. Optom Vis Sci. In press. 11. Chylack LT Jr, Padhye N, Khu PM, et al. Loss of contrast sensitivity in diabetic patients with LOCS II classified cataracts . Br J Ophthalmol . 1993;77:7-11.Crossref 12. Sparrow JM. Methods of clinical cataract grading: two systems compared . Arch Ophthalmol . 1990;108:1209.Crossref 13. Taylor HR, Lee JA, Wang F, Muñoz B. A comparison of two photographic systems for grading cataract . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1991;32:529-532. 14. Agoston GA. Color Theory and Its Application in Art and Design . New York, NY: Springer-Verlag NY Inc; 1987:53-62. 15. Bailey IL, Bullimore MA, Raasch TW, Taylor HR. Clinical grading and the effects of scaling . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1991;32:422-432. 16. Adamsons I, Taylor KI, Enger C, Taylor HR. A new method for documenting lens opacities . Am J Ophthalmol . 1991;111:65-70. 17. Muñoz B, West S, Wang F, Taylor HR. Measuring cataract progression for longitudinal studies . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1991;32( (ARVO suppl) ):1243. Abstract. 18. Leske MC, Chylack LT Jr, Wu S-Y, the Lens Opacities Case-Control Study Group. The Lens Opacities Case-Control Study: risk factors for cataract . Arch Ophthalmol . 1991;109:244-251.Crossref 19. Chylack LT Jr, Rosner B, Cheng H-M, McCarthy D, Pennett M. Sources of variance in the objective documentation of human cataractous change with Topcon SL-45 and Neitz-CTR retroillumination photography and computerized image analysis . Curr Eye Res . 1987;6:1381-1390.Crossref 20. Wolfe J, Chylack LT Jr, Leske MC, et al. Nuclear lens changes with image analysis and LOCS II photograding . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1991;32( (ARVO suppl) ):1244. Abstract. 21. McCarthy D, Chylack LT Jr, Rosner, B. Quantification of nuclear yellowing and its effect on visual function . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1989;30 ( (ARVO suppl) ):497. Abstract. 22. Herzberg S, McCarthy D, Kansupada K, Wolfe JK, Chylack LT Jr. Positional dependence of objective measures of nuclear color in the lens: correlation with LOCS II score . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1990;31( (ARVO suppl) ):352. Abstract. 23. Wolfe JK, Chylack LT Jr. Objective measurement of cortical and subcapsular opacification in retroillumination photographs . Ophthalmic Res . 1990;22( (suppl 1) ):62-67.Crossref 24. Rosner B. Fundamentals of Biostatistics . 2nd ed. Boston, Mass: Duxbury Press; 1986:106. 25. Chylack LT Jr. How successfully can we measure cataract growth rate? Presented at the Sixth Annual Cooperative Cataract Research Group Meeting; December 3, 1991; Kona, Hawaii. 26. Datiles MB, Podgor MJ, Sperduto RD, Kashima K, Edwards P, Hiller R. Measurement errors in assessing the size of posterior subcapsular cataracts from retroillumination photographs . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1989;30:1848-1854. 27. Taylor HR, West S. A simple system for the clinical grading of lens opacities . Lens Res . 1988;5:175-181. 28. Klein BEK, Magli YL, Neider MW, Klein R. Wisconsin System for Classification of Cataracts From Photographs . Springfield, Va: National Technical Information Service; 1989. Accession No. PB 90-138306. 29. Sparrow JM, Bron AJ, Brown NAP, Ayliffe W, Hill AR. The Oxford clinical cataract classification system . Intl Ophthalmol . 1986;9:207-225.Crossref 30. Sparrow JM, Ayliffe W, Bron AJ, Brown NP, Hill AR. Inter-observer and intra-observer variability of the Oxford clinical cataract classification and grading system . Intl Ophthalmol . 1988;11:151-157.Crossref 31. Laties AM, Keates E, Lippa E, et al. Field test reliability of a new lens opacity rating system utilizing slit-lamp examination . Lens Eye Toxicol Res . 1989;6:443-464. 32. Sasaki K, Shibata T, Obazawa H. Classification system for cataracts: application by the Japanese Cooperative Cataract Epidemiology Study Group . Ophthalmic Res . 1990;22( (suppl 1) ): 46-50.Crossref 33. Khu PM, Chylack LT Jr. Subjective classification and objective quantitation of human cataract. In: Jakobiec FA, Albert DM, eds. The Principles and Practice of Ophthalmology: The Harvard System. Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders Co. In press.

Journal

Archives of OphthalmologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jun 1, 1993

There are no references for this article.