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The Effects of Calciferol and Its Metabolites on Patients With Chronic Renal Failure: II. Calcitriol, 1a-Hydroxyvitamin D3, and 24,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3

The Effects of Calciferol and Its Metabolites on Patients With Chronic Renal Failure: II.... Abstract • The available data with regard to the use of calcitriol, 1α-hydroxyvitamin D3 (1α-OH D3), and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (24,25-[OH]2D3) in the management of chronic renal insufficiency are reviewed. Patients with mild to moderate osteitis fibrosa experience substantial improvement with either calcitriol or 1α-OH D3 therapy. However, few patients experience a reversal to normal in histologic characteristics of bone. The conditions of patients with osteomalacia do not respond to either calcitriol or 1α-OH D3 therapy. The bone lesion appearing in these patients is most likely a toxic effect of aluminum. The prognosis is usually poor, but the conditions of some patients may respond to administration of 24,25-(OH)2D3 together with calcitriol. Preliminary data suggest that use of chelating agents may be beneficial. In this group of patients, 24,25-(OH)2D3 administration together with calcitriol may be beneficial. (Arch Intern Med 1983;143:1205-1211) References 1. References 5-7, 9-11, 24-26, 30, 33-36. 2. References 6-10, 12, 17, 20, 21, 24, 26, 27, 30, 31, 35, 37, 43-46. 3. References 6, 8, 10, 14, 26, 35, 44, 48, 51. 4. Fraser DR, Kodicek E: Unique biosynthesis by kidney of a biologically active vitamin D metabolite. Nature 1970;228:764-766.Crossref 5. Mawer EB, Backhouse J, Davies M, et al: Metabolic fate of administered 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol in controls and patients with hypoparathyroidism. Lancet 1976;1:1203-1206.Crossref 6. Bell NH, Schaefer PC, Goldsmith R: Effects of pharmacological doses of 1,25 hydroxyvitamin D3 on serum calcium, parathyroid hormone and 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 in man. Read before the First Annual Meeting of the American Society of Bone and Mineral Research, Anaheim, Calif, June 10, 1979. 7. Kanis JA, Cundy J, Smith R, et al: Possible function of different renal metabolites of vitamin D in man. Contrib Nephrol 1980;18:192-211. 8. Silverberg DS, Bettcher KB, Dossetor JB, et al: Effect of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol in renal osteodystrophy. Can Med Assoc J 1975;112:190-195. 9. Pierides AM, Simpson W, Ward MK, et al: Variable response to long-term 1-alpha hydroxycholecalciferol in hemodialysis osteodystrophy. Lancet 1976;1:1092-1095.Crossref 10. Coburn JW, Brickman AS, Sherrard DJ, et al: Use of 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 to separate `types' of renal osteodystrophy. Proc Eur Dial Transplant Assoc 1977;14:442-450. 11. Madsen S, Olgaard K: 1 Alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol treatment of adults with chronic renal failure. Acta Med Scand 1976;200:1-5.Crossref 12. Kanis JA, Cundy T, Earnshaw M, et al: Treatment of renal bone disease with 1 alpha-hydroxylated derivatives of vitamin D3. Q J Med 1979; 48:289-322. 13. Goldstein DA, Malluche HH, Massry SG: Management of renal osteodystrophy with 1,25(OH)2D3: I. Effects on clinical, radiographic, and biochemical parameters. Min Elec Metab 1979;2:35-47. 14. Henderson RG, Ledingham JGG, Oliver DO, et al: Effects of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol on calcium absorption, muscle weakness, and bone disease in chronic renal failure. Lancet 1974;1:379-384.Crossref 15. Berl T, Berns AS, Huffer WE, et al: 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol effects in chronic dialysis. Ann Intern Med 1978;88:774-780.Crossref 16. Pierides AM, Ward MK, Alvarez-Ude F, et al: Long-term therapy with 1,25(OH)2D3 in dialysis bone disease. Proc Eur Dial Dial Transplant Assoc 1975;12:237-244. 17. Prior JC, Cameron EC, Ballon HS, et al: Experience with 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol therapy in patients undergoing hemodialysis with progressive vitamin D2-treated osteodystrophy. Am J Med 1979;67:583-589.Crossref 18. Hodsman AB, Sherrard DJ, Wong EGC, et al: Vitamin D-resistant osteomalacia in hemodialysis patients lacking secondary hyperparathyroidism. Ann Intern Med 1981;94:629-637.Crossref 19. Matthews C, Heimberg KW, Ritz E, et al: Effect of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol on impaired calcium transport by the sarcoplasmic reticulum in experimental uremia. Kidney Int 1977;11:227-235.Crossref 20. Binswagger U, Fischer JA, Iselin H, et al: 1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol treatment of clinically asymptomatic renal osteodystrophy. Min Elec Metab 1979;2:103-115. 21. Winkler SN, Brickman AS, Wong EGC, et al: Hypercalcemia during treatment of uremic patients with 1,25(OH)2D3: Analysis of 43 cases , in Norman AW, Schaeffer K, Herrath DU: Vitamin D Basic Research and Its Clinical Application . Berlin, Walter de Gruyter & Co, 1979, pp 851-852. 22. Memmos DE, Eastwood JB, Talner LB, et al: Double-blind trial of oral 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 versus placebo in asymptomatic hyperparathyroidism in patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis. Br Med J 1981;282:1919-1924.Crossref 23. Brickman AS, Coburn JW, Norman AW: Action of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, a potent, kidney-produced metabolite of vitamin D3 in uremic man. N Engl J Med 1972;287:891-895.Crossref 24. Chan JCM, Oldham SB, Holick MF, et al: 1Alpha hydroxyvitamin D3 in chronic renal failure: A potent analogue of the kidney hormone 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol. JAMA 1975;234:47-52.Crossref 25. Peacock M, Gallagher JC, Nordin BEC: Action of 1Alpha hydroxyvitamin D3 on calcium absorption and bone resorption in man. Lancet 1974;1:385-389.Crossref 26. Catto GRD, MacLeod M, Pelc B, et al: 1Alpha hydroxycholecalciferol: A treatment for renal bone disease. Br Med J 1975;1:12-14.Crossref 27. Ahmed KY, Wills MR, Varghese Z, et al: Long-term effects of small doses of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol in renal osteodystrophy. Lancet 1978;1:629-632.Crossref 28. Chalmers TM, Hunter JO, Davie MW, et al: 1Alpha hydroxycholecalciferol as a substitute for the kidney hormone 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol in chronic renal failure. Lancet 1973;2:696-699.Crossref 29. Davie MWJ, Chalmers TM, Hunter JO, et al: 1 Alpha hydroxycholecalciferol in chronic renal failure: Studies of the effect of oral doses. Ann Intern Med 1976;84:281-285.Crossref 30. Tougaard L, Sorensen E, Brochner-Mortensen J, et al: Controlled trial of 1 alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol in chronic renal failure. Lancet 1976;1:1044-1047.Crossref 31. Goldstein DA, Horowitz RE, Petit S, et al: The duodenal mucosa in patients with renal failure: Response to 1,25(OH)2D3. Kidney Int 1981;19:324-331.Crossref 32. Nielsen HE, Romer FK, Melsen F, et al: 1-Hydroxyvitamin D3 treatment of non-dialyzed patients with chronic renal failure: Effects on bone, mineral metabolism, and kidney function. Clin Nephrol 1980;13:103-108. 33. Chesney RW, Moorthy AV, Eisman JA, et al: Increased growth after long-term oral 1 alpha, 25-vitamin D3 in childhood renal osteodystrophy. N Engl J Med 1978;298:238-242.Crossref 34. Schmulen AC, Lerman M, Pak CYC, et al: Effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on jejunal absorption of magnesium in patients with chronic renal disease. Am J Physiol 1980;238:349-352. 35. Sorensen E, Tougaard L, Brochner-Mortensen J: Iatrogenic magnesium intoxication during 1 alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol treatment. Br Med J 1976;2:215.Crossref 36. Christiansen C, Rodbro P, Christiansen MS, et al: Deterioration of renal function during treatment of chronic renal failure with 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol. Lancet 1978;2:700-703.Crossref 37. Maxwell DR, Benjamin DM, Donahay SL, et al: Calcitriol in dialysis patients. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1978;23:515-519. 38. Fournier A, Bordier P, Gueris J, et al: Comparison of 1 alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol in the treatment of renal osteodystrophy: Greater effect of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol on bone mineralization. Kidney Int 1979;15:196-204.Crossref 39. Nielsen HE, Melsen F, Christiansen MS, et al: 1 Alpha hydroxycholecalciferol treatment of long-term hemodialyzed patients: Effects on mineral metabolism, bone mineral content, and bone morphometry. Clin Nephrol 1977;8:429-434. 40. Brownjohn AM, Goodwin FJ, Hately W, et al: 1 Alpha hydroxycholecalciferol for renal osteodystrophy. Br Med J 1977;2:721-723.Crossref 41. Golden P, Mazey R, Greenwalt A, et al: Vitamin D: A direct effect on the parathyroid gland? Min Elec Metab 1979;2:1-6. 42. Chertow BS, Baylink DJ, Wergedal JE, et al: Decrease in serum immunoreactive parathyroid hormone in rats and parathyroid hormone secretion in vitro by 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol. J Clin Invest 1975;56:668-675.Crossref 43. Canterbury JM, Lerman J, Claflin A, et al: Inhibition of parathyroid hormone secretion by 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol and 24,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol in the dog. J Clin Invest 1978;61:1375-1383.Crossref 44. Oldham SB, Smith R, Hartenbower DL, et al: Effects of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol on serum calcium, phosphate, and immunoreactive parathyroid hormone in dogs. Adv Exp Med Biol 1978;103:509-516. 45. Llach F, Coburn JW, Brickman AS, et al: Acute actions of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in normal man: Effect on calcium and parathyroid status. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1977;44:1054-1060.Crossref 46. Brickman AS, Sherrard DS, Jowsey J, et al: 1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol—effect on skeletal lesions and plasma parathyroid hormone levels in uremic osteodystrophy. Arch Intern Med 1974;134:883-888.Crossref 47. Bordier P, Zingraff J, Gueris J, et al: The effect of 1 alpha (OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3 on the bone in patients with renal osteodystrophy. Am J Med 1978;64:101-197.Crossref 48. Healy MD, Malluche HH, Goldstein DA, et al: Effects of long-term therapy with calcitriol in patients with moderate renal failure. Arch Intern Med 1980, 140:1030-1033.Crossref 49. Moorthy AV, Harrington AR, Mazess RB, et al: Long-term therapy of uremic osteodystrophy in adults with calcitriol. Clin Nephrol 1981;16:93-100. 50. Hawker CD, DiBella FP: Parathyroid hormone: A laboratory test not just for the endocrinologist. Int J Artif Organs 1981;4:112-115. 51. Junor BJR, Catto GRD, MacCleod M: The treatment of renal osteodystrophy with 1 alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol. Calcif Tissue Int 1977;22:112-116.Crossref 52. Eastwood JB, Bordier PJ, DeWardener HE: Some biochemical, histological, radiological, and chronic features of renal osteodystrophy. Kidney Int 1973;4:128-140.Crossref 53. Naik RB, Gosling P, Price CP, et al: Whole-body in-vivo neutron activation analysis in assessing treatment of renal osteodystrophy with 1 alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol. Br Med J 1976;2:79-83.Crossref 54. Ellis HA, Pierides AM, Feest TG, et al: Histopathology of renal osteodystrophy with particular reference to the effects of 1 alpha-hydroxyvitamin D3 in patients treated by long-term hemodialysis. Clin Endocrinol 1977;7( (suppl) ):31-38.Crossref 55. Valentzas C, Oreopoulos DG, Pierratos A, et al: Treatment of renal osteodystrophy with 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol. Can Med Assoc J 1981;124:577-583. 56. Ott SM, Maloney NA, Coburn JW, et al: The prevalence of bone aluminum deposition in renal osteodystrophy and its relation to the response to calcitriol therapy. N Engl J Med 1982;307:709-713.Crossref 57. Coburn JW, Wong EGC, Sherrard DJ, et al: Use of 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in dialysis osteomalacia: Preliminary results, abstracted. Clin Res 1980;28:532. 58. Brown DJ, Dawborn JK, Ham KN, et al: Treatment of dialysis osteomalacia with desferrioxamine. Lancet 1982;1:343-345.Crossref 59. Malluche HH, Goldstein DA, Massry SG: Management of renal osteodystrophy with 1,25(OH)2D3: II. Effects on histopathology of bone: Evidence for healing of osteomalacia. Min Elec Metab 1979;2:48-55. 60. Felsenfeld AJ, Harrelson JM, Gutman RA: The preoperative iliac crest bone biopsy as a prognostic index of the hypocalcemia induced by parathyroidectomy, abstracted. Kidney Int 1981;19:110. 61. Parsons V, Jones R, Weston M, et al: The use of 1 alpha-hydroxyvitamin D3 in the management of patients undergoing parathyroidectomy. Clin Endocrinol 1977;7( (suppl) ):223-224.Crossref 62. Clark SA, Stumpf WE, Sar M, et al: Target cells for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in the pancreas. Cell Tissue Res 1980;209:515-520.Crossref 63. Clark SA, Stumpf WE, Sar M: Effect of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 on insulin secretion. Diabetes 1981;30:382-386.Crossref 64. Defronzo RA, Andres R, Edgar P, et al: Carbohydrate metabolism in uremia: A review. Medicine 1973;52:469-481.Crossref 65. Massry SG, Goldstein DA: The search for uremic toxin(s) `X' (`X' = PTH). Clin Nephrol 1979;11:181-189. 66. Blumberg A, Wildbolz A, Descoeudres C, et al: Influence of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol on sexual dysfunction and related endocrine parameters in patients on maintenance dialysis. Clin Nephrol 1980;13:208-214. 67. Chan JCM, DeLuca HR: Calcium and parathyroid disorders in children: Chronic renal failure and treatment with calcitriol. JAMA 1979;241:1242-1244.Crossref 68. Kanis JA, Henderson RG, Heynen G, et al: Renal osteodystrophy in nondialyzed adolescents: Long-term treatment with 1 alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol. Arch Dis Child 1977;52:473-481.Crossref 69. Balsan S, Gueris J, Levy D, et al: Suppressive effect of 1 alpha hydroxyvitamin D3 on the hyperparathyroidism of children on maintenance hemodialysis. Metabol Bone Dis Relat Res 1978;1:15-21.Crossref 70. Johannsen A, Nielsen HE, Hansen HE: Bone maturation in children with chronic renal failure, effect of 12-hydroxyvitamin D3 and renal transplantation. Acta Radiol Diagn 1979;20:193-199. 71. Pierides AM, Kerr DNS, Ellis HA, et al: 1 Alpha hydroxycholecalciferol in hemodialysis/renal osteodystrophy: Adverse effects of anticonvulsant therapy. Clin Nephrol 1976;5:189-196. 72. Pierides AM, Ellis HA, Dellagrammatikas H, et al: 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol in renal ostedoystrophy epiphysiolysis-anticonvulsant therapy. Arch Dis Child 1977;52:464-472.Crossref 73. Brickman AS, Coburn JW, Massry SG, et al: 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 in normal man and patients with renal failure. Ann Intern Med 1974;80:161-168.Crossref 74. Winterborn MH, Mace PJ, Heath DA, et al: Impairment of renal function in patients on 1 alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol. Lancet 1978; 2:150-151.Crossref 75. Solomon LR, Mallick NP: Renal function and 1 alpha-hydroxyvitamin D therapy. Lancet 1980;2:261-262.Crossref 76. Farrington K, Varghese F, Moorhead JE: Vitamin D analogues and renal function. Lancet 1978;2:150-151. 77. Compston JE, Dutt MK, Mitchell WD, et al: The effect of 1 alpha-hydroxyvitamin D3 on renal function in normal subjects. Metabol Bone Dis Relat Res 1981;2:297-299.Crossref 78. Naik RB, Cundy T, Robinson BHB, et al: Effects of vitamin D metabolites and analogues on renal function. Nephron 1981;28:17-25.Crossref 79. Holick MF, Schnoes HK, DeLuca HF, et al: Isolation and identification of 24,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, a metabolite of vitamin D3 made in the kidney. Biochemistry 1972;11:4251-4255.Crossref 80. Weisman Y, Eisenberg Z, Leib L, et al: Serum concentrations of 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in different degrees of chronic renal failure. Br Med J 1980;281:712-713.Crossref 81. Taylor CM, Mawer B, Wallace JE, et al: The absence of 24,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol in anephric patients. Clin Sci 1978;55:541-547. 82. Kanis JA, Cundy T, Bartlett M, et al: Is 24,25-dihydroxycholecalciferola calcium regulating hormone in man? Br Med J 1978;1:1382-1386.Crossref 83. Llach F, Brickman AS, Singer FR, et al: 24,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol: A vitamin D sterol with qualitatively unique effects in uremic man. Metabol Bone Dis Relat Res 1979;2:11-15.Crossref 84. Canterbury JM, Gavellas G, Bourgoigne JJ, et al: Metabolic consequences of oral administration of 24,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol to uremic dogs. J Clin Invest 1980;65:571-576.Crossref 85. Pavlovitch JH, Cournot-Witmer G, Bourdeau A, et al: Suppressive effects of 24,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol on bone resorption induced by acute bilateral nephrectomy in rats. J Clin Invest 1981;68:803-810.Crossref 86. Corval MT, Dumontier MF, Garabedian M, et al: Vitamin D and cartilage: II. Biological activity of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and 24,25- and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol on cultured growth plate chondrocytes. Endocrinology 1978;102:1269-1274.Crossref 87. Muirhead N, Catto GRD, Edward N, et al: Comparison of 1,25(OH)2D3 and 24,25(OH)2D3 in the long-term treatment of renal osteodystrophy. Proc Eur Dial Transplant Assoc 1980;17:543-547. 88. Bordier P, Rasmussen P, Marie P, et al: Vitamin D metabolites and bone mineralization in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1978;46:284-294.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Internal Medicine American Medical Association

The Effects of Calciferol and Its Metabolites on Patients With Chronic Renal Failure: II. Calcitriol, 1a-Hydroxyvitamin D3, and 24,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3

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American Medical Association
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Copyright © 1983 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
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0003-9926
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1538-3679
DOI
10.1001/archinte.1983.00350060129021
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Abstract

Abstract • The available data with regard to the use of calcitriol, 1α-hydroxyvitamin D3 (1α-OH D3), and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (24,25-[OH]2D3) in the management of chronic renal insufficiency are reviewed. Patients with mild to moderate osteitis fibrosa experience substantial improvement with either calcitriol or 1α-OH D3 therapy. However, few patients experience a reversal to normal in histologic characteristics of bone. The conditions of patients with osteomalacia do not respond to either calcitriol or 1α-OH D3 therapy. The bone lesion appearing in these patients is most likely a toxic effect of aluminum. The prognosis is usually poor, but the conditions of some patients may respond to administration of 24,25-(OH)2D3 together with calcitriol. Preliminary data suggest that use of chelating agents may be beneficial. In this group of patients, 24,25-(OH)2D3 administration together with calcitriol may be beneficial. (Arch Intern Med 1983;143:1205-1211) References 1. References 5-7, 9-11, 24-26, 30, 33-36. 2. References 6-10, 12, 17, 20, 21, 24, 26, 27, 30, 31, 35, 37, 43-46. 3. References 6, 8, 10, 14, 26, 35, 44, 48, 51. 4. Fraser DR, Kodicek E: Unique biosynthesis by kidney of a biologically active vitamin D metabolite. Nature 1970;228:764-766.Crossref 5. Mawer EB, Backhouse J, Davies M, et al: Metabolic fate of administered 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol in controls and patients with hypoparathyroidism. Lancet 1976;1:1203-1206.Crossref 6. Bell NH, Schaefer PC, Goldsmith R: Effects of pharmacological doses of 1,25 hydroxyvitamin D3 on serum calcium, parathyroid hormone and 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 in man. Read before the First Annual Meeting of the American Society of Bone and Mineral Research, Anaheim, Calif, June 10, 1979. 7. Kanis JA, Cundy J, Smith R, et al: Possible function of different renal metabolites of vitamin D in man. Contrib Nephrol 1980;18:192-211. 8. Silverberg DS, Bettcher KB, Dossetor JB, et al: Effect of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol in renal osteodystrophy. Can Med Assoc J 1975;112:190-195. 9. Pierides AM, Simpson W, Ward MK, et al: Variable response to long-term 1-alpha hydroxycholecalciferol in hemodialysis osteodystrophy. Lancet 1976;1:1092-1095.Crossref 10. Coburn JW, Brickman AS, Sherrard DJ, et al: Use of 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 to separate `types' of renal osteodystrophy. Proc Eur Dial Transplant Assoc 1977;14:442-450. 11. Madsen S, Olgaard K: 1 Alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol treatment of adults with chronic renal failure. Acta Med Scand 1976;200:1-5.Crossref 12. Kanis JA, Cundy T, Earnshaw M, et al: Treatment of renal bone disease with 1 alpha-hydroxylated derivatives of vitamin D3. Q J Med 1979; 48:289-322. 13. Goldstein DA, Malluche HH, Massry SG: Management of renal osteodystrophy with 1,25(OH)2D3: I. Effects on clinical, radiographic, and biochemical parameters. Min Elec Metab 1979;2:35-47. 14. Henderson RG, Ledingham JGG, Oliver DO, et al: Effects of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol on calcium absorption, muscle weakness, and bone disease in chronic renal failure. Lancet 1974;1:379-384.Crossref 15. Berl T, Berns AS, Huffer WE, et al: 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol effects in chronic dialysis. Ann Intern Med 1978;88:774-780.Crossref 16. Pierides AM, Ward MK, Alvarez-Ude F, et al: Long-term therapy with 1,25(OH)2D3 in dialysis bone disease. Proc Eur Dial Dial Transplant Assoc 1975;12:237-244. 17. Prior JC, Cameron EC, Ballon HS, et al: Experience with 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol therapy in patients undergoing hemodialysis with progressive vitamin D2-treated osteodystrophy. Am J Med 1979;67:583-589.Crossref 18. Hodsman AB, Sherrard DJ, Wong EGC, et al: Vitamin D-resistant osteomalacia in hemodialysis patients lacking secondary hyperparathyroidism. Ann Intern Med 1981;94:629-637.Crossref 19. Matthews C, Heimberg KW, Ritz E, et al: Effect of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol on impaired calcium transport by the sarcoplasmic reticulum in experimental uremia. Kidney Int 1977;11:227-235.Crossref 20. Binswagger U, Fischer JA, Iselin H, et al: 1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol treatment of clinically asymptomatic renal osteodystrophy. Min Elec Metab 1979;2:103-115. 21. Winkler SN, Brickman AS, Wong EGC, et al: Hypercalcemia during treatment of uremic patients with 1,25(OH)2D3: Analysis of 43 cases , in Norman AW, Schaeffer K, Herrath DU: Vitamin D Basic Research and Its Clinical Application . Berlin, Walter de Gruyter & Co, 1979, pp 851-852. 22. Memmos DE, Eastwood JB, Talner LB, et al: Double-blind trial of oral 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 versus placebo in asymptomatic hyperparathyroidism in patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis. Br Med J 1981;282:1919-1924.Crossref 23. Brickman AS, Coburn JW, Norman AW: Action of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, a potent, kidney-produced metabolite of vitamin D3 in uremic man. N Engl J Med 1972;287:891-895.Crossref 24. Chan JCM, Oldham SB, Holick MF, et al: 1Alpha hydroxyvitamin D3 in chronic renal failure: A potent analogue of the kidney hormone 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol. JAMA 1975;234:47-52.Crossref 25. Peacock M, Gallagher JC, Nordin BEC: Action of 1Alpha hydroxyvitamin D3 on calcium absorption and bone resorption in man. Lancet 1974;1:385-389.Crossref 26. Catto GRD, MacLeod M, Pelc B, et al: 1Alpha hydroxycholecalciferol: A treatment for renal bone disease. Br Med J 1975;1:12-14.Crossref 27. Ahmed KY, Wills MR, Varghese Z, et al: Long-term effects of small doses of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol in renal osteodystrophy. Lancet 1978;1:629-632.Crossref 28. Chalmers TM, Hunter JO, Davie MW, et al: 1Alpha hydroxycholecalciferol as a substitute for the kidney hormone 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol in chronic renal failure. Lancet 1973;2:696-699.Crossref 29. Davie MWJ, Chalmers TM, Hunter JO, et al: 1 Alpha hydroxycholecalciferol in chronic renal failure: Studies of the effect of oral doses. Ann Intern Med 1976;84:281-285.Crossref 30. Tougaard L, Sorensen E, Brochner-Mortensen J, et al: Controlled trial of 1 alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol in chronic renal failure. Lancet 1976;1:1044-1047.Crossref 31. Goldstein DA, Horowitz RE, Petit S, et al: The duodenal mucosa in patients with renal failure: Response to 1,25(OH)2D3. Kidney Int 1981;19:324-331.Crossref 32. Nielsen HE, Romer FK, Melsen F, et al: 1-Hydroxyvitamin D3 treatment of non-dialyzed patients with chronic renal failure: Effects on bone, mineral metabolism, and kidney function. Clin Nephrol 1980;13:103-108. 33. Chesney RW, Moorthy AV, Eisman JA, et al: Increased growth after long-term oral 1 alpha, 25-vitamin D3 in childhood renal osteodystrophy. N Engl J Med 1978;298:238-242.Crossref 34. Schmulen AC, Lerman M, Pak CYC, et al: Effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on jejunal absorption of magnesium in patients with chronic renal disease. Am J Physiol 1980;238:349-352. 35. Sorensen E, Tougaard L, Brochner-Mortensen J: Iatrogenic magnesium intoxication during 1 alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol treatment. Br Med J 1976;2:215.Crossref 36. Christiansen C, Rodbro P, Christiansen MS, et al: Deterioration of renal function during treatment of chronic renal failure with 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol. Lancet 1978;2:700-703.Crossref 37. Maxwell DR, Benjamin DM, Donahay SL, et al: Calcitriol in dialysis patients. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1978;23:515-519. 38. Fournier A, Bordier P, Gueris J, et al: Comparison of 1 alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol in the treatment of renal osteodystrophy: Greater effect of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol on bone mineralization. Kidney Int 1979;15:196-204.Crossref 39. Nielsen HE, Melsen F, Christiansen MS, et al: 1 Alpha hydroxycholecalciferol treatment of long-term hemodialyzed patients: Effects on mineral metabolism, bone mineral content, and bone morphometry. Clin Nephrol 1977;8:429-434. 40. Brownjohn AM, Goodwin FJ, Hately W, et al: 1 Alpha hydroxycholecalciferol for renal osteodystrophy. Br Med J 1977;2:721-723.Crossref 41. Golden P, Mazey R, Greenwalt A, et al: Vitamin D: A direct effect on the parathyroid gland? Min Elec Metab 1979;2:1-6. 42. Chertow BS, Baylink DJ, Wergedal JE, et al: Decrease in serum immunoreactive parathyroid hormone in rats and parathyroid hormone secretion in vitro by 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol. J Clin Invest 1975;56:668-675.Crossref 43. Canterbury JM, Lerman J, Claflin A, et al: Inhibition of parathyroid hormone secretion by 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol and 24,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol in the dog. J Clin Invest 1978;61:1375-1383.Crossref 44. Oldham SB, Smith R, Hartenbower DL, et al: Effects of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol on serum calcium, phosphate, and immunoreactive parathyroid hormone in dogs. Adv Exp Med Biol 1978;103:509-516. 45. Llach F, Coburn JW, Brickman AS, et al: Acute actions of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in normal man: Effect on calcium and parathyroid status. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1977;44:1054-1060.Crossref 46. Brickman AS, Sherrard DS, Jowsey J, et al: 1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol—effect on skeletal lesions and plasma parathyroid hormone levels in uremic osteodystrophy. Arch Intern Med 1974;134:883-888.Crossref 47. Bordier P, Zingraff J, Gueris J, et al: The effect of 1 alpha (OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3 on the bone in patients with renal osteodystrophy. Am J Med 1978;64:101-197.Crossref 48. 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Journal

Archives of Internal MedicineAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jun 1, 1983

References