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THE EFFECT ON THE SKIN OF EMOTIONAL AND NERVOUS STATES: III. THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL CONSIDERATION OF A GASTRO-INTESTINAL MECHANISM

THE EFFECT ON THE SKIN OF EMOTIONAL AND NERVOUS STATES: III. THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL... Abstract Interest in the effect of emotional and nervous states on bodily function has been growing in this country during the past decade to a degree which makes it seem desirable that the literature on the subject as it affects the skin be collected and, when possible, critically summarized. We undertook this task with little realization of the labor and time required for even a partial fulfilment. When our bibliography approached three hundred titles on the general aspects of the matter alone, it became evident that such a résumé could not be offered before this association en masse, for the first paper itself approaches one hundred pages in length. We are therefore constrained instead to offer for this occasion one of the special summaries, of which eight were planned, dealing with that part of the field of somatopsychic correlations which is thus far most developed, in some of its possible dermatologic References 1. Spiethoff, B.: Beitrag zu den beim Pruritus, den Erythemen und der Urticaria vorkommenden inneren Störungen mit besonderer Berücksichtigung des Gastrointestinalkanals , Arch. f. Dermatol. u. Syph. 90:179, 1908.Crossref 2. Ehrmann, S.: Ueber den Zusammenhang der Neurodermitis mit Erkrankungen des Verdauungstraktus und Störungen der inneren Sekretion , Arch. f. Dermatol. u. Syph. 138:346, 1922.Crossref 3. Das Ekzem, in Riecke, E.: Lehrbuch der Haut-und Geschlechtskrankheiten , Jena, Gustav Fischer, 1920. 4. Urbach, E.: Röntgenologische und klinische Befunde am Magen- und Darmtrakt bei Ekzemen und ihre Bedeutung für eine kausale Therapie , Arch. f. Dermatol. u. Syph. 142:29, 1923.Crossref 5. Waller, S.: Beiträge zur Aetiologie des Ekzems , Zentral. f. Haut- u. Geschlechtskr. 2:2690, 1921. 6. Ryle, V. A., and Barber, H. W.: Gastric Analysis in Acne Rosacea , Lancet 2:1195, 1920.Crossref 7. Brown, W.: Some Observations on the Fractional Method of Gastric Analysis in Diseases of the Skin , Brit. J. Dermat. 37:213, 1925.Crossref 8. Eastwood, S. R.: Gastric Secretion and Other Digestive Factors in Rosacea , Brit. J. Dermat. 40:91, 148, 1928.Crossref 9. Knowles, F. C., and Decker, H. B., Gastric Acidity in Acne Vulgaris , Arch. Dermat. & Syph. 13:215 ( (Feb.) ) 1926. 10. Rulison, R. H.: Rosacea. With a Study of Accompanying Conditions , Am. J. M. Sc. 174:60, 1927. 11. Ayres, S.: Gastric Secretion in Psoriasis, Eczema and Dermatitis Herpetiformis , Arch. Dermat. & Syph. 20:854 ( (Dec.) ) 1929. 12. Alvarez, W.: Ways in Which Emotion Can Affect the Digestive Tract , J. A. M. A. 92:1231 ( (April 13) ) 1929. 13. Cannon, W. B.: The Mechanism of Emotional Disturbance of Bodily Activity , New England M. J. 198:877, 1928. 14. Sinelnikoff, E. J.: Ueber den Einfluss des Grosshirns auf die motorische Funktion des Dünndarms , Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. 213:239, 1926. 15. Barcroft, Joseph: The Spleen and the Circulation , Proc. Staff Meet. Mayo Clin. 4:302, 1929. 16. Woodyatt, R. T.: Psychic and Emotional Factors in General Diagnosis and Treatment , J. A. M. A. 89:1013 ( (Sept. 24) ) 1927. 17. McLester, J. S.: Psychic and Emotional Factors in Their Relation to Disorders of the Digestive Tract , J. A. M. A. 89:1019 ( (Sept. 24) ) 1927. 18. Beaumont, William: Experiments and Observations on the Gastric Juice and the Physiology of Digestion , Plattsburgh. F. P. Allen, 1833. 19. Oechsler: Ueber den Einfluss der psychischen Erregung auf die Sekretion der Galle und des Pankreas , Internat. Beitr. z. Path. u. Therap. d. Ernährungsstör. 5:26, 1913. 20. Lueders, C. W.: Gastrointestinal Reaction to the Emotions: The Rôle of the Vegetative System , Arch. Int. Med. 42:282 ( (Aug.) ) 1928. 21. Farr, C. B., and Lueders, C. W.: Gastric Secretory Functions in the Psychoses , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 10:548 ( (Nov.) ) 1923. 22. Farr, C. B.; Lueders, C. W., and Bond: Studies of Gastric Secretion and Motility in Mental Patients , Am. J. Psychiat. 5:93, 1925. 23. Delhougne, F.: Ueber die Einfluss anstrengender Arbeit auf die Magensaftsekretion , Deutsches Arch. f. klin. Med. 150:78, 1926. 24. Miller, R. J.; Bergeim, O., and Hawk, P. B.: The Influence of Anxiety on Gastric Digestion , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 17:97, 1920. 25. Faber, K.: The Etiology and Pathogenesis of Achylia Gastrica , Am. J. M. Sc. 172:1, 1926. 26. Hurst, A. F.: Achlorhydria: Its Relation to Pernicious Anemia and Other Diseases , Lancet 1:111, 1923. 27. Carlson, A. J.: The Secretion of Gastric Juice in Health and Disease , Physiol. Rev. 3:1, 1923. 28. Hornborg, A. F.: Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Absonderungsbedingungen des Magensaftes beim Menschen , Skandinav. Arch. f. Physiol. 15:209, 1904. 29. Bogen, H.: Experimentelle Untersuchungen über psychische und assoziative Magensaftsekretion beim Menschen , Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. 117:150, 1907. 30. Schrottenbach, H.: Studien über die Einfluss der Grosshirntätigheit auf die Magensaftsekretion des Menschen , Ztschr. f. d. ges. Neurol. u. Psychiat. 69: 254, 1921. 31. Cannon, W. B.: Bodily Changes in Pain, Hunger, Fear and Rage , New York, D. Appleton & Company, 1915. 32. Ehrmann (footnote 2, second reference). 33. Heyer, G. R.: Die Magensekretion beim Menschen. I. Saftmenge und eiweissverdauende Kraft , Arch. f. Verdauungskr. 27:227, 1921 34. 29:11, 1921. 35. Bennett, T. I., and Venables, V. F.: Effects of the Emotions on Gastric Secretion and Motility in the Human Being , Brit. M. J. 2:662, 1920. 36. Heyer, G. R.: Psychogene Funktionsstörungen des Verdauungstraktes , in Schwartz: Psychogenese und Psychotherapie körperlicher Symptome , Vienna, Julius Springer, 1925, p. 242. 37. Luckhardt and Johnstone, cited by Carlson (footnote 24). 38. Ehrmann (footnote 2, first reference). 39. Cheney, G.: Clinical Value of Recent Advances in Gastric Analysis , J. A. M. A. 93:2021 ( (Dec. 28) ) 1929. 40. Kahn, G., and Stokes, J., Jr.: Effect of Passage of Stomach Tube on Titrable Acidity and pH of the Gastric Contents , Am. J. Dis. Child. 32:667 ( (Nov.) ) 1926. 41. Babkin, B. P.: The Physiological Factors Determining the Acidity of the Gastric Juice and of the Gastric Contents , Canad. M. A. J. 17:36, 1927. 42. Kay, W. E.: A Study of One Hundred Cases Diagnosed as Hyperthyroidism , J. A. M. A. 79:2149 ( (Dec. 23) ) 1922. 43. Moll, H., and Scott, R. A. M.: Gastric Secretion in Graves' Disease , Lancet 1:68, 1927. 44. Alvarez, W. C.: Diseases of the Stomach , Oxford Medicine, New York, Oxford University Press, 1927, vol. 3, p. 55. 45. Sansum, W. C.: The Normal Diet , St. Louis, C. V. Mosby Company, 1928. 46. Burget, G. E.: Note on the Flora of the Stomach , J. Bact. 5:299, 1920. 47. Poppen, P. H.: The Bacteriology of the Fasting Stomach and Duodenum; an Experimental Study Based on Findings in Thirty Dogs , Am. J. M. Sc. 161: 203, 1921. 48. Ricen, L.; Sears, H. J., and Downing, L. M.: The Duodenal Flora in Achlorhydria , Am. J. M. Sc. 175:386, 1928. 49. Raue, F.: Bakterien und Parasiten des Duodenums , Deutsches Arch. f. klin. Med. 143:141, 1923. 50. Bogendorfer, L.: Zur Frage der Desinfektion des Dünndarms , München. med. Wchnschr. 72:1511, 1925. 51. Löwenberg, W.: Experimentelle Untersuchungen über die Bakterizide Wirkung des Duodenalsaftes unter normalen Verhältnissen und bei pathologischer Bakterienansiedlung im Duodenum , Arch. f. Verdauungskr. 37:274, 1926.Crossref 52. Arnold, L., and Brody, L.: The Gastro-Duodenal Bactericidal Mechanism , Am. J. Hyg. 6:672, 1926. 53. Nye, R. N.: Investigation Relative to B. Welchii Infection of the Intestinal Tract as an Etiological Factor in Pernicious Anemia , J. Clin. Investigation 4:71, 1927.Crossref 54. Grayzel, D. M., and Miller, E. G.: The pH of the Contents of the Gastrointestinal Tract in Dogs, in Relation to Diet and Rickets , J. Biol. Chem. 76:423, 1928. 55. Nye, R. N.; Zerfas, L. G., and Cornwell, M. A.: The Presence and Importance of Yeast-Like Fungi in the Intestinal Tract , Am. J. M. Sc. 175:153, 1928.Crossref 56. Kurti, L., and György, G.: Ueber den Zusammenhang zwischen dem Harnsaurestoffwechsel und der Magensalzsauresekretion , Ztschr. f. d. ges. exper. Med. 55:475, 1927.Crossref 57. Schamberg, J. F., and Brown, Herman: The Chemistry of the Blood in Diseases of the Skin: A Study of Eight Hundred and Seventy-Five Cases Arch. Dermat. & Syph. 21:1 ( (Jan.) ) 1930. 58. Ivy, A. C.: The Newer Physiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract , Am. J. M. Sc. 173:453, 1927. 59. Elman, R., and McMaster, P. D.: The Physiologic Variations in Resistance to Bile Flow to the Intestine , J. Exper. Med. 44:151, 1926. 60. Burget, G. E.: The Regulation of the Flow of Bile , Am. J. Physiol. 74: 538, 1925. 61. Freud, J., and Saadi-Nazin: Action des injections intraduodenales d'acide sur la secretion interne du pancreas , Compt. rend. Soc. de biol. 95:571, 1926. 62. Freudenberg, E.: Untersuchung zur Verdauungsphysiologie des Säuglings: III. Die Rolle der Galle bei der Eiweissverdauung , Ztschr. f. Kinderh. 46:164, 1928. 63. Eppinger, H., and Hess, L.: Vagotonia; a Clinical Study in Vegetative Neurology , trans. by Kraub and Jellitte, Washington, D. C., Nervous and Mental Disease Publishing Company, 1915. 64. Szondi, L.: Die Beziehung der Ueberempfindlichkeit der Haut zu den Anomalien des vegatativen Nervensystems , Arch. f. Dermat. u. Syph. 154:53, 1927. 65. Bockus, H. L.; Bank, J., and Wilkinson, S. A.: Neurogenic Mucous Colitis , Am. J. M. Sc. 176:813, 1928. 66. Brill, E.: Die experimentelles und klinischen Grundlagen zum neuropathischen Typ des Ekzems , Arch. f. Dermat. u. Syph. 150:529, 1926. 67. Carlson, A. J., and Litt, S.: Studies on the Visceral Nervous System: Reflex Control of the Pylorus , Arch. Int. Med. 33:281 ( (March) ) 1924. 68. Thomas, J. E.: The Action of Adrenalin on the Pyloric Sphincter , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 23:748, 1926. 69. Burnett, F. L.: Variations of the Intestinal Rate , J. A. M. A. 85:1777 ( (Dec. 5) ) 1925 70. Intestinal Indigestion in Eczema and Psoriasis , Am. J. M. Sc. 166: 415, 1923. 71. Alvarez, W. C., and Freedlander, B. L.: The Rate of Progress of Food Residues Through the Bowel , J. A. M. A. 83:576 ( (Aug. 23) ) 1924. 72. Stockton, C. G.: Diseases of the Intestine, Oxford Medicine , New York, Oxford University Press, 1927, vol. 3, p. 194. 73. Koessler, K. K.; Maurer, S., and Loughlin, R.: The Relation of Anemia, Primary and Secondary, to Vitamin A Deficiency , J. A. M. A. 87:476 ( (Aug. 14) ) 1926.Crossref 74. Kendall, A. I., and Schmitt, F. O.: Physiological Action of Certain Cultures of the Gas Bacillus , J. Infect. Dis. 39:250 ( (Sept.) ) 1926.Crossref 75. Lewis, Thomas: The Blood Vessels of the Human Skin and Their Responses , London, Shaw and Sons, 1927. 76. Harris, F. G.: The Etiology of Eczema , Arch. Dermat. & Syph. 3:579 ( (May) ) 1921. 77. Kendall, A. I.; Day, A. A., and Walker, A. W.: Chemistry of the Intestinal Flora of Man Containing Abnormal Numbers of Gas Bacilli , J. Infect. Dis. 38:217 ( (March) ) 1926. 78. Folin, O.; Trimble, H. C., and Newman, L. H.: The Distribution and Recovery of Glucose Injected into Animals , J. Biol. Chem. 75:263, 1927. 79. Rich, G. J.: Body Acidity as Related to Emotional Excitability , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 20:589 ( (Sept.) ) 1928. 80. Peterman, M. G.: The Ketogenic Diet , J. A. M. A. 90:1427 ( (May 5) ) 1928. 81. Barborka, C. J.: The Ketogenic Diet in Epilepsy , Proc. Staff Meet. Mayo Clin. 5:32, 1930. 82. Inouye, T.: Experimental Tetany and Diet , Am. J. Physiol. 70:524, 1924. 83. Irving, L., and Ferguson, J.: The Influence of Acidity in the Intestine upon the Absorption of Calcium Salts by the Blood , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 22:527, 1925. 84. Abrahamson, E. N., and Miller, E. G., Jr.: Hydrogen-ion Concentration in the Gastrointestinal Tract of the Albino Rat , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 22:438, 1925. 85. Bergeim, O.: Intestinal Chemistry: V. Carbohydrates and Calcium and Phosphorus Absorption , J. Biol. Chem. 70:35, 1926. 86. Yoder, L.: Effect of Antirachitic Vitamin on the Phosphorus, Calcium and pH in the Intestinal Tract , J. Biol. Chem. 74:321, 1927. 87. Hettwer, V. P., and Kriz, R. A.: Absorption of Undigested Protein from the Alimentary Tract as Determined by the Direct Anaphylaxis Test , Am. J. Physiol. 73:539, 1925. 88. McCann, W. S.: Personal communication. 89. Emerson, C. P.: The Importance of the Emotions in the Etiology and Prognosis of Disease , Bull. New York Acad. Med. , second series, 5:985, 1929. 90. Barcroft, J., and Stephens, J. G.: Observations on the Size of the Spleen . J. Physiol. 64:1, 1927. 91. Benhamou, Jude, and Marchioni: Compt. rend. Soc. de biol. 100:456, 1929. 92. Benhamou; Marchioni, and Nouchy: Compt. rend. Soc. de biol. 100:461, 1929. 93. Ziegler, L. H., and Levine, B. S.: The Influence of Emotional Reactions on Basal Metabolism , Am. J. M. Sc. 169:68, 1925. 94. Hansen, K.: Analyse, Indikation und Grenze der Psychotherapie beim Bronchialasthma , Deutsche med. Wchnschr. 53:1463, 1927. 95. Dobson, H. V.: Achlorhydria: A Consideration of the Benefits from Treatment with Hydrochloric Acid and Pepsin , Proc. Staff Meet. Mayo Clin. 2:35, 1927. 96. Mills, C. A.; Chu-Pin, Chang, and Su-En, Hsü: Effects on Carbohydrate Metabolism of an Acid-Alcoholic Extract of Plants Rich in Vitamin B , Am. J. M. Sc. 175:384, 1928.Crossref 97. Bartels, S. C., and Powelson, M. H.: The Rate of the Circulation of the Blood in Vascular Diseases as Determined by the Use of Histamine , Proc. Staff Meet. Mayo Clin. 4:217, 1929. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Dermatology and Syphilology American Medical Association

THE EFFECT ON THE SKIN OF EMOTIONAL AND NERVOUS STATES: III. THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL CONSIDERATION OF A GASTRO-INTESTINAL MECHANISM

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Abstract

Abstract Interest in the effect of emotional and nervous states on bodily function has been growing in this country during the past decade to a degree which makes it seem desirable that the literature on the subject as it affects the skin be collected and, when possible, critically summarized. We undertook this task with little realization of the labor and time required for even a partial fulfilment. When our bibliography approached three hundred titles on the general aspects of the matter alone, it became evident that such a résumé could not be offered before this association en masse, for the first paper itself approaches one hundred pages in length. We are therefore constrained instead to offer for this occasion one of the special summaries, of which eight were planned, dealing with that part of the field of somatopsychic correlations which is thus far most developed, in some of its possible dermatologic References 1. Spiethoff, B.: Beitrag zu den beim Pruritus, den Erythemen und der Urticaria vorkommenden inneren Störungen mit besonderer Berücksichtigung des Gastrointestinalkanals , Arch. f. Dermatol. u. Syph. 90:179, 1908.Crossref 2. Ehrmann, S.: Ueber den Zusammenhang der Neurodermitis mit Erkrankungen des Verdauungstraktus und Störungen der inneren Sekretion , Arch. f. Dermatol. u. Syph. 138:346, 1922.Crossref 3. Das Ekzem, in Riecke, E.: Lehrbuch der Haut-und Geschlechtskrankheiten , Jena, Gustav Fischer, 1920. 4. Urbach, E.: Röntgenologische und klinische Befunde am Magen- und Darmtrakt bei Ekzemen und ihre Bedeutung für eine kausale Therapie , Arch. f. Dermatol. u. Syph. 142:29, 1923.Crossref 5. Waller, S.: Beiträge zur Aetiologie des Ekzems , Zentral. f. Haut- u. Geschlechtskr. 2:2690, 1921. 6. Ryle, V. A., and Barber, H. W.: Gastric Analysis in Acne Rosacea , Lancet 2:1195, 1920.Crossref 7. Brown, W.: Some Observations on the Fractional Method of Gastric Analysis in Diseases of the Skin , Brit. J. Dermat. 37:213, 1925.Crossref 8. Eastwood, S. R.: Gastric Secretion and Other Digestive Factors in Rosacea , Brit. J. Dermat. 40:91, 148, 1928.Crossref 9. Knowles, F. C., and Decker, H. B., Gastric Acidity in Acne Vulgaris , Arch. Dermat. & Syph. 13:215 ( (Feb.) ) 1926. 10. Rulison, R. H.: Rosacea. With a Study of Accompanying Conditions , Am. J. M. Sc. 174:60, 1927. 11. Ayres, S.: Gastric Secretion in Psoriasis, Eczema and Dermatitis Herpetiformis , Arch. Dermat. & Syph. 20:854 ( (Dec.) ) 1929. 12. Alvarez, W.: Ways in Which Emotion Can Affect the Digestive Tract , J. A. M. A. 92:1231 ( (April 13) ) 1929. 13. Cannon, W. B.: The Mechanism of Emotional Disturbance of Bodily Activity , New England M. J. 198:877, 1928. 14. Sinelnikoff, E. J.: Ueber den Einfluss des Grosshirns auf die motorische Funktion des Dünndarms , Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. 213:239, 1926. 15. Barcroft, Joseph: The Spleen and the Circulation , Proc. Staff Meet. Mayo Clin. 4:302, 1929. 16. Woodyatt, R. T.: Psychic and Emotional Factors in General Diagnosis and Treatment , J. A. M. A. 89:1013 ( (Sept. 24) ) 1927. 17. McLester, J. S.: Psychic and Emotional Factors in Their Relation to Disorders of the Digestive Tract , J. A. M. A. 89:1019 ( (Sept. 24) ) 1927. 18. Beaumont, William: Experiments and Observations on the Gastric Juice and the Physiology of Digestion , Plattsburgh. F. P. Allen, 1833. 19. Oechsler: Ueber den Einfluss der psychischen Erregung auf die Sekretion der Galle und des Pankreas , Internat. Beitr. z. Path. u. Therap. d. Ernährungsstör. 5:26, 1913. 20. Lueders, C. W.: Gastrointestinal Reaction to the Emotions: The Rôle of the Vegetative System , Arch. Int. Med. 42:282 ( (Aug.) ) 1928. 21. Farr, C. B., and Lueders, C. W.: Gastric Secretory Functions in the Psychoses , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 10:548 ( (Nov.) ) 1923. 22. Farr, C. B.; Lueders, C. W., and Bond: Studies of Gastric Secretion and Motility in Mental Patients , Am. J. Psychiat. 5:93, 1925. 23. Delhougne, F.: Ueber die Einfluss anstrengender Arbeit auf die Magensaftsekretion , Deutsches Arch. f. klin. Med. 150:78, 1926. 24. Miller, R. J.; Bergeim, O., and Hawk, P. B.: The Influence of Anxiety on Gastric Digestion , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 17:97, 1920. 25. Faber, K.: The Etiology and Pathogenesis of Achylia Gastrica , Am. J. M. Sc. 172:1, 1926. 26. Hurst, A. F.: Achlorhydria: Its Relation to Pernicious Anemia and Other Diseases , Lancet 1:111, 1923. 27. Carlson, A. J.: The Secretion of Gastric Juice in Health and Disease , Physiol. Rev. 3:1, 1923. 28. Hornborg, A. F.: Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Absonderungsbedingungen des Magensaftes beim Menschen , Skandinav. Arch. f. Physiol. 15:209, 1904. 29. Bogen, H.: Experimentelle Untersuchungen über psychische und assoziative Magensaftsekretion beim Menschen , Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. 117:150, 1907. 30. Schrottenbach, H.: Studien über die Einfluss der Grosshirntätigheit auf die Magensaftsekretion des Menschen , Ztschr. f. d. ges. Neurol. u. Psychiat. 69: 254, 1921. 31. Cannon, W. B.: Bodily Changes in Pain, Hunger, Fear and Rage , New York, D. Appleton & Company, 1915. 32. Ehrmann (footnote 2, second reference). 33. Heyer, G. R.: Die Magensekretion beim Menschen. I. Saftmenge und eiweissverdauende Kraft , Arch. f. Verdauungskr. 27:227, 1921 34. 29:11, 1921. 35. Bennett, T. I., and Venables, V. F.: Effects of the Emotions on Gastric Secretion and Motility in the Human Being , Brit. M. J. 2:662, 1920. 36. Heyer, G. R.: Psychogene Funktionsstörungen des Verdauungstraktes , in Schwartz: Psychogenese und Psychotherapie körperlicher Symptome , Vienna, Julius Springer, 1925, p. 242. 37. Luckhardt and Johnstone, cited by Carlson (footnote 24). 38. Ehrmann (footnote 2, first reference). 39. Cheney, G.: Clinical Value of Recent Advances in Gastric Analysis , J. A. M. A. 93:2021 ( (Dec. 28) ) 1929. 40. Kahn, G., and Stokes, J., Jr.: Effect of Passage of Stomach Tube on Titrable Acidity and pH of the Gastric Contents , Am. J. Dis. Child. 32:667 ( (Nov.) ) 1926. 41. Babkin, B. P.: The Physiological Factors Determining the Acidity of the Gastric Juice and of the Gastric Contents , Canad. M. A. J. 17:36, 1927. 42. Kay, W. E.: A Study of One Hundred Cases Diagnosed as Hyperthyroidism , J. A. M. A. 79:2149 ( (Dec. 23) ) 1922. 43. Moll, H., and Scott, R. A. M.: Gastric Secretion in Graves' Disease , Lancet 1:68, 1927. 44. Alvarez, W. C.: Diseases of the Stomach , Oxford Medicine, New York, Oxford University Press, 1927, vol. 3, p. 55. 45. Sansum, W. C.: The Normal Diet , St. Louis, C. V. Mosby Company, 1928. 46. Burget, G. E.: Note on the Flora of the Stomach , J. Bact. 5:299, 1920. 47. Poppen, P. H.: The Bacteriology of the Fasting Stomach and Duodenum; an Experimental Study Based on Findings in Thirty Dogs , Am. J. M. Sc. 161: 203, 1921. 48. Ricen, L.; Sears, H. J., and Downing, L. M.: The Duodenal Flora in Achlorhydria , Am. J. M. Sc. 175:386, 1928. 49. Raue, F.: Bakterien und Parasiten des Duodenums , Deutsches Arch. f. klin. Med. 143:141, 1923. 50. Bogendorfer, L.: Zur Frage der Desinfektion des Dünndarms , München. med. Wchnschr. 72:1511, 1925. 51. Löwenberg, W.: Experimentelle Untersuchungen über die Bakterizide Wirkung des Duodenalsaftes unter normalen Verhältnissen und bei pathologischer Bakterienansiedlung im Duodenum , Arch. f. Verdauungskr. 37:274, 1926.Crossref 52. Arnold, L., and Brody, L.: The Gastro-Duodenal Bactericidal Mechanism , Am. J. Hyg. 6:672, 1926. 53. Nye, R. N.: Investigation Relative to B. Welchii Infection of the Intestinal Tract as an Etiological Factor in Pernicious Anemia , J. Clin. Investigation 4:71, 1927.Crossref 54. Grayzel, D. M., and Miller, E. G.: The pH of the Contents of the Gastrointestinal Tract in Dogs, in Relation to Diet and Rickets , J. Biol. Chem. 76:423, 1928. 55. Nye, R. N.; Zerfas, L. G., and Cornwell, M. A.: The Presence and Importance of Yeast-Like Fungi in the Intestinal Tract , Am. J. M. Sc. 175:153, 1928.Crossref 56. Kurti, L., and György, G.: Ueber den Zusammenhang zwischen dem Harnsaurestoffwechsel und der Magensalzsauresekretion , Ztschr. f. d. ges. exper. Med. 55:475, 1927.Crossref 57. Schamberg, J. F., and Brown, Herman: The Chemistry of the Blood in Diseases of the Skin: A Study of Eight Hundred and Seventy-Five Cases Arch. Dermat. & Syph. 21:1 ( (Jan.) ) 1930. 58. Ivy, A. C.: The Newer Physiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract , Am. J. M. Sc. 173:453, 1927. 59. Elman, R., and McMaster, P. D.: The Physiologic Variations in Resistance to Bile Flow to the Intestine , J. Exper. Med. 44:151, 1926. 60. Burget, G. E.: The Regulation of the Flow of Bile , Am. J. Physiol. 74: 538, 1925. 61. Freud, J., and Saadi-Nazin: Action des injections intraduodenales d'acide sur la secretion interne du pancreas , Compt. rend. Soc. de biol. 95:571, 1926. 62. Freudenberg, E.: Untersuchung zur Verdauungsphysiologie des Säuglings: III. Die Rolle der Galle bei der Eiweissverdauung , Ztschr. f. Kinderh. 46:164, 1928. 63. Eppinger, H., and Hess, L.: Vagotonia; a Clinical Study in Vegetative Neurology , trans. by Kraub and Jellitte, Washington, D. C., Nervous and Mental Disease Publishing Company, 1915. 64. Szondi, L.: Die Beziehung der Ueberempfindlichkeit der Haut zu den Anomalien des vegatativen Nervensystems , Arch. f. Dermat. u. Syph. 154:53, 1927. 65. Bockus, H. L.; Bank, J., and Wilkinson, S. A.: Neurogenic Mucous Colitis , Am. J. M. Sc. 176:813, 1928. 66. Brill, E.: Die experimentelles und klinischen Grundlagen zum neuropathischen Typ des Ekzems , Arch. f. Dermat. u. Syph. 150:529, 1926. 67. Carlson, A. J., and Litt, S.: Studies on the Visceral Nervous System: Reflex Control of the Pylorus , Arch. Int. Med. 33:281 ( (March) ) 1924. 68. Thomas, J. E.: The Action of Adrenalin on the Pyloric Sphincter , Proc. Soc. Exper. 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Journal

Archives of Dermatology and SyphilologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Dec 1, 1930

References