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The Effect of Extracorporeal Circulation upon Acid-Base Equilibrium in Dogs

The Effect of Extracorporeal Circulation upon Acid-Base Equilibrium in Dogs Abstract Introduction Acidosis has been observed to develop in both animals and humans while undergoing total cardiopulmonary by-pass.1-4 The present study was designed to elucidate the etiology and type of acidosis encountered. Procedure Data were obtained during total body perfusions of 76 healthy, adult, mongrel dogs of average weight 18.9 kg. (range, 11.9-35.7). The animals were used without special preoperative preparation. Thiamylal (Surital, Parke-Davis) sodium, 12.5 mg. per kilogram of body weight, intravenously, was used to anesthetize both experimental and blood donor dogs. Ventilation was accomplished mechanically with intermittent positivepressure air and endotracheal intubation.The right hemothorax was entered through the periosteal bed of the previously resected fifth rib. The superior vena cava was cannulated via the azygos vein and the inferior vena cava via the right atrial appendage with No. 22 polyvinyl catheters. The cavae were encircled with umbilical cord tape tourniquets. The superficial femoral artery was cannulated in References 1. Ito, I.; Faulkner, W. R., and Kolff, W. J.: Metabolic Acidosis and Its Correction in Patients Undergoing Open-Heart Operation: Experimental Basis and Clinical Results , Cleveland Clin. Quart. 24:193, 1957.Crossref 2. DeWall, R. A.; Warden, H. E.; Gott, V. C.; Read, R. C.; Varco, R. L., and Lillehei, C. W.: Total Body Perfusion for Open Cardiotomy Utilizing the Bubble Oxygenator: Physiologic Responses in Man , J. Thoracic Surg. 32:591, 1956. 3. Clowes, G. H. A., Jr.; Neville, W. E.; Sabga, G., and Shibota, Y.: The Relationship of Oxygen Consumption, Perfusion Rate and Temperature to the Acidosis Associated with Cardio-Pulmonary Circulatory By-Pass , Surgery 44:220, 1958. 4. Paneth, M.; Sellers, R.; Gott, V. L.; Weirich, W. L.; Allen, P.; Read, R. C., and Lillehei, C. W.: Physiologic Studies upon Prolonged Cardio-Pulmonary By-Pass with the Pump-Oxygenator with Particular Reference to (1) Acid-Base Balance, (2) Siphon Caval Drainage , J. Thoracic Surg. 34:570, 1957. 5. Cross, R. S.; Berne, R. M.; Yoichi, H.; Jones, R. D., and Kay, E. B.: Description and Evaluation of a Rotating Disc Type Reservoir-Oxygenator , S. Forum 1:274, 1956. 6. Van Slyke, D. D., and Neill, J. M.: The Determination of Gases in Blood and Other Solutions by Vacuum Extraction and Manometric Measurement , J. Biol. Chem. 61:523, 1924. 7. Barker, S. B., and Summerson, W. H.: The Colorimetric Determination of Lactic Acid in Biological Material , J. Biol. Chem. 138:535, 1941. 8. Friedemann, T. E., and Haugen, G. E.: Pyruvic Acid: The Determination of Keto Acids in Blood and Urine , J. Biol. Chem. 147:415, 1943. 9. King, H., and Bounous, G.: Cardiac Input in Hypothermia , Surg. Gynec. & Obst. 107:763, 1958. 10. Rushmer, R. F.: Cardiac Diagnosis, A Physiologic Approach , Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Company, 1955. 11. Beecher, H. K., and Murphy, A. J.: Acidosis During Thoracic Surgery , J. Thoracic Surg. 19:50, 1950. 12. Stead, W. W.; Martin, L. E., and Jensen, N. K.: Physiologic Studies Following Thoracic Surgery: IV. The Mechanism of Development of Acidosis During Anesthesia , J. Thoracic Surg. 25:435, 1953. 13. Ellison, R. G.; Ellison, L. T., and Hamilton, W. F.: Analysis of Respiratory Acidosis During Anesthesia , Ann. Surg. 141:375, 1955. 14. Litwin, M. S.; Pavico, F. G.; Rubini, C.; Harken, D. E., and Moore, F. D.: Acidosis and Lacticacidemia in Extracorporeal Circulation , Ann. Surg. 149:188, 1959. 15. Mendelsohn, D. J.; MacKrell, T. N.; MacLachlan, M. A.; Cross, F. S., and Kay, E. B.: Experiences Using the Pump-Oxygenator for Open Cardiac Surgery in Man , Anesthesiology 18:223, 1957. 16. Stokes, T. L., and Gibbon, J. H.: Experimental Maintenance of Life by Mechanical Heart and Lung During Occlusion of Venae Cavae Followed by Survival , Surg. Gynec. & Obst. 91:138, 1950. 17. Swan, H. J. C.: Discussion on Physiology of Perfusion in Extracorporeal Circulation , Springfield, Ill., Charles C Thomas, Publisher, 1958. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png A.M.A. Archives Surgery American Medical Association

The Effect of Extracorporeal Circulation upon Acid-Base Equilibrium in Dogs

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1960 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0096-6908
DOI
10.1001/archsurg.1960.01290200091016
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract Introduction Acidosis has been observed to develop in both animals and humans while undergoing total cardiopulmonary by-pass.1-4 The present study was designed to elucidate the etiology and type of acidosis encountered. Procedure Data were obtained during total body perfusions of 76 healthy, adult, mongrel dogs of average weight 18.9 kg. (range, 11.9-35.7). The animals were used without special preoperative preparation. Thiamylal (Surital, Parke-Davis) sodium, 12.5 mg. per kilogram of body weight, intravenously, was used to anesthetize both experimental and blood donor dogs. Ventilation was accomplished mechanically with intermittent positivepressure air and endotracheal intubation.The right hemothorax was entered through the periosteal bed of the previously resected fifth rib. The superior vena cava was cannulated via the azygos vein and the inferior vena cava via the right atrial appendage with No. 22 polyvinyl catheters. The cavae were encircled with umbilical cord tape tourniquets. The superficial femoral artery was cannulated in References 1. Ito, I.; Faulkner, W. R., and Kolff, W. J.: Metabolic Acidosis and Its Correction in Patients Undergoing Open-Heart Operation: Experimental Basis and Clinical Results , Cleveland Clin. Quart. 24:193, 1957.Crossref 2. DeWall, R. A.; Warden, H. E.; Gott, V. C.; Read, R. C.; Varco, R. L., and Lillehei, C. W.: Total Body Perfusion for Open Cardiotomy Utilizing the Bubble Oxygenator: Physiologic Responses in Man , J. Thoracic Surg. 32:591, 1956. 3. Clowes, G. H. A., Jr.; Neville, W. E.; Sabga, G., and Shibota, Y.: The Relationship of Oxygen Consumption, Perfusion Rate and Temperature to the Acidosis Associated with Cardio-Pulmonary Circulatory By-Pass , Surgery 44:220, 1958. 4. Paneth, M.; Sellers, R.; Gott, V. L.; Weirich, W. L.; Allen, P.; Read, R. C., and Lillehei, C. W.: Physiologic Studies upon Prolonged Cardio-Pulmonary By-Pass with the Pump-Oxygenator with Particular Reference to (1) Acid-Base Balance, (2) Siphon Caval Drainage , J. Thoracic Surg. 34:570, 1957. 5. Cross, R. S.; Berne, R. M.; Yoichi, H.; Jones, R. D., and Kay, E. B.: Description and Evaluation of a Rotating Disc Type Reservoir-Oxygenator , S. Forum 1:274, 1956. 6. Van Slyke, D. D., and Neill, J. M.: The Determination of Gases in Blood and Other Solutions by Vacuum Extraction and Manometric Measurement , J. Biol. Chem. 61:523, 1924. 7. Barker, S. B., and Summerson, W. H.: The Colorimetric Determination of Lactic Acid in Biological Material , J. Biol. Chem. 138:535, 1941. 8. Friedemann, T. E., and Haugen, G. E.: Pyruvic Acid: The Determination of Keto Acids in Blood and Urine , J. Biol. Chem. 147:415, 1943. 9. King, H., and Bounous, G.: Cardiac Input in Hypothermia , Surg. Gynec. & Obst. 107:763, 1958. 10. Rushmer, R. F.: Cardiac Diagnosis, A Physiologic Approach , Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Company, 1955. 11. Beecher, H. K., and Murphy, A. J.: Acidosis During Thoracic Surgery , J. Thoracic Surg. 19:50, 1950. 12. Stead, W. W.; Martin, L. E., and Jensen, N. K.: Physiologic Studies Following Thoracic Surgery: IV. The Mechanism of Development of Acidosis During Anesthesia , J. Thoracic Surg. 25:435, 1953. 13. Ellison, R. G.; Ellison, L. T., and Hamilton, W. F.: Analysis of Respiratory Acidosis During Anesthesia , Ann. Surg. 141:375, 1955. 14. Litwin, M. S.; Pavico, F. G.; Rubini, C.; Harken, D. E., and Moore, F. D.: Acidosis and Lacticacidemia in Extracorporeal Circulation , Ann. Surg. 149:188, 1959. 15. Mendelsohn, D. J.; MacKrell, T. N.; MacLachlan, M. A.; Cross, F. S., and Kay, E. B.: Experiences Using the Pump-Oxygenator for Open Cardiac Surgery in Man , Anesthesiology 18:223, 1957. 16. Stokes, T. L., and Gibbon, J. H.: Experimental Maintenance of Life by Mechanical Heart and Lung During Occlusion of Venae Cavae Followed by Survival , Surg. Gynec. & Obst. 91:138, 1950. 17. Swan, H. J. C.: Discussion on Physiology of Perfusion in Extracorporeal Circulation , Springfield, Ill., Charles C Thomas, Publisher, 1958.

Journal

A.M.A. Archives SurgeryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Mar 1, 1960

References