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The Effect of Estrogenic Hormones on Tinea Capitis Due to M. Audouini

The Effect of Estrogenic Hormones on Tinea Capitis Due to M. Audouini Abstract In 1945 Atlanta was confronted with an epidemic of tinea capitis due to Microsporum audouini, which lasted several years. Roentgen ray epilations on a large scale were neither practical nor popular, and therapeutic response to the usual fungicides was slow. In an effort to improve the prognosis, a systemic approach was sought with estrogenic hormones. This additional treatment improved the prognosis to such an extent that its usage appeared indicated routinely. Ample evidence of the influence of hormones in tinea capitis due to M. audouini can be found in the literature. Occurrence of tinea capitis in the postpubertal person is higher than is generally realized, but the fungi involved are usually of the endothrix type. A search of the American literature revealed only 106 cases of culturally proved adult scalp ringworm.* Ten of these cases were due to M. audouini. None of 45 cases whose References 1. References 1 to 20. 2. References 21 to 23. 3. References 24 to 29. 4. References 33 to 39. 5. E. R. Squibb & Sons. 6. References 40-42. 7. References 41-46. 8. References 47 and 48. 9. References 50 and 51. 10. References 50 and 51. 11. References 53 to 59. 12. References 60 to 62. 13. References 63 to 66. 14. Pipkin, J. L.: Tinea Capitis in the Adult and Adolescent , A. M. A. Arch. Dermat. & Syph. 66: 9-40, 1952. 15. Fox, H., and Fowlkes, R. W.: Ringworm of the Scalp in Adults , Arch. Dermat. & Syph. 11: 466, 1925. 16. Fox, H.: Ringworm of the Scalp in the Adult , Arch. Dermat. & Syph. 13:398-400, 1926. 17. Pernet, G.: Ringworm of the Scalp: Report of a Case in Adult , Arch. Dermat. & Syph. 12: 267, 1925. 18. Fox, H.: Ringworm of the Scalp in the Adult: Report of Case of Kerion Due to Microsporon of the Scalp Occurring in an Adult , Arch. Dermat. & Syph. 13:446, 1926. 19. Chambers, S. O.: Ringworm of the Scalp Occurring in an Adult , Arch. Dermat. & Syph. 13:447, 1926. 20. Bechet, P. E.: Tinea Tonsurans in an Adult , Arch. Dermat. & Syph. 13:710, 1926. 21. Andrews, G. C.: Kerion Celsi: Lichen Trichophyticum , Arch. Dermat. & Syph. 16:477, 1927. 22. White, C.: Ringworm of the Scalp in Adults , Illinois M. J. 56:152, 1929. 23. Cummer, C. L.: Tinea Capitis with Kerion in an Adult Caused by Trichophyton Gypseum-Lacticolor , Arch. Dermat. & Syph. 36:844, 1937. 24. Mendelsohn, H. V., and Muskatblitt, E.: Tinea Capitis in an Adult , New York J. Med. 38: 803, 1938. 25. Benson, J. A.: Kerion Celsi of the Scalp in an Adult , Arch. Dermat. & Syph. 39:434, 1939. 26. Mitchell, J. H.: Epidemic Ringworm of the Scalp , M. Clin. North America 32:283, 1948. 27. Andrews, G. C.: Case Report , Arch. Dermat. & Syph. 57:506, 1948. 28. Lewis, G. M.: Tinea Capitis in an Adult , Arch. Dermat. & Syph. 57:506, 1948. 29. Morgan, D. B.: Report of a Case of Ringworm of the Scalp in an Adult , J. Kansas M. Soc. 50:231, 1949. 30. Hirschmann, V. R., and Olansky, S.: Ringworm of the Scalp in an Adult , Arch. Dermat. & Syph. 61:122, 1950. 31. Greenhouse, J. M.: Trichophyton Violaceum Infection of Scalp and Glabrous Skin of an Adult , A. M. A. Arch. Dermat. & Syph. 63:503, 1951. 32. Kligman, A. M., and Constant, E. R.: Family Epidemic of Tinea Capitis Due to Trichophyton Tonsurans (Variety Sulfureum) , A. M. A. Arch. Dermat. & Syph. 63:493, 1951. 33. Wilson, J. W.: Tinea Capitis (Microsporum Lanosum) in a Woman Aged 72 , A. M. A. Arch. Dermat. & Syph. 63:403, 1951. 34. Maschkilleisson, L. N.: Zur Frage über Trichophytia superficialis capillitii adultorum , Dermat. Wchnschr. 102:765, 1936. 35. Chen, F. K., and Kurotchin, T. J.: Tinea of Scalp Among Adults in Peiping , Nat. M. J. China 17:185, 1931. 36. Mine, M., and Orimo, T.: Statistische Studie der parasitären Hautkrankheiten in der dermatologischen Universitäts Klinik zu Tokyo , Jap. Ztschr. Dermat. u. Urol. 10:457, 1910. 37. Schwartz, L., and others: Control of Ringworm of the Scalp Among School Children in Hagerstown, Md., 1944-1945 , J. A. M. A. 132: 58, 1946.Crossref 38. Dobes, W. L.: Ringworm of the Scalp, an Epidemic in Georgia , J. M. A. Georgia 36:259, 1947. 39. Lynch, F. S., and Fisher, I.: Review of a Minor Epidemic of Ringworm of the Scalp , Am. Pract. 2:179, 1947. 40. Livingood, C. S., and Pillsbury, D. M.: Ringworm of the Scalp , J. Invest. Dermat. 4:43, 1941.Crossref 41. Sullivan, C. M.: Ringworm of the Scalp, Connecticut M. J. 13:1, 1949. 42. Wilson, J. W., and Plunkett, O. A.: Tinea Capitis , Ann. West. Med. & Surg. 1:93, 1947. 43. Sabouraud, R.: Les teignes , Paris, Masson & Cie, 1910. 44. Rothman, S.; Smiljanic, A.; Shapiro, A. L., and Weitkamp, A. W.: Spontaneous Cure of Tinea Capitis in Puberty , J. Invest. Dermat. 8:81, 1947. 45. Kligman, A. M., and Ginsberg, D.: Immunity of Adult Scalp to Infection with Microsporum Audouini , J. Invest. Dermat. 14:345-358, 1950. 46. Lewis, G. M., and Hopper, M.: Ringworm of the Scalp: Clinical and Experimental Studies in Types of Infection Resistant to Treatment , Arch. Dermat. & Syph. 35:466, 1937. 47. Lewis, G. M.; Hopper, M. E., and Reiss F.: Ringworm of the Scalp: Clinical Data on Recent Cases; Experiences with Local Endocrine Therapy , J. A. M. A. 132:62, 1946. 48. Yanez, Weinstein, Bravo, and Guzman: El tratamiento de las tiñas del cuero cabelludo por sustancias gonadales , Rev. méd. Chile 69:713, 1941. 49. Poth, D. O., and Kaliski, S. R.: Estrogen Therapy of Tinea Capitis , Arch. Dermat. & Syph. 45:121, 1942. 50. Zilberberg, B.: Tratamento das tinhas do couro cabeludo pelos hormônios sexuais em alta dose em especial pelos dietilstilbestrois , Rev. paulista med. 27:238, 1945. 51. Ghosh, L. M., and Dey, N. C.: Studies in Ringworm: Therapy of Tinea Capitis by Gonadotropic Hormones , Indian M. Gaz. 80:381, 1945. 52. Dobes, W. L.: Treatment of Tinea Capitis with Estrogenic Hormones , Arch. Dermat. & Syph. 62:58, 1950. 53. Maximov, A. A., and Bloom, W.: Textbook of Histology , Ed. 6, Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Company, 1952, p. 320. 54. Chase, H. B.: Growth of the Hair , Physiol. Rev. 34:113, 1954. 55. Butcher, E. O.: Development of the Pilary System and Replacement of Hair in Mammals , Ann. New York Acad. Sc. 53:508, 1951. 56. Myers, R. J., and Hamilton, J. B.: Regeneration and Rate of Growth of Hairs in Man , Ann. New York Acad. Sc. 53:562, 1951.Crossref 57. Rothman, S.: Physiology and Biochemistry of the Skin , Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1954. 58. Ayres, S., Jr.; Ayres, S., III, and Mirovich, J. L.: Traumatic Marginal Alopecia in White Women , Arch. Dermat. & Syph. 60:1116, 1949. 59. Butcher, E. O.: Effects of Irritants and Thyrotoxin in Hair Growth in Albino Rats , Am. J. Physiol. 129:553, 1940. 60. Kligman, A. M., and Anderson, W. W.: Evaluation of Current Methods for the Local Treatment of Tinea Capitis , J. Invest. Dermat. 6:155, 1951. 61. Kligman, A. M.: The Pathogenesis of Tinea Capitis Due to M. Audouini and Microsporum Canis , J. Invest. Dermat. 18:231, 1952. 62. Hooker, C. W., and Pfeiffer, C. A.: Effects of Sex Hormones upon Body Growth, Skin, Hair, and Sebaceous Glands in the Rat , Endocrinology 32:69, 1943. 63. Schaehter, B., and Marrian, G. F.: The Isolation of Estrone Sulfate from the Urine of Pregnant Mares , J. Biol. Chem. 126:663, 1938. 64. Golden, J. B., and Sevringhaus, E. L.: Inactivation of Estrogenic Hormone of the Ovary by the Liver , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 39: 361, 1938. 65. Martin, G. J., and Gardner, R. E.: The Trichogenic Action of the Sulfhydryl Group in Hereditary Hypotrichosis of the Rat , J. Biol. Chem. 111:193, 1935. 66. Hale, C. W.: Colour and Growth of Hair in Rabbits , Nature, London 155:670, 1945. 67. Gibbs, H. F.: A Study of the Post-Natal Development of the Skin and Hair of the Mouse , Anat. Rec. 80:61, 1941. 68. Butcher, E. O.: The Hair Cycles in the Albino Rat , Anat. Rec. 61:15, 1934. 69. Bissonette, T. H.: Relations of Hair Cycles in Ferrets to Changes in Anterior Hypophysis and to Light Cycles , Anat. Rec. 63:159, 1935. 70. Dawson, H. L.: A Study of Hair Growth in the Guinea Pig , Am. J. Anat. 45:461, 1930. 71. Dawson, H. L.: Hair Growth and Pregnancy , Science 71:607, 1930. 72. Dawson, H. L.: On Hair Growth: A Study of the Effect of Pregnancy on the Activity of the Follicle in the Guinea Pig , Am. J. Anat. 53:89, 1933. 73. Dieke, S. H.: Effects of Removing Various Endocrine Glands on Hair Cycles of Black Rats , Endocrinology 42:315, 1948. 74. Freud, J.: Hypophysis and Hair , Acta brev. Neerl. 4:99, 1934. 75. Freud, J.: Continued Observations Concerning the Growth of Hair , Acta. brev. Neerl. 5:26, 1935. 76. Behrman, H. T.: The Scalp in Health and Disease , St. Louis, C. V. Mosby Company, 1952, p. 98. 77. Rodney, R. H., and Zakon, J. L.: Effect of Endocrine Substances on the Adult Human Scalp , Arch. Dermat. & Syph. 52:323, 1945. 78. Reiss, F., and Bellis, S.: Effects Produced on Pilo-Sebaceous System and Adrenals of the Rabbit by Inunction of Sex Hormones , J. Invest. Dermat. 12:159, 1949. 79. Zuckerman, S.: The Histogenesis of Tissues Sensitive to Estrogens , Biol. Rev. 15:231, 1940.Crossref 80. Nathanson, I. T.; Towne, L. E., and Aub, J. C.: Normal Excretion of Sex Hormones in Childhood , Endocrinology 28:851, 1941.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png A.M.A. Archives of Dermatology American Medical Association

The Effect of Estrogenic Hormones on Tinea Capitis Due to M. Audouini

A.M.A. Archives of Dermatology , Volume 72 (3) – Sep 1, 1955

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American Medical Association
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Copyright © 1955 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
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0096-5359
DOI
10.1001/archderm.1955.03730330032005
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Abstract

Abstract In 1945 Atlanta was confronted with an epidemic of tinea capitis due to Microsporum audouini, which lasted several years. Roentgen ray epilations on a large scale were neither practical nor popular, and therapeutic response to the usual fungicides was slow. In an effort to improve the prognosis, a systemic approach was sought with estrogenic hormones. This additional treatment improved the prognosis to such an extent that its usage appeared indicated routinely. Ample evidence of the influence of hormones in tinea capitis due to M. audouini can be found in the literature. Occurrence of tinea capitis in the postpubertal person is higher than is generally realized, but the fungi involved are usually of the endothrix type. A search of the American literature revealed only 106 cases of culturally proved adult scalp ringworm.* Ten of these cases were due to M. audouini. None of 45 cases whose References 1. References 1 to 20. 2. References 21 to 23. 3. References 24 to 29. 4. References 33 to 39. 5. E. R. Squibb & Sons. 6. References 40-42. 7. References 41-46. 8. References 47 and 48. 9. References 50 and 51. 10. References 50 and 51. 11. References 53 to 59. 12. References 60 to 62. 13. References 63 to 66. 14. Pipkin, J. L.: Tinea Capitis in the Adult and Adolescent , A. M. A. Arch. Dermat. & Syph. 66: 9-40, 1952. 15. Fox, H., and Fowlkes, R. W.: Ringworm of the Scalp in Adults , Arch. Dermat. & Syph. 11: 466, 1925. 16. Fox, H.: Ringworm of the Scalp in the Adult , Arch. Dermat. & Syph. 13:398-400, 1926. 17. Pernet, G.: Ringworm of the Scalp: Report of a Case in Adult , Arch. Dermat. & Syph. 12: 267, 1925. 18. Fox, H.: Ringworm of the Scalp in the Adult: Report of Case of Kerion Due to Microsporon of the Scalp Occurring in an Adult , Arch. Dermat. & Syph. 13:446, 1926. 19. Chambers, S. O.: Ringworm of the Scalp Occurring in an Adult , Arch. Dermat. & Syph. 13:447, 1926. 20. Bechet, P. E.: Tinea Tonsurans in an Adult , Arch. Dermat. & Syph. 13:710, 1926. 21. Andrews, G. C.: Kerion Celsi: Lichen Trichophyticum , Arch. Dermat. & Syph. 16:477, 1927. 22. White, C.: Ringworm of the Scalp in Adults , Illinois M. J. 56:152, 1929. 23. Cummer, C. L.: Tinea Capitis with Kerion in an Adult Caused by Trichophyton Gypseum-Lacticolor , Arch. Dermat. & Syph. 36:844, 1937. 24. Mendelsohn, H. V., and Muskatblitt, E.: Tinea Capitis in an Adult , New York J. Med. 38: 803, 1938. 25. Benson, J. A.: Kerion Celsi of the Scalp in an Adult , Arch. Dermat. & Syph. 39:434, 1939. 26. Mitchell, J. H.: Epidemic Ringworm of the Scalp , M. Clin. North America 32:283, 1948. 27. Andrews, G. C.: Case Report , Arch. Dermat. & Syph. 57:506, 1948. 28. Lewis, G. M.: Tinea Capitis in an Adult , Arch. Dermat. & Syph. 57:506, 1948. 29. Morgan, D. B.: Report of a Case of Ringworm of the Scalp in an Adult , J. Kansas M. Soc. 50:231, 1949. 30. Hirschmann, V. R., and Olansky, S.: Ringworm of the Scalp in an Adult , Arch. Dermat. & Syph. 61:122, 1950. 31. Greenhouse, J. M.: Trichophyton Violaceum Infection of Scalp and Glabrous Skin of an Adult , A. M. A. Arch. Dermat. & Syph. 63:503, 1951. 32. Kligman, A. M., and Constant, E. R.: Family Epidemic of Tinea Capitis Due to Trichophyton Tonsurans (Variety Sulfureum) , A. M. A. Arch. Dermat. & Syph. 63:493, 1951. 33. Wilson, J. W.: Tinea Capitis (Microsporum Lanosum) in a Woman Aged 72 , A. M. A. Arch. Dermat. & Syph. 63:403, 1951. 34. Maschkilleisson, L. N.: Zur Frage über Trichophytia superficialis capillitii adultorum , Dermat. Wchnschr. 102:765, 1936. 35. Chen, F. K., and Kurotchin, T. J.: Tinea of Scalp Among Adults in Peiping , Nat. M. J. China 17:185, 1931. 36. Mine, M., and Orimo, T.: Statistische Studie der parasitären Hautkrankheiten in der dermatologischen Universitäts Klinik zu Tokyo , Jap. Ztschr. Dermat. u. Urol. 10:457, 1910. 37. Schwartz, L., and others: Control of Ringworm of the Scalp Among School Children in Hagerstown, Md., 1944-1945 , J. A. M. A. 132: 58, 1946.Crossref 38. Dobes, W. L.: Ringworm of the Scalp, an Epidemic in Georgia , J. M. A. Georgia 36:259, 1947. 39. Lynch, F. S., and Fisher, I.: Review of a Minor Epidemic of Ringworm of the Scalp , Am. Pract. 2:179, 1947. 40. Livingood, C. S., and Pillsbury, D. M.: Ringworm of the Scalp , J. Invest. Dermat. 4:43, 1941.Crossref 41. Sullivan, C. M.: Ringworm of the Scalp, Connecticut M. J. 13:1, 1949. 42. Wilson, J. W., and Plunkett, O. A.: Tinea Capitis , Ann. West. Med. & Surg. 1:93, 1947. 43. Sabouraud, R.: Les teignes , Paris, Masson & Cie, 1910. 44. Rothman, S.; Smiljanic, A.; Shapiro, A. L., and Weitkamp, A. W.: Spontaneous Cure of Tinea Capitis in Puberty , J. Invest. Dermat. 8:81, 1947. 45. Kligman, A. M., and Ginsberg, D.: Immunity of Adult Scalp to Infection with Microsporum Audouini , J. Invest. Dermat. 14:345-358, 1950. 46. Lewis, G. M., and Hopper, M.: Ringworm of the Scalp: Clinical and Experimental Studies in Types of Infection Resistant to Treatment , Arch. Dermat. & Syph. 35:466, 1937. 47. Lewis, G. M.; Hopper, M. E., and Reiss F.: Ringworm of the Scalp: Clinical Data on Recent Cases; Experiences with Local Endocrine Therapy , J. A. M. A. 132:62, 1946. 48. Yanez, Weinstein, Bravo, and Guzman: El tratamiento de las tiñas del cuero cabelludo por sustancias gonadales , Rev. méd. Chile 69:713, 1941. 49. Poth, D. O., and Kaliski, S. R.: Estrogen Therapy of Tinea Capitis , Arch. Dermat. & Syph. 45:121, 1942. 50. Zilberberg, B.: Tratamento das tinhas do couro cabeludo pelos hormônios sexuais em alta dose em especial pelos dietilstilbestrois , Rev. paulista med. 27:238, 1945. 51. Ghosh, L. M., and Dey, N. C.: Studies in Ringworm: Therapy of Tinea Capitis by Gonadotropic Hormones , Indian M. Gaz. 80:381, 1945. 52. Dobes, W. L.: Treatment of Tinea Capitis with Estrogenic Hormones , Arch. Dermat. & Syph. 62:58, 1950. 53. Maximov, A. A., and Bloom, W.: Textbook of Histology , Ed. 6, Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Company, 1952, p. 320. 54. Chase, H. B.: Growth of the Hair , Physiol. Rev. 34:113, 1954. 55. Butcher, E. O.: Development of the Pilary System and Replacement of Hair in Mammals , Ann. New York Acad. Sc. 53:508, 1951. 56. Myers, R. J., and Hamilton, J. B.: Regeneration and Rate of Growth of Hairs in Man , Ann. New York Acad. Sc. 53:562, 1951.Crossref 57. Rothman, S.: Physiology and Biochemistry of the Skin , Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1954. 58. Ayres, S., Jr.; Ayres, S., III, and Mirovich, J. L.: Traumatic Marginal Alopecia in White Women , Arch. Dermat. & Syph. 60:1116, 1949. 59. Butcher, E. O.: Effects of Irritants and Thyrotoxin in Hair Growth in Albino Rats , Am. J. Physiol. 129:553, 1940. 60. Kligman, A. M., and Anderson, W. W.: Evaluation of Current Methods for the Local Treatment of Tinea Capitis , J. Invest. Dermat. 6:155, 1951. 61. Kligman, A. M.: The Pathogenesis of Tinea Capitis Due to M. Audouini and Microsporum Canis , J. Invest. Dermat. 18:231, 1952. 62. Hooker, C. W., and Pfeiffer, C. A.: Effects of Sex Hormones upon Body Growth, Skin, Hair, and Sebaceous Glands in the Rat , Endocrinology 32:69, 1943. 63. Schaehter, B., and Marrian, G. F.: The Isolation of Estrone Sulfate from the Urine of Pregnant Mares , J. Biol. Chem. 126:663, 1938. 64. Golden, J. B., and Sevringhaus, E. L.: Inactivation of Estrogenic Hormone of the Ovary by the Liver , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 39: 361, 1938. 65. Martin, G. J., and Gardner, R. E.: The Trichogenic Action of the Sulfhydryl Group in Hereditary Hypotrichosis of the Rat , J. Biol. Chem. 111:193, 1935. 66. Hale, C. W.: Colour and Growth of Hair in Rabbits , Nature, London 155:670, 1945. 67. Gibbs, H. F.: A Study of the Post-Natal Development of the Skin and Hair of the Mouse , Anat. Rec. 80:61, 1941. 68. Butcher, E. O.: The Hair Cycles in the Albino Rat , Anat. Rec. 61:15, 1934. 69. Bissonette, T. H.: Relations of Hair Cycles in Ferrets to Changes in Anterior Hypophysis and to Light Cycles , Anat. Rec. 63:159, 1935. 70. Dawson, H. L.: A Study of Hair Growth in the Guinea Pig , Am. J. Anat. 45:461, 1930. 71. Dawson, H. L.: Hair Growth and Pregnancy , Science 71:607, 1930. 72. Dawson, H. L.: On Hair Growth: A Study of the Effect of Pregnancy on the Activity of the Follicle in the Guinea Pig , Am. J. Anat. 53:89, 1933. 73. Dieke, S. H.: Effects of Removing Various Endocrine Glands on Hair Cycles of Black Rats , Endocrinology 42:315, 1948. 74. Freud, J.: Hypophysis and Hair , Acta brev. Neerl. 4:99, 1934. 75. Freud, J.: Continued Observations Concerning the Growth of Hair , Acta. brev. Neerl. 5:26, 1935. 76. Behrman, H. T.: The Scalp in Health and Disease , St. Louis, C. V. Mosby Company, 1952, p. 98. 77. Rodney, R. H., and Zakon, J. L.: Effect of Endocrine Substances on the Adult Human Scalp , Arch. Dermat. & Syph. 52:323, 1945. 78. Reiss, F., and Bellis, S.: Effects Produced on Pilo-Sebaceous System and Adrenals of the Rabbit by Inunction of Sex Hormones , J. Invest. Dermat. 12:159, 1949. 79. Zuckerman, S.: The Histogenesis of Tissues Sensitive to Estrogens , Biol. Rev. 15:231, 1940.Crossref 80. Nathanson, I. T.; Towne, L. E., and Aub, J. C.: Normal Excretion of Sex Hormones in Childhood , Endocrinology 28:851, 1941.Crossref

Journal

A.M.A. Archives of DermatologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Sep 1, 1955

References