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THE DIABETIC: HIS VISUAL PROGNOSIS: The Third John E. Weeks Lecture

THE DIABETIC: HIS VISUAL PROGNOSIS: The Third John E. Weeks Lecture Abstract IT IS A great honor to have been asked to deliver the third John E. Weeks Lecture. John E. Weeks was one of the small group of illustrious ophthalmologists who laid the foundation for the present high standard of our specialty in America. His contributions are so many that it would hardly be possible to enumerate them here. I shall mention only one: the epoch-making identification in 1886 of the organism which bears his name, the Koch-Weeks bacillus. The microscope he used in this work today occupies a place of honor in the living room of his nephew, the Los Angeles ophthalmologist, Dr. Carrol Weeks. My first contact with Dr. Weeks was in St. Louis in 1922, when he examined me in pathology for the American Board of Ophthalmology. He appeared cold and severe, and I was awed by him. In later years, after his retirement, it was my privilege, References 1. Wagener, H. P., and Wilder, R. M.: The Retinitis of Diabetes Mellitus , J. A. M. A. 76:515-517 ( (Feb. 19) ) 1921. 2. 2. Wagener, H. P.: Retinopathy in Diabetes Mellitus , Prof. Am. Diabetes A. 5:201-216, 1945. 3. 3. Friedenwald, J. S.: Diabetic Retinopathy , Am. J. Ophth. 33:1187-1199 ( (Aug.) ) 1950. 4. 4. Doggart, J. H.: Retinopathy in the Diabetes , Tr. Ophth. Soc. Australia 9:139-153, 1949. 5. 5. Houssay, B. A., and Biasotti, A.: Les troubles diabétiques chez les chiens privés d'hypophyse et de pancréas , Compt. rend. Soc. biol. 105:124-126 ( (Oct. 16) ) 1930. 6. Haist, R. E.; Campbell, J., and Best, C. H.: Prevention of Diabetes , New England J. Med. 223:607-615 ( (Oct. 17) ) 1940.Crossref 7. Price, W. H.; Cori, C. F., and Colowick, S. P.: Effect of Anterior Pituitary Extract and of Insulin on Hexokinase Reaction , J. Biol. Chem. 60:633-634 ( (Oct.) ) 1945. 8. Appel, W.: Hochdruck und Diabetes , Klin. Monatsbl. Augenh. 116:225-237, 1950. 9. Kimmelstiel, P., and Wilson, C.: Intercapillary Lesions in the Glomeruli of the Kidney , Am. J. Path. 12:83-98 ( (Jan.) ) 1936. 10. Biskind, M. S., and Schreier, H.: On the Significance of Nutritional Deficiency in Diabetes , J. Exper. Med. & Surg. 3:299-316 ( (Nov.) ) 1945. 11. Robbins, S. L., and Tucker, A. W., Jr.: Cause of Death in Diabetes: Report of 307 Autopsied Cases , New England J. Med. 231:865-868 ( (Dec. 28) ) 1944. 12. Martensson, J.: Prognosis of Diabetes Mellitus: Study of 221 Patients Surviving at Least 15 Years , Acta med. scandinav. 137:335-354 ( (July) ) 1950. 13. Engel, A.: Sena diabetes komplikationer , Nord. med. 43:902-908 ( (June) ) 1950. 14. White, P., and Waskow, E.: Clinical Pathology of Diabetes in Young Patients , South. M. J. 41:561-567 ( (June) ) 1948. 15. Waite, J. H., and Beetham, W. P.: Visual Mechanism in Diabetes Mellitus: Comparative Study of 2002 Diabetics and 457 Non-Diabetics for Control , New England J. Med. 212:367-379 ( (Feb. 28) ) 1935 16. 429-443 (March 7) 1935. 17. Duke-Elder, W. S.: Text-Book of Ophthalmology , Vol. 4, St. Louis, C. V. Mosby Company, 1949, p. 4437. 18. Rea, R. L.: Neuro-Ophthalmology , Ed. 2, St. Louis, C. V. Mosby Company, 1941, p. 475. 19. Horner, J. F.: Klin. Monatsbl. Augenh. 11:488-492, 1873. 20. Duke-Elder,16 p. 4364. 21. Bellows, John G.: Cataract and Anomalies of the Lens: Growth, Structure, Composition, Metabolism, Disorders and Treatment of the Crystalline Lens , St. Louis, C. V. Mosby Company, 1944, p. 432. 22. Granström, K. O.: Refraktionsveränderungen bei Diabetes mellitus , Acta ophth. 11:1-160, 1933. 23. O'Brien, C. S., and Allen, J. H.: Ocular Changes in Young Diabetic Patients , J. A. M. A. 120:190-192 ( (Sept. 19) ) 1942. 24. Elschnig, A.: Refraktionsänderungen bei Diabetes mellitus , Med. Klin. 19:17-18, 1923. 25. Lawrence, R. D.; Oakley, W., and Barne, I. C.: Temporary Lens Changes in Diabetic Coma and Other Dehydrations , Lancet 2:63-65 ( (July 18) ) 1942. 26. Ballantyne, A. J., and Loewenstein, A.: The Pathology of Diabetic Retinopathy , Tr. Ophth. Soc. U. Kingdom 63:95-119, 1943. 27. McCulloch, C., and Pashby, T. J.: Significance of Conjunctival Aneurysms in Diabetes , Brit. J. Ophth. 34:495-505 ( (Aug.) ) 1950.Crossref 28. Parsons, J. Herbert: Pathology of the Eye , New York, G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1904, Vol. 1, p. 319. 29. Friedenwald, Jonas: The Pathology of the Eye , New York, The Macmillan Company, 1929, p. 211. 30. Clapp, C. A.: Diabetic Iridopathy , Am. J. Ophth. 28:617-623 ( (June) ) 1945. 31. Salus, R.: Rubeosis iridis diabetica, eine bisher unbekannte diabetische Irisveränderung , Med. Klin. 24:257-258 ( (Feb. 17) ) 1928. 32. Fralick, F.: Rubeosis Iridis Diabetica , Am. J. Ophth. 28:123-139, ( (Feb.) ) 1945. 33. Duke-Elder, W. S.: Changes in Refraction in Diabetes Mellitus , Brit. J. Ophth. 9:167-187, 1925.Crossref 34. Lawrence, R. D., and Levy, A. H.: Vascularization of Iris and Cornea in Diabetes , Brit. J. Ophth. 20:198-201 ( (April) ) 1936.Crossref 35. Kurz, O.: Zur Rubeosis iridis diabetica , von Graefes Arch. Ophth. 110:284-302, 1937. 36. Agatston, S. A.: Surgical Eye Complications in Diabetes , Am. J. Ophth. 27:592-594 ( (May) ) 1946. 37. deRoetth, A.: Cyclodiathermy in the Treatment of Glaucoma Due to Rubeosis Iridis Diabetica , Arch. Ophth. 35:20-23 ( (Jan.) ) 1946.Crossref 38. Kirby, D.: Cataract and Diabetes , Arch. Ophth. 9:966-973 ( (June) ) 1933.Crossref 39. Franceschetti, A.: Typical Diabetic Cataract in a Man 47 Years Old , Ophthalmologica 101:241 ( (April) ) 1941.Crossref 40. Bellows, J. G., and Shoch, D. E.: Allozan Diabetes and the Lens , Am. J. Ophth. 33:1555-1564 ( (Oct.) ) 1950. 41. Duke-Elder, W. S.: Text-Book of Ophthalmology , Vol. 3, St. Louis, C. V. Mosby Company, 1940, p. 3208. 42. Anderson, C. L.: Contributions to the Statistics of the Diabetic Eye Complications , Acta ophth. 2:250-256, 1924-1925.Crossref 43. Barkan, O.: Procedure for Extraction of Congenital, Soft and Membranous Cataracts , Am. J. Ophth. 15:117-124 ( (Feb.) ) 1932. 44. Cordes, F. C.: Surgery of Congenital Cataracts , Am. J. Ophth. 31:1073-1084 ( (Sept.) ) 1948. 45. Gifford, H.: On Necessity of Extra Care in the Prognosis and Treatment of Diabetic Cataract , Ophth. Rec. 20:243-245, 1911. 46. Wheeler, J. M.: A Study of Hemorrhage into the Anterior Chamber Subsequent to Operations for Hard Cataract , Tr. Am. Ophth. Soc. 14:742-752, 1916. 47. Wright, R. E.: Lecture on Cataract Surgery , Am. J. Ophth. 20:240-252 ( (March) ) 1937. 48. Kirby, D.: Prevention and Handling of Complications Arising During and After Cataract Extraction: Some Practical Points , Arch. Ophth. 25:866-902 ( (May) ) 1941.Crossref 49. Duke-Elder,40 p. 3207. 50. DeVoe, G.: Hemorrhage After Cataract Extraction: Clinical and Experimental Investigation of Its Cause and Treatment , Arch. Ophth. 28:1069-1096 ( (Dec.) ) 1942.Crossref 51. Ballantyne, A. J.: Retinal Changes Associated with Diabetes and Hypertension: Comparison and Contrast , Arch. Ophth. 33:97-105 ( (Feb.) ) 1945.Crossref 52. Post, L., and Stickle, A. Jr.: Fundus Changes in Juvenile Diabetes , Tr. Am. Ophth. Soc. 48:191-203, 1950. 53. Ashton, N.: Retinal Micro-Aneurysms in the Non-Diabetic Subject , Brit. J. Ophth. 35:189-212 ( (April) ) 1951.Crossref 54. Sysi, R.: Retinal Micro-Aneurysms in Connection with Generalized Diseases Causing Retinopathy , Brit. J. Ophth. 35:560-567 ( (Sept.) ) 1951.Crossref 55. Bloch, F.: Retinopathy in Juvenile Diabetes Mellitus , Arch. Ophth. 28:890-895 ( (Nov.) ) 1942.Crossref 56. Anderson, G. E.: Problem of Retinitis in the Diabetic Patient , Arch. Ophth. 28:679-690 ( (Oct.) ) 1942.Crossref 57. Renard, G., and Dhermy, P.: Considérations sur la pathogénie de la rétinite diabétique , Arch. ophth. 10:170-186, 1950. 58. Friedenwald, J.: A New Approach to Some Problems of Retinal Vascular Disease , Tr. Am. Acad. Ophth. 53:73-87 ( (Nov.-Dec.) ) 1948. 59. Ashton, N.: Vascular Changes in Diabetes with Particular Reference to the Retinal Vessels , Brit. J. Ophth. 33:407-420 ( (July) ) 1949.Crossref 60. Koyanagi, Y.: Spielt die Hypertonie bei der Entstehung der Retinitis diabetica eine wisentliche Rolle? Klin. Monatsbl. Augenh. 94:353-366 ( (March) ) 1935. 61. Nettleship, E.: Hemorrhagic Retinitis in a Patient with Diabetes: Varicose Swellings on a Retinal Vein in the Right Eye , Tr. Ophth. Soc. U. Kingdom 8:161, 1888. 62. Gray, W. A.: Retinal Vessel Changes in Diabetes , Tr. Ophth. Soc. U. Kingdom 51:108-112, 1931. 63. O'Brien, C. S., and Allen, J H.: Unusual Changes in the Retinal Veins in Diabetes , Arch. Ophth. 24:742-757 ( (Oct.) ) 1940.Crossref 64. Gifford, S. R.: Proliferating Retinopathy in Diabetes , Quart. Bull. Northwestern Univ. M. School 17:252-256, 1943. 65. Klien, B.: Retinitis Proliferans , Arch. Ophth. 20:426-436 ( (Sept.) ) 1938.Crossref 66. Gartner, S.: Ocular Pathology of Diabetes , Am. J. Ophth. 33:726-740 ( (March) ) 1950. 67. Root, H.; Sinden, R. H., and Zanca, R.: Factors in the Rate of Development of Vascular Lesions in the Kidneys, Retinae and Peripheral Vessels of the Youthful Diabetic , Am. J. Digest. Dis. 17:179-186 ( (June) ) 1950.Crossref 68. Jackson, R. L.; Hardin, R. C.; Walker, G. L.; Hendricks, A. B., and Kelly, H. G.: Degenerative Changes in Young Diabetic Patients in Relationship to Level of Control , Pediatrics 5:959-971 ( (June) ) 1950. 69. Walker, G. L.: Diabetic Retinopathy in Young Persons , Tr. Am. Ophth. Soc. 48:677-697, 1950. 70. Sherrill, J. W.: Diabetic Retinitis: The Relationship Between Retinal Degenerative Changes and the Degree of Diabetic Control , Bull. Scripps Metabolic Clinic 2:1-17 ( (Oct.) ) 1951. 71. Radnót, M., and Sipos, L.: Beitrag zur Therapie der Retinitis diabetica , Ophthalmologica 119:373-377 ( (June) ) 1950.Crossref 72. Cometta, F., and Cuendet, J. F.: Le traitement des rétinopathies diabétique par la "vasorutine," Bull. mém. Soc. franç. opht. 62:237-243, 1949. 73. Barnes, R. H.: Capillary Fragility Studies in Diabetes Mellitus and the Use of Rutin in Diabetic Retinitis , Am. J. M. Sc. 219:368-373 ( (April) ) 1950.Crossref 74. Saskin, E.; Waldman, S., and Pelner, L.: Diabetic Retinopathy: A New Approach to Therapy with a Steroid Hormone—Testosterone Propionate , Am. J. Ophth. 34:613-617 ( (April) ) 1951. 75. Rabinowitch, I. M.: Relationship Between Impairment of Liver Function and Premature Development of Arteriosclerosis in Diabetes Mellitus , Canad. M. A. J. 58:547-556 ( (June) ) 1948. 76. Guyton, J. and Reese, A.: The Use of X-Ray Therapy for Retinal Diseases Characterized by New Formed Blood Vessels (Eales' Disease, Retinitis Proliferans): Relationship Between Impairment of Liver Function and Premature Development of Arteriosclerosis in Diabetes Mellitus , Tr. Am. Acad. Ophth. 51:525-542 ( (May-June) ) 1947. 77. Beetham, W. P.: Diabetic Retinopathy in Pregnancy , Tr. Am. Ophth. Soc. 48:205-215, 1950. 78. Heyl, A. G.: Intraocular Lipaemia , Tr. Am. Ophth. Soc. 3:54-66, 1880. 79. Dunphy, E. B.: Ocular Conditions Associated with Idiopathic Hyperlipemia , Am. J. Ophth. 33:1579-1586 ( (Oct.) ) 1950. 80. Troncoso, M. U.: Internal Diseases of the Eye and Atlas of Ophthalmoscopy , Ed. 2, Philadelphia, F. A. Davis Company, 1950, p. 378. 81. Wagener, H. P.: Lipemia Retinalis: Report of 3 Cases , Am. J. Ophth. 5:521-525, 1922. 82. Duke-Elder,40 p. 2744. 83. Cordes, F. C., and Harrington, D.: Toxic Amblyopia Due to Tobacco and Alcohol; Treatment with Vasodilators: Report of 8 Cases , Arch. Ophth. 13:435-444 ( (March) ) 1935.Crossref 84. Senn, H. E.: Über die Wirkung von Nicotinsäure und ihren Abköminlingen bei Augenkrankheiten , Praxis 38:569-570 ( (June 23) ) 1949. 85. Walsh, F.: Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology , Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Company, 1947, p. 840. 86. Wolfram, D. J.: Diabetes Mellitus and Simple Optic Atrophy Among Siblings: Report of 4 Cases , Proc. Staff Meet., Mayo Clin. 13:715-718 ( (Nov. 9) ) 1938. 87. Tyrer, J.: Case of Infantilism with Goiter, Diabetes Mellitus, Mental Defect and Bilateral Primary Optic Atrophy , M. J. Australia 2:398-401 ( (Nov. 13) ) 1943. 88. Duke-Elder,16 p. 4114. 89. Cogan, D.: Neurology of the Ocular Muscles , Springfield, Charles C Thomas, Publisher, 1948, p. 41. 90. Tassman, I. S.: The Eye Manifestations of Internal Diseases , St. Louis, C. V. Mosby Company, 1946, p. 502. 91. Moore, R.: Medical Ophthalmology , Philadelphia, P. Blakiston's Sons & Company, 1922, p. 172. 92. Wolff, L. K., and de Jongh, S. E.: Über eine augenfrucherniedrigende Substanz , Klin. Wchnschr. 4:344-348, 1925.Crossref 93. Joslin, E. P.: Furtherance of Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus , J. A. M. A. 139:1-7 ( (Jan. 1) ) 1949.Crossref 94. Kumm, G.; Mehlhose, F., and Obal, A.: Augenbefunde bei jugendlichen Diabetikern , Klin. Monatsbl. Augenh. 116:482-498, 1950. 95. Martensson, J., and Palm, E.: Ocular Findings in Long-Standing Diabetes Mellitus: Report of 163 Cases of at Least 15 Years' Duration , Acta med. scandinav. , (Supp. 246) , pp. 154-165, 1950. 96. Gifford, H.: Diabetes: Panel Discussion , J. Omaha Mid-West Clin. Soc. 10:96-98 ( (Aug.) ) 1949. 97. Chute, A. L.: Survey of Patients with Juvenile Diabetes Mellitus , Am. J. Dis. Child. 75:1-10 ( (Jan.) ) 1948. 98. Dolger, H.: Clinical Evolution of Vascular Damage in Diabetes Mellitus , J. A. M. A. 134:1289-1291 ( (Aug. 16) ) 1947.Crossref 99. Joslin, Elliott: Diabetes (Correspondence) , J. A. M. A. 139:603 ( (Feb. 26) ) 1949.Crossref 100. Robson, H., in Discussion on Diabetes , Bull. Univ. Calif. M. Center 1:415 ( (Feb.) ) 1950. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png A.M.A. Archives of Ophthalmology American Medical Association

THE DIABETIC: HIS VISUAL PROGNOSIS: The Third John E. Weeks Lecture

A.M.A. Archives of Ophthalmology , Volume 48 (5) – Nov 1, 1952

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Abstract

Abstract IT IS A great honor to have been asked to deliver the third John E. Weeks Lecture. John E. Weeks was one of the small group of illustrious ophthalmologists who laid the foundation for the present high standard of our specialty in America. His contributions are so many that it would hardly be possible to enumerate them here. I shall mention only one: the epoch-making identification in 1886 of the organism which bears his name, the Koch-Weeks bacillus. The microscope he used in this work today occupies a place of honor in the living room of his nephew, the Los Angeles ophthalmologist, Dr. Carrol Weeks. My first contact with Dr. Weeks was in St. Louis in 1922, when he examined me in pathology for the American Board of Ophthalmology. He appeared cold and severe, and I was awed by him. In later years, after his retirement, it was my privilege, References 1. Wagener, H. P., and Wilder, R. M.: The Retinitis of Diabetes Mellitus , J. A. M. A. 76:515-517 ( (Feb. 19) ) 1921. 2. 2. Wagener, H. P.: Retinopathy in Diabetes Mellitus , Prof. Am. Diabetes A. 5:201-216, 1945. 3. 3. Friedenwald, J. S.: Diabetic Retinopathy , Am. J. Ophth. 33:1187-1199 ( (Aug.) ) 1950. 4. 4. Doggart, J. H.: Retinopathy in the Diabetes , Tr. Ophth. Soc. Australia 9:139-153, 1949. 5. 5. Houssay, B. A., and Biasotti, A.: Les troubles diabétiques chez les chiens privés d'hypophyse et de pancréas , Compt. rend. Soc. biol. 105:124-126 ( (Oct. 16) ) 1930. 6. Haist, R. E.; Campbell, J., and Best, C. H.: Prevention of Diabetes , New England J. Med. 223:607-615 ( (Oct. 17) ) 1940.Crossref 7. Price, W. H.; Cori, C. F., and Colowick, S. P.: Effect of Anterior Pituitary Extract and of Insulin on Hexokinase Reaction , J. Biol. Chem. 60:633-634 ( (Oct.) ) 1945. 8. Appel, W.: Hochdruck und Diabetes , Klin. Monatsbl. Augenh. 116:225-237, 1950. 9. Kimmelstiel, P., and Wilson, C.: Intercapillary Lesions in the Glomeruli of the Kidney , Am. J. Path. 12:83-98 ( (Jan.) ) 1936. 10. Biskind, M. S., and Schreier, H.: On the Significance of Nutritional Deficiency in Diabetes , J. Exper. Med. & Surg. 3:299-316 ( (Nov.) ) 1945. 11. Robbins, S. L., and Tucker, A. W., Jr.: Cause of Death in Diabetes: Report of 307 Autopsied Cases , New England J. Med. 231:865-868 ( (Dec. 28) ) 1944. 12. Martensson, J.: Prognosis of Diabetes Mellitus: Study of 221 Patients Surviving at Least 15 Years , Acta med. scandinav. 137:335-354 ( (July) ) 1950. 13. Engel, A.: Sena diabetes komplikationer , Nord. med. 43:902-908 ( (June) ) 1950. 14. White, P., and Waskow, E.: Clinical Pathology of Diabetes in Young Patients , South. M. J. 41:561-567 ( (June) ) 1948. 15. Waite, J. H., and Beetham, W. P.: Visual Mechanism in Diabetes Mellitus: Comparative Study of 2002 Diabetics and 457 Non-Diabetics for Control , New England J. Med. 212:367-379 ( (Feb. 28) ) 1935 16. 429-443 (March 7) 1935. 17. Duke-Elder, W. S.: Text-Book of Ophthalmology , Vol. 4, St. Louis, C. V. Mosby Company, 1949, p. 4437. 18. Rea, R. L.: Neuro-Ophthalmology , Ed. 2, St. Louis, C. V. Mosby Company, 1941, p. 475. 19. Horner, J. F.: Klin. Monatsbl. Augenh. 11:488-492, 1873. 20. Duke-Elder,16 p. 4364. 21. Bellows, John G.: Cataract and Anomalies of the Lens: Growth, Structure, Composition, Metabolism, Disorders and Treatment of the Crystalline Lens , St. Louis, C. V. Mosby Company, 1944, p. 432. 22. Granström, K. O.: Refraktionsveränderungen bei Diabetes mellitus , Acta ophth. 11:1-160, 1933. 23. O'Brien, C. S., and Allen, J. H.: Ocular Changes in Young Diabetic Patients , J. A. M. A. 120:190-192 ( (Sept. 19) ) 1942. 24. Elschnig, A.: Refraktionsänderungen bei Diabetes mellitus , Med. Klin. 19:17-18, 1923. 25. Lawrence, R. D.; Oakley, W., and Barne, I. C.: Temporary Lens Changes in Diabetic Coma and Other Dehydrations , Lancet 2:63-65 ( (July 18) ) 1942. 26. Ballantyne, A. J., and Loewenstein, A.: The Pathology of Diabetic Retinopathy , Tr. Ophth. Soc. U. Kingdom 63:95-119, 1943. 27. McCulloch, C., and Pashby, T. J.: Significance of Conjunctival Aneurysms in Diabetes , Brit. J. Ophth. 34:495-505 ( (Aug.) ) 1950.Crossref 28. Parsons, J. Herbert: Pathology of the Eye , New York, G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1904, Vol. 1, p. 319. 29. Friedenwald, Jonas: The Pathology of the Eye , New York, The Macmillan Company, 1929, p. 211. 30. Clapp, C. A.: Diabetic Iridopathy , Am. J. Ophth. 28:617-623 ( (June) ) 1945. 31. Salus, R.: Rubeosis iridis diabetica, eine bisher unbekannte diabetische Irisveränderung , Med. Klin. 24:257-258 ( (Feb. 17) ) 1928. 32. Fralick, F.: Rubeosis Iridis Diabetica , Am. J. Ophth. 28:123-139, ( (Feb.) ) 1945. 33. Duke-Elder, W. S.: Changes in Refraction in Diabetes Mellitus , Brit. J. Ophth. 9:167-187, 1925.Crossref 34. Lawrence, R. D., and Levy, A. H.: Vascularization of Iris and Cornea in Diabetes , Brit. J. Ophth. 20:198-201 ( (April) ) 1936.Crossref 35. Kurz, O.: Zur Rubeosis iridis diabetica , von Graefes Arch. Ophth. 110:284-302, 1937. 36. Agatston, S. A.: Surgical Eye Complications in Diabetes , Am. J. Ophth. 27:592-594 ( (May) ) 1946. 37. deRoetth, A.: Cyclodiathermy in the Treatment of Glaucoma Due to Rubeosis Iridis Diabetica , Arch. Ophth. 35:20-23 ( (Jan.) ) 1946.Crossref 38. Kirby, D.: Cataract and Diabetes , Arch. Ophth. 9:966-973 ( (June) ) 1933.Crossref 39. Franceschetti, A.: Typical Diabetic Cataract in a Man 47 Years Old , Ophthalmologica 101:241 ( (April) ) 1941.Crossref 40. Bellows, J. G., and Shoch, D. E.: Allozan Diabetes and the Lens , Am. J. Ophth. 33:1555-1564 ( (Oct.) ) 1950. 41. Duke-Elder, W. S.: Text-Book of Ophthalmology , Vol. 3, St. Louis, C. V. Mosby Company, 1940, p. 3208. 42. Anderson, C. L.: Contributions to the Statistics of the Diabetic Eye Complications , Acta ophth. 2:250-256, 1924-1925.Crossref 43. Barkan, O.: Procedure for Extraction of Congenital, Soft and Membranous Cataracts , Am. J. Ophth. 15:117-124 ( (Feb.) ) 1932. 44. Cordes, F. C.: Surgery of Congenital Cataracts , Am. J. Ophth. 31:1073-1084 ( (Sept.) ) 1948. 45. Gifford, H.: On Necessity of Extra Care in the Prognosis and Treatment of Diabetic Cataract , Ophth. Rec. 20:243-245, 1911. 46. Wheeler, J. M.: A Study of Hemorrhage into the Anterior Chamber Subsequent to Operations for Hard Cataract , Tr. Am. Ophth. Soc. 14:742-752, 1916. 47. Wright, R. E.: Lecture on Cataract Surgery , Am. J. Ophth. 20:240-252 ( (March) ) 1937. 48. Kirby, D.: Prevention and Handling of Complications Arising During and After Cataract Extraction: Some Practical Points , Arch. Ophth. 25:866-902 ( (May) ) 1941.Crossref 49. Duke-Elder,40 p. 3207. 50. DeVoe, G.: Hemorrhage After Cataract Extraction: Clinical and Experimental Investigation of Its Cause and Treatment , Arch. Ophth. 28:1069-1096 ( (Dec.) ) 1942.Crossref 51. Ballantyne, A. J.: Retinal Changes Associated with Diabetes and Hypertension: Comparison and Contrast , Arch. Ophth. 33:97-105 ( (Feb.) ) 1945.Crossref 52. Post, L., and Stickle, A. Jr.: Fundus Changes in Juvenile Diabetes , Tr. Am. Ophth. Soc. 48:191-203, 1950. 53. Ashton, N.: Retinal Micro-Aneurysms in the Non-Diabetic Subject , Brit. J. Ophth. 35:189-212 ( (April) ) 1951.Crossref 54. Sysi, R.: Retinal Micro-Aneurysms in Connection with Generalized Diseases Causing Retinopathy , Brit. J. Ophth. 35:560-567 ( (Sept.) ) 1951.Crossref 55. Bloch, F.: Retinopathy in Juvenile Diabetes Mellitus , Arch. Ophth. 28:890-895 ( (Nov.) ) 1942.Crossref 56. Anderson, G. E.: Problem of Retinitis in the Diabetic Patient , Arch. Ophth. 28:679-690 ( (Oct.) ) 1942.Crossref 57. Renard, G., and Dhermy, P.: Considérations sur la pathogénie de la rétinite diabétique , Arch. ophth. 10:170-186, 1950. 58. Friedenwald, J.: A New Approach to Some Problems of Retinal Vascular Disease , Tr. Am. Acad. Ophth. 53:73-87 ( (Nov.-Dec.) ) 1948. 59. Ashton, N.: Vascular Changes in Diabetes with Particular Reference to the Retinal Vessels , Brit. J. Ophth. 33:407-420 ( (July) ) 1949.Crossref 60. Koyanagi, Y.: Spielt die Hypertonie bei der Entstehung der Retinitis diabetica eine wisentliche Rolle? Klin. Monatsbl. Augenh. 94:353-366 ( (March) ) 1935. 61. Nettleship, E.: Hemorrhagic Retinitis in a Patient with Diabetes: Varicose Swellings on a Retinal Vein in the Right Eye , Tr. Ophth. Soc. U. Kingdom 8:161, 1888. 62. Gray, W. A.: Retinal Vessel Changes in Diabetes , Tr. Ophth. Soc. U. Kingdom 51:108-112, 1931. 63. O'Brien, C. S., and Allen, J H.: Unusual Changes in the Retinal Veins in Diabetes , Arch. Ophth. 24:742-757 ( (Oct.) ) 1940.Crossref 64. Gifford, S. R.: Proliferating Retinopathy in Diabetes , Quart. Bull. Northwestern Univ. M. School 17:252-256, 1943. 65. Klien, B.: Retinitis Proliferans , Arch. Ophth. 20:426-436 ( (Sept.) ) 1938.Crossref 66. Gartner, S.: Ocular Pathology of Diabetes , Am. J. Ophth. 33:726-740 ( (March) ) 1950. 67. Root, H.; Sinden, R. H., and Zanca, R.: Factors in the Rate of Development of Vascular Lesions in the Kidneys, Retinae and Peripheral Vessels of the Youthful Diabetic , Am. J. Digest. Dis. 17:179-186 ( (June) ) 1950.Crossref 68. Jackson, R. L.; Hardin, R. C.; Walker, G. L.; Hendricks, A. B., and Kelly, H. G.: Degenerative Changes in Young Diabetic Patients in Relationship to Level of Control , Pediatrics 5:959-971 ( (June) ) 1950. 69. Walker, G. L.: Diabetic Retinopathy in Young Persons , Tr. Am. Ophth. Soc. 48:677-697, 1950. 70. Sherrill, J. W.: Diabetic Retinitis: The Relationship Between Retinal Degenerative Changes and the Degree of Diabetic Control , Bull. Scripps Metabolic Clinic 2:1-17 ( (Oct.) ) 1951. 71. Radnót, M., and Sipos, L.: Beitrag zur Therapie der Retinitis diabetica , Ophthalmologica 119:373-377 ( (June) ) 1950.Crossref 72. Cometta, F., and Cuendet, J. F.: Le traitement des rétinopathies diabétique par la "vasorutine," Bull. mém. Soc. franç. opht. 62:237-243, 1949. 73. Barnes, R. 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Journal

A.M.A. Archives of OphthalmologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Nov 1, 1952

References

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