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The Deadly Quartet: Upper-Body Obesity, Glucose Intolerance, Hypertriglyceridemia, and Hypertension

The Deadly Quartet: Upper-Body Obesity, Glucose Intolerance, Hypertriglyceridemia, and Hypertension Abstract • The contribution of obesity to cardiovascular risk has not been adequately appreciated because of a failure to recognize the involvement of upper-body predominance of body weight with hypertension, diabetes, and hypertriglyceridemia even in the absence of significant overall obesity. This article examines the evidence that upper-body obesity, as usually induced by caloric excess in the presence of androgens, mediates these problems by way of hyperinsulinemia. Because of these interrelationships, there is a need to identify and prevent upper-body obesity or, failing that, to provide therapies that will control the associated problems without aggravating hyperinsulinemia. (Arch Intern Med. 1989;149:1514-1520) References 1. Taylor WC, Pass TM, Shepard DS, Komaroff AL. Cholesterol reduction and life expectancy: a model incorporating multiple risk factors . Ann Intern Med . 1987;106:605-614.Crossref 2. Garraway WM, Whisnant JP. The changing pattern of hypertension and the declining incidence of stroke . JAMA . 1987;258:214-217.Crossref 3. Weinstein MC, Coxson PG, Williams LW, Pass TM, Stason WB, Goldman L. Forecasting coronary heart disease incidence, mortality, and cost: the coronary heart disease policy model . Am J Public Health . 1987;77:1417-1426.Crossref 4. Dannenberg AL, Drizd T, Horan MJ, Haynes SG, Leaverton PE. Progress in the battle against hypertension: changes in blood pressure levels in the United States from 1960 to 1980 . Hypertension . 1987;10:226-233.Crossref 5. National Center for Health Statistics, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Collaborative Lipid Group. Trends in serum cholesterol levels among US adults aged 20 to 74 years: data from the national health and nutrition examination surveys, 1960 to 1980 . JAMA . 1987;257:937-942.Crossref 6. Shaper AG, Pocock SJ, Phillips AN, Walker M. Identifying men at high risk of heart attacks: strategy for use in general practice . Br Med J . 1986;293:474-479.Crossref 7. Kannel WB, Wolf PA, Castelli WP, D'Agostino RB. Fibrinogen and risk of cardiovascular disease: the Framingham study . JAMA . 1987;258:1183-1186.Crossref 8. Keys A. Overweight, obesity, coronary heart disease, and mortality: the W.O. Altwater Memorial Lecture . In: Nutrition in the 1980s: Constraints on Our Knowledge . New York, NY: Alan R Liss Inc; 1981:31-46. 9. Barrett-Connor EL. Obesity, atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease . Ann Intern Med . 1985;103:1010-1019.Crossref 10. Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Hennekens CH, Willett WC. Body weight and longevity: a reassessment . JAMA . 1987;257:353-358.Crossref 11. National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Panel on the Health Implications of Obesity. Health implications of obesity: National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference Statement . Ann Intern Med . 1985;103:147-151.Crossref 12. Vague J. La differenciation sexuelle: facteur determinant des formes: de l'obesite . Presse Med . 1947;55:339-340. 13. Kissebah AH, Vydelingum N, Murray R, et al. Relation of body fat distribution to metabolic complications of obesity . J Clin Endocrinol Metab . 1982;54:254-260.Crossref 14. Krotkiewski M, Björntorp P, Sjöström L, Smith U. Impact of obesity on metabolism in men and women: importance of regional adipose tissue distribution . JClin Invest . 1983;72:1150-1162.Crossref 15. Modan M, Halkin H, Almog S, et al. Hyperinsulinemia: a link between hypertension obesity and glucose intolerance . J Clin Invest . 1985;75:809-817.Crossref 16. Stern MP, Haffner SM. Body fat distribution and hyperinsulinemia as risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease . Arteriosclerosis . 1986;6:123-130.Crossref 17. Landsberg L. Diet, obesity and hypertension: an hypothesis involving insulin, the sympathetic nervous system, and adaptive thermogenesis . Q J Med . 1986;61:1081-1090. 18. Reaven GM, Hoffman BB. A role for insulin in the aetiology and course of hypertension? Lancet . 1987;2:435-436.Crossref 19. Van Itallie TB. Health implications of overweight and obesity in the United States . Ann Intern Med . 1985;103:983-988.Crossref 20. Kaplan NM. Hypertension in the population at large . In: Kaplan NM, ed. Clinical Hypertension . 4th ed. Baltimore, Md: Williams & Wilkins; 1986:1-28. 21. Minaker KL. Aging and diabetes mellitus as risk factors for vascular disease . Am J Med . 1987;82( (suppl 1B) ):47-53.Crossref 22. Foster CJ, Weinsier RL, Birch R, et al. Obesity and serum lipids: an evaluation of the relative contribution of body fat and fat distribution to lipid levels . Int J Obesity . 1987;11:151-161. 23. Morgan BLG. Obesity . Nutr Health . 1987;8:1-6. 24. Pan W-H, Nanas S, Dyer A, et al. The role of weight in the positive association between age and blood pressure . Am J Epidemiol . 1986;124:612623. 25. Garrison RJ, Kannel WB, Stokes J III, Castelli WP. Incidence and precursors of hypertension in young adults: the Framingham offspring study . Preventive Med . 1987;16:235-251.Crossref 26. Donahue RP, Abbott RD, Bloom E, Reed DM, Yano K. Central obesity and coronary heart disease in men . Lancet . 1987;1:882-884. 27. Sheldon WW, Stevens SS, Tucker WB. The Varieties of Human Physique . New York, NY: Harper & Row Publishers Inc; 1940. 28. Gildea EF, Kahn E, Man EB. The relationship between body build and serum lipoids and a discussion of these qualities as pyknophilic and leptophilic factors in the structure of the personality . Am J Psychiatry . 1936;92:1247-1260. 29. Robinson SC. Hypertension in relation to height: its variation with body build and obesity . JLab Clin Med . 1941;26:930-949. 30. Vague J. The degree of masculine differentiation of obesities: a factor determining predisposition to diabetes, atherosclerosis, gout, and uric calculous disease . Am J Clin Nutr . 1956;4:20-34. 31. Sjötröm L, Smith U, Bjôrntop P, Krotkiewski M. Cellularity in different regions of adipose tissue in young men and women . Metabolism . 1972;21:1143-1153.Crossref 32. Haffner SM, Stern MP, Hazuda HP, Pugh J, Patterson JK. Do upperbody and centralized adiposity measure different aspects of regional body-fat distribution? relationship to non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, lipids, and lipoproteins . Diabetes . 1987;36:43-51.Crossref 33. Garn SM, Sullivan TV, Hawthorne V. Evidence against functional differences between 'central' and 'peripheral' fat . Am J Clin Nutr . 1988;47:836-839. 34. Ashwell M, Cole TJ, Dixon AK. Obesity: new insight into the anthropometric classification of fat distribution shown by computed tomography . Br Med J . 1985;290:1692-1694.Crossref 35. Feldman R, Sender AJ, Siegelaub AB. Difference in diabetic and nondiabetic fat distribution pattern by skinfold measurements . Diabetes . 1969; 18:478-486. 36. Baumgartner RN, Roche AF, Chumlea WC, Siervogel RM, Glueck CJ. Fatness and fat patterns: associations with plasma lipids and blood pressures in adults, 18 to 57 years of age . Am J Epidemiol . 1987;126:614-628. 37. Blair D, HabichtJ-P, Sims EAH, Sylwester D, Abraham S. Evidence for an increased risk for hypertension with centrally located body fat and the effect of race and sex on this risk . Am J Epidemiol . 1984;119:526-540. 38. Larsson B, Svärdsudd K, Welin L, Wilhelmsen L, Björntorp P, Tibblin G. Abdominal adipose tissue distribution, obesity, and risk of cardiovascular disease and death: 13-year follow up of participants in the study of men born in 1913 . BrMedJ . 1984;288:1401-1404. 39. Hartz AJ, Rupley DC, Rimm AA. The association of girth measurements with disease in 32,856 women . Am J Epidemiol . 1984;119:71-80. 40. Shear CL, Freedman DS, Burke GL, Harsha DW, Berenson GS. Body fat patterning and blood pressure in children and young adults: the Bogalusa heart study . Hypertension . 1987;9:236-244.Crossref 41. Olefsky JM, Kolterman OG, Scarlett JA. Insulin action and resistance in obesity and noninsulin-dependent type II diabetes mellitus . Am J Physiol . 1982;243:E15-30. 42. Peiris AN, Mueller RA, Smith GA, Struve MF, Kissebah AH. Splanchnic insulin metabolism in obesity: influence of body fat distribution . J Clin Invest . 1986;78:1648-1657.Crossref 43. Freedman DS, Srinivasan SR, Burke GL, et al. Relation of body fat distribution to hyperinsulinemia in children and adolescents: the Bogalusa heart study . Am J Clin Nutr . 1987;46:403-410. 44. Peiris AN, Mueller RA, Struve MF, Smith GA, Kissebah AH. Relationship of androgenic activity to splanchnic insulin metabolism and peripheral glucose utilization in premenopausal women . J Clin Endocrinol Metab . 1987;64:162-169.Crossref 45. Cohen JC, Hickman R. Insulin resistance and diminished glucose tolerance in powerlifters ingesting anabolic steroids . J Clin Endocrinol Metab . 1987;64:960-963.Crossref 46. Kather H, Zollig K. Simon B, Schlierf G. Human fat cell adenylate cyclase: regional differences in adrenaline responsiveness . Eur J Clin Invest . 1977;7:595-597.Crossref 47. Björntorp P. Adipose tissue in obesity (Willendorf Lecture). In: Hirsch J, Van Itallie TB, eds. Recent Advances in Obesity Research, IV: Proceedings of the 4th International Congress on Obesity. London, England: John Libbey; 1985:163-170. 48. Richelsen B. Increased alpha2: but similar beta-adrenergic receptor activities in subcutaneous gluteal adipocytes from females compared with males . Eur J Clin Invest . 1986;16:302-309.Crossref 49. Welborn TA, Breckenridge A, Dollery CT, Rubinstein AH, Fraser TR. Serum-insulin in essential hypertension and in peripheral vascular disease . Lancet . 1966;1:1336-1337.Crossref 50. Berglund G, Larsson B, Andersson O, et al. Body composition and glucose metabolism in hypertensive middle-aged males . Acta Med Scand . 1976;200:163-169.Crossref 51. Ferrannini E, Buzzigoli G, Bonadonna R, et al. Insulin resistance: in essential hypertension . N Engl J Med . 1987;317:350-357.Crossref 52. Shen D-C, Shieh S-M, Fuh MM-T, Wu D-A, Chen Y-DI, Reaven GM. Resistance to insulin-stimulated-glucose uptake in patients with hypertension . J Clin Endocrinol Metab . 1988;66:580-583.Crossref 53. Ruderman NB, Schneider SH, Berchtold P. The 'metabolically-obese,' normal-weight individual . Am J Clin Nutr . 1981;34:1617-1621. 54. Deibert DC, DeFronzo RA. Epinephrine-induced insulin resistance in man . J Clin Invest . 1980;65:717-721.Crossref 55. DeFronzo RA, Cooke CR, Andres R, Faloona GR, Davis PJ. The effect of insulin on renal handling of sodium, potassium, calcium, and phosphate in man . J Clin Invest . 1975;55:845-855.Crossref 56. Baum M. Insulin stimulates volume absorption in the rabbit proximal convoluted tubule . J Clin Invest . 1987;79:1104-1109.Crossref 57. Rowe JW, Young JB, Minaker KL, Stevens AL, Pallotta J, Landsberg L. Effect of insulin and glucose infusions on sympathetic nervous system activity in normal man . Diabetes . 1981;30:219-225.Crossref 58. Lever AF. Slow pressor mechanisms in hypertension: a role for hypertrophy of resistance vessels? J Hypertension . 1986;4:515-524.Crossref 59. Stout RW, Bierman EL, Ross R. Effect of insulin on the proliferation of cultured primate arterial smooth muscle cells . Circ Res . 1975;36:319-327.Crossref 60. King GL, Goodman AD, Buzney S, Moses A, Kahn CR. Receptors and growth-promoting effects of insulin and insulinlike growth factors on cells from bovine retinal capillaries and aorta . J Clin Invest . 1985;75:1028-1036.Crossref 61. Draznin B, Kao M, Sussman KE. Insulin and glyburide increase cytosolic free-Ca2 concentration in isolated rat adipocytes . Diabetes . 1987;36:174-178.Crossref 62. Davis FB, Davis PJ, Nat G, et al. The effect of in vivo glucose administration on human erythrocyte Ca2 -ATPase activity and on enzyme responsiveness in vitro to thyroid hormone and calmodulin . Diabetes . 1985;34:639-646.Crossref 63. Pershadsingh HA, McDonald JM. Direct addition of insulin inhibits a high affinity Ca2 -ATPase in isolated adipocyte plasma membranes . Nature . 1979;281:495-497.Crossref 64. Rocchini AP, Moorehead C, Wentz E, Deremer S. Obesity-induced hypertension in the dog . Hypertension . 1987;9( (suppl III) ):III-64-68.Crossref 65. Rocchini AP, Katch V, Schork A, Kelch RP. Insulin and blood pressure during weight loss in obese adolescents . Hypertension . 1987;10:267-273.Crossref 66. Parillo M, Coulston A, Hollenbeck C, Reaven G. Effect of a low fat diet on carbohydrate metabolism in patients with hypertension . Hypertension . 1988;11:244-248.Crossref 67. Storlien LH, Kraegen EW, Chisholm DJ, Ford GL, Bruce DG, Pascoe WS. Fish oil prevents insulin resistance induced by high-fat feeding in rats . Science . 1987;237:885-888.Crossref 68. Krotkiewski M, Mandroukas K, Sjöström L, Sullivan L, Wetterqvist H, Björntorp. Effects of long-term physical training on body fat, metabolism, and blood pressure in obesity . Metabolism . 1979;28:650-658.Crossref 69. Dornhorst A, Powell SH, Pensky J. Aggravation by propranolol of hyperglycaemic effect of hydrochlorothiazide in type II diabetics without alteration of insulin secretion . Lancet . 1985;1:123-126.Crossref 70. Weidmann P, Uehlinger DE, Gerber A. Antihypertensive treatment and serum lipoproteins . J Hypertension . 1985;3:297-306.Crossref 71. MacMahon SW, Cutler JA, Furberg CD, Payne GH. The effects of drug treatment for hypertension on morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease: a review of randomized controlled trials . Prog Cardiovasc Dis . 1986;29( (suppl 1) ):99-118.Crossref 72. Zatz R, Dunn BR, Meyer TW, et al. Prevention of diabetic glomerulopathy by pharmacological amelioration of glomerular capillary hypertension . J Clin Invest . 1986;77:1925-1930.Crossref 73. Pollare T, Lithell H, Selinus I, Berne C. Application of prazosin is associated with an increase of insulin sensitivity in obese patients with hypertension . Diabetologia . 1988;31:415-420.Crossref 74. Khoury P, Morrison JA, Mellies MJ, Glueck CJ. Weight change since age 18 years in 30- to 55-year-old whites and blacks: associations with lipid values, lipoprotein levels, and blood pressure . JAMA . 1983;250:3179-3187.Crossref 75. Burke GL, Webber LS, Srinivasan SR, Radhakrishnamurthy B, Freedman DS, Berenson GS. Fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels and their relationship to cardiovascular risk factors in children: Bogalusa heart study . Metabolism . 1986;35:441-446.Crossref 76. Lindholm L. Parental obesity combined with hypertension: an indicator of excess risk of hypertension in offspring . Acta Med Scand . 1984;216:277-285.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Internal Medicine American Medical Association

The Deadly Quartet: Upper-Body Obesity, Glucose Intolerance, Hypertriglyceridemia, and Hypertension

Archives of Internal Medicine , Volume 149 (7) – Jul 1, 1989

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American Medical Association
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Copyright © 1989 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
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0003-9926
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Abstract

Abstract • The contribution of obesity to cardiovascular risk has not been adequately appreciated because of a failure to recognize the involvement of upper-body predominance of body weight with hypertension, diabetes, and hypertriglyceridemia even in the absence of significant overall obesity. This article examines the evidence that upper-body obesity, as usually induced by caloric excess in the presence of androgens, mediates these problems by way of hyperinsulinemia. Because of these interrelationships, there is a need to identify and prevent upper-body obesity or, failing that, to provide therapies that will control the associated problems without aggravating hyperinsulinemia. (Arch Intern Med. 1989;149:1514-1520) References 1. Taylor WC, Pass TM, Shepard DS, Komaroff AL. Cholesterol reduction and life expectancy: a model incorporating multiple risk factors . Ann Intern Med . 1987;106:605-614.Crossref 2. Garraway WM, Whisnant JP. The changing pattern of hypertension and the declining incidence of stroke . JAMA . 1987;258:214-217.Crossref 3. Weinstein MC, Coxson PG, Williams LW, Pass TM, Stason WB, Goldman L. Forecasting coronary heart disease incidence, mortality, and cost: the coronary heart disease policy model . Am J Public Health . 1987;77:1417-1426.Crossref 4. Dannenberg AL, Drizd T, Horan MJ, Haynes SG, Leaverton PE. Progress in the battle against hypertension: changes in blood pressure levels in the United States from 1960 to 1980 . Hypertension . 1987;10:226-233.Crossref 5. National Center for Health Statistics, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Collaborative Lipid Group. Trends in serum cholesterol levels among US adults aged 20 to 74 years: data from the national health and nutrition examination surveys, 1960 to 1980 . JAMA . 1987;257:937-942.Crossref 6. Shaper AG, Pocock SJ, Phillips AN, Walker M. Identifying men at high risk of heart attacks: strategy for use in general practice . Br Med J . 1986;293:474-479.Crossref 7. Kannel WB, Wolf PA, Castelli WP, D'Agostino RB. Fibrinogen and risk of cardiovascular disease: the Framingham study . JAMA . 1987;258:1183-1186.Crossref 8. Keys A. Overweight, obesity, coronary heart disease, and mortality: the W.O. Altwater Memorial Lecture . In: Nutrition in the 1980s: Constraints on Our Knowledge . New York, NY: Alan R Liss Inc; 1981:31-46. 9. Barrett-Connor EL. Obesity, atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease . Ann Intern Med . 1985;103:1010-1019.Crossref 10. Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Hennekens CH, Willett WC. Body weight and longevity: a reassessment . JAMA . 1987;257:353-358.Crossref 11. National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Panel on the Health Implications of Obesity. Health implications of obesity: National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference Statement . Ann Intern Med . 1985;103:147-151.Crossref 12. Vague J. La differenciation sexuelle: facteur determinant des formes: de l'obesite . Presse Med . 1947;55:339-340. 13. Kissebah AH, Vydelingum N, Murray R, et al. Relation of body fat distribution to metabolic complications of obesity . J Clin Endocrinol Metab . 1982;54:254-260.Crossref 14. Krotkiewski M, Björntorp P, Sjöström L, Smith U. Impact of obesity on metabolism in men and women: importance of regional adipose tissue distribution . JClin Invest . 1983;72:1150-1162.Crossref 15. Modan M, Halkin H, Almog S, et al. Hyperinsulinemia: a link between hypertension obesity and glucose intolerance . J Clin Invest . 1985;75:809-817.Crossref 16. Stern MP, Haffner SM. Body fat distribution and hyperinsulinemia as risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease . Arteriosclerosis . 1986;6:123-130.Crossref 17. Landsberg L. Diet, obesity and hypertension: an hypothesis involving insulin, the sympathetic nervous system, and adaptive thermogenesis . Q J Med . 1986;61:1081-1090. 18. Reaven GM, Hoffman BB. A role for insulin in the aetiology and course of hypertension? Lancet . 1987;2:435-436.Crossref 19. Van Itallie TB. Health implications of overweight and obesity in the United States . Ann Intern Med . 1985;103:983-988.Crossref 20. Kaplan NM. Hypertension in the population at large . In: Kaplan NM, ed. Clinical Hypertension . 4th ed. Baltimore, Md: Williams & Wilkins; 1986:1-28. 21. Minaker KL. Aging and diabetes mellitus as risk factors for vascular disease . Am J Med . 1987;82( (suppl 1B) ):47-53.Crossref 22. Foster CJ, Weinsier RL, Birch R, et al. Obesity and serum lipids: an evaluation of the relative contribution of body fat and fat distribution to lipid levels . Int J Obesity . 1987;11:151-161. 23. Morgan BLG. Obesity . Nutr Health . 1987;8:1-6. 24. Pan W-H, Nanas S, Dyer A, et al. The role of weight in the positive association between age and blood pressure . Am J Epidemiol . 1986;124:612623. 25. Garrison RJ, Kannel WB, Stokes J III, Castelli WP. Incidence and precursors of hypertension in young adults: the Framingham offspring study . Preventive Med . 1987;16:235-251.Crossref 26. Donahue RP, Abbott RD, Bloom E, Reed DM, Yano K. Central obesity and coronary heart disease in men . Lancet . 1987;1:882-884. 27. Sheldon WW, Stevens SS, Tucker WB. The Varieties of Human Physique . New York, NY: Harper & Row Publishers Inc; 1940. 28. Gildea EF, Kahn E, Man EB. The relationship between body build and serum lipoids and a discussion of these qualities as pyknophilic and leptophilic factors in the structure of the personality . Am J Psychiatry . 1936;92:1247-1260. 29. Robinson SC. Hypertension in relation to height: its variation with body build and obesity . JLab Clin Med . 1941;26:930-949. 30. Vague J. The degree of masculine differentiation of obesities: a factor determining predisposition to diabetes, atherosclerosis, gout, and uric calculous disease . Am J Clin Nutr . 1956;4:20-34. 31. Sjötröm L, Smith U, Bjôrntop P, Krotkiewski M. Cellularity in different regions of adipose tissue in young men and women . Metabolism . 1972;21:1143-1153.Crossref 32. Haffner SM, Stern MP, Hazuda HP, Pugh J, Patterson JK. Do upperbody and centralized adiposity measure different aspects of regional body-fat distribution? relationship to non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, lipids, and lipoproteins . Diabetes . 1987;36:43-51.Crossref 33. Garn SM, Sullivan TV, Hawthorne V. Evidence against functional differences between 'central' and 'peripheral' fat . Am J Clin Nutr . 1988;47:836-839. 34. Ashwell M, Cole TJ, Dixon AK. Obesity: new insight into the anthropometric classification of fat distribution shown by computed tomography . Br Med J . 1985;290:1692-1694.Crossref 35. Feldman R, Sender AJ, Siegelaub AB. Difference in diabetic and nondiabetic fat distribution pattern by skinfold measurements . Diabetes . 1969; 18:478-486. 36. Baumgartner RN, Roche AF, Chumlea WC, Siervogel RM, Glueck CJ. Fatness and fat patterns: associations with plasma lipids and blood pressures in adults, 18 to 57 years of age . Am J Epidemiol . 1987;126:614-628. 37. Blair D, HabichtJ-P, Sims EAH, Sylwester D, Abraham S. Evidence for an increased risk for hypertension with centrally located body fat and the effect of race and sex on this risk . Am J Epidemiol . 1984;119:526-540. 38. Larsson B, Svärdsudd K, Welin L, Wilhelmsen L, Björntorp P, Tibblin G. Abdominal adipose tissue distribution, obesity, and risk of cardiovascular disease and death: 13-year follow up of participants in the study of men born in 1913 . BrMedJ . 1984;288:1401-1404. 39. Hartz AJ, Rupley DC, Rimm AA. The association of girth measurements with disease in 32,856 women . Am J Epidemiol . 1984;119:71-80. 40. Shear CL, Freedman DS, Burke GL, Harsha DW, Berenson GS. Body fat patterning and blood pressure in children and young adults: the Bogalusa heart study . Hypertension . 1987;9:236-244.Crossref 41. Olefsky JM, Kolterman OG, Scarlett JA. Insulin action and resistance in obesity and noninsulin-dependent type II diabetes mellitus . Am J Physiol . 1982;243:E15-30. 42. Peiris AN, Mueller RA, Smith GA, Struve MF, Kissebah AH. Splanchnic insulin metabolism in obesity: influence of body fat distribution . J Clin Invest . 1986;78:1648-1657.Crossref 43. Freedman DS, Srinivasan SR, Burke GL, et al. Relation of body fat distribution to hyperinsulinemia in children and adolescents: the Bogalusa heart study . Am J Clin Nutr . 1987;46:403-410. 44. Peiris AN, Mueller RA, Struve MF, Smith GA, Kissebah AH. Relationship of androgenic activity to splanchnic insulin metabolism and peripheral glucose utilization in premenopausal women . J Clin Endocrinol Metab . 1987;64:162-169.Crossref 45. Cohen JC, Hickman R. Insulin resistance and diminished glucose tolerance in powerlifters ingesting anabolic steroids . J Clin Endocrinol Metab . 1987;64:960-963.Crossref 46. Kather H, Zollig K. Simon B, Schlierf G. Human fat cell adenylate cyclase: regional differences in adrenaline responsiveness . Eur J Clin Invest . 1977;7:595-597.Crossref 47. Björntorp P. Adipose tissue in obesity (Willendorf Lecture). In: Hirsch J, Van Itallie TB, eds. Recent Advances in Obesity Research, IV: Proceedings of the 4th International Congress on Obesity. London, England: John Libbey; 1985:163-170. 48. Richelsen B. Increased alpha2: but similar beta-adrenergic receptor activities in subcutaneous gluteal adipocytes from females compared with males . Eur J Clin Invest . 1986;16:302-309.Crossref 49. Welborn TA, Breckenridge A, Dollery CT, Rubinstein AH, Fraser TR. Serum-insulin in essential hypertension and in peripheral vascular disease . Lancet . 1966;1:1336-1337.Crossref 50. Berglund G, Larsson B, Andersson O, et al. Body composition and glucose metabolism in hypertensive middle-aged males . Acta Med Scand . 1976;200:163-169.Crossref 51. Ferrannini E, Buzzigoli G, Bonadonna R, et al. Insulin resistance: in essential hypertension . N Engl J Med . 1987;317:350-357.Crossref 52. Shen D-C, Shieh S-M, Fuh MM-T, Wu D-A, Chen Y-DI, Reaven GM. Resistance to insulin-stimulated-glucose uptake in patients with hypertension . J Clin Endocrinol Metab . 1988;66:580-583.Crossref 53. Ruderman NB, Schneider SH, Berchtold P. The 'metabolically-obese,' normal-weight individual . Am J Clin Nutr . 1981;34:1617-1621. 54. Deibert DC, DeFronzo RA. Epinephrine-induced insulin resistance in man . J Clin Invest . 1980;65:717-721.Crossref 55. DeFronzo RA, Cooke CR, Andres R, Faloona GR, Davis PJ. The effect of insulin on renal handling of sodium, potassium, calcium, and phosphate in man . J Clin Invest . 1975;55:845-855.Crossref 56. Baum M. Insulin stimulates volume absorption in the rabbit proximal convoluted tubule . J Clin Invest . 1987;79:1104-1109.Crossref 57. Rowe JW, Young JB, Minaker KL, Stevens AL, Pallotta J, Landsberg L. Effect of insulin and glucose infusions on sympathetic nervous system activity in normal man . Diabetes . 1981;30:219-225.Crossref 58. Lever AF. Slow pressor mechanisms in hypertension: a role for hypertrophy of resistance vessels? J Hypertension . 1986;4:515-524.Crossref 59. Stout RW, Bierman EL, Ross R. Effect of insulin on the proliferation of cultured primate arterial smooth muscle cells . Circ Res . 1975;36:319-327.Crossref 60. King GL, Goodman AD, Buzney S, Moses A, Kahn CR. Receptors and growth-promoting effects of insulin and insulinlike growth factors on cells from bovine retinal capillaries and aorta . J Clin Invest . 1985;75:1028-1036.Crossref 61. Draznin B, Kao M, Sussman KE. Insulin and glyburide increase cytosolic free-Ca2 concentration in isolated rat adipocytes . Diabetes . 1987;36:174-178.Crossref 62. Davis FB, Davis PJ, Nat G, et al. The effect of in vivo glucose administration on human erythrocyte Ca2 -ATPase activity and on enzyme responsiveness in vitro to thyroid hormone and calmodulin . Diabetes . 1985;34:639-646.Crossref 63. Pershadsingh HA, McDonald JM. Direct addition of insulin inhibits a high affinity Ca2 -ATPase in isolated adipocyte plasma membranes . Nature . 1979;281:495-497.Crossref 64. Rocchini AP, Moorehead C, Wentz E, Deremer S. Obesity-induced hypertension in the dog . Hypertension . 1987;9( (suppl III) ):III-64-68.Crossref 65. Rocchini AP, Katch V, Schork A, Kelch RP. Insulin and blood pressure during weight loss in obese adolescents . Hypertension . 1987;10:267-273.Crossref 66. Parillo M, Coulston A, Hollenbeck C, Reaven G. Effect of a low fat diet on carbohydrate metabolism in patients with hypertension . Hypertension . 1988;11:244-248.Crossref 67. Storlien LH, Kraegen EW, Chisholm DJ, Ford GL, Bruce DG, Pascoe WS. Fish oil prevents insulin resistance induced by high-fat feeding in rats . Science . 1987;237:885-888.Crossref 68. Krotkiewski M, Mandroukas K, Sjöström L, Sullivan L, Wetterqvist H, Björntorp. Effects of long-term physical training on body fat, metabolism, and blood pressure in obesity . Metabolism . 1979;28:650-658.Crossref 69. Dornhorst A, Powell SH, Pensky J. Aggravation by propranolol of hyperglycaemic effect of hydrochlorothiazide in type II diabetics without alteration of insulin secretion . Lancet . 1985;1:123-126.Crossref 70. Weidmann P, Uehlinger DE, Gerber A. Antihypertensive treatment and serum lipoproteins . J Hypertension . 1985;3:297-306.Crossref 71. MacMahon SW, Cutler JA, Furberg CD, Payne GH. The effects of drug treatment for hypertension on morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease: a review of randomized controlled trials . Prog Cardiovasc Dis . 1986;29( (suppl 1) ):99-118.Crossref 72. Zatz R, Dunn BR, Meyer TW, et al. Prevention of diabetic glomerulopathy by pharmacological amelioration of glomerular capillary hypertension . J Clin Invest . 1986;77:1925-1930.Crossref 73. Pollare T, Lithell H, Selinus I, Berne C. Application of prazosin is associated with an increase of insulin sensitivity in obese patients with hypertension . 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Journal

Archives of Internal MedicineAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jul 1, 1989

References