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The Dandy-Walker and Arnold-Chiari Malformations: Clinical, Developmental, and Teratological Considerations

The Dandy-Walker and Arnold-Chiari Malformations: Clinical, Developmental, and Teratological... Abstract Five patients with the Dandy-Walker syndrome had dysgenesis of the cerebellar vermis, cystic dilatation of the fourth ventricle, and a high position of the tentorium cerebelli. When only these features are present, the patient may lead a normal life. Additional defects usually account for the prominent clinical and pathological features of this syndrome. In this series, one patient had aqueductal stenosis, four had agenesis of the corpus callosum, two had hydrocephalus, one had cerebral abiotrophy, and one (a 72-year-old man) had no additional defects and no symptoms from his Dandy-Walker syndrome. An analysis of development and teratological considerations indicates that the Dandy-Walker and Arnold-Chiari malformations are complex disorders that have different causes and mechanisms and begin at different times in the embryonic period. The causes are still unknown. References 1. Benda CE: The Dandy-Walker syndrome or the so-called atresia of the foramen of Magendie . J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 13:14-29, 1954. 2. Dandy WE, Blackfan KD: Internal hydrocephalus: An experimental, clinical, and pathological study . Am J Dis Child 8:406-482, 1914.Crossref 3. Taggart JK, Walker AE: Congenital atresia of the foramens of Luschka and Magendie . Arch Neurol Psychiatr 48:583-612, 1942.Crossref 4. Arnold J: Myelocyste, Transposition von Gewebskeimen und Sympodie . Beitr Pathol Anat 16:1-28, 1894.Crossref 5. Chiari H: Ueber Veränderungen des Kleinhirns infolge von Hydrocephalie des Grosshirns . Dtsch Med Wochenschr 17:1172-1175, 1891.Crossref 6. Chiari H: Uber Veränderungen des Kleinhirns, des Pons und der Medulla Oblongata infolge von Kongenitaler Hydrocephalie des Grosshirns . Denkschr Akad Wiss Wien Math-Naturwiss Klasse 63:71-116, 1896. 7. Cleland J: Contribution to the study of spina bifida, encephalocele, and anencephalus . J Anat Physiol 17:257-292, 1883. 8. Doran PA, Guthkelch AN: Studies in spina bifida cystica . J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatr 24:331-345, 1961.Crossref 9. Strich SJ: Chiari's cerebellar malformations and the spinal cord . Dev Med Child Neurol 8:84-85, 1966.Crossref 10. Benda CE: Dysraphic states . J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 18:56-74, 1959.Crossref 11. Hart MN, Malamud N, Ellis WG: The Dandy-Walker syndrome . Neurology 22:771-780, 1972.Crossref 12. Chun RWM, Wesenberg RL, Annis BL, et al: Dandy-Walker and absence of the corpus callosum: Associated syndromes . Neurology 16:324, 1966. 13. D'Agostino AN, Kernohan JW, Brown JR: The Dandy-Walker syndrome . J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 22:450-470, 1963.Crossref 14. Raimondi AJ, Samuelson G, Yarzagaray L, et al: Atresia of the foramina of Luschka and Magendie: The Dandy-Walker cyst . J Neurosurg 31:202-216, 1969.Crossref 15. Fischer EG: Dandy-Walker syndrome: An evaluation of surgical treatment . J Neurosurg 39:615-621, 1973.Crossref 16. Ingalls NW: Some developmental risks: The dorsal mid-line . Q Rev Biol 7:47-58, 1932.Crossref 17. Kurtzke JF, Goldberg ID, Kurland LT: The distribution of deaths from congenital malformations of the nervous system . Neurology 23:483-496, 1973.Crossref 18. Stevenson AC, Johnston HA, Stewart MIP, et al: Congenital malformations . Bull WHO 34:9-127, 1966. 19. Wilson JB: Environment and Birth Defects . New York, Academic Press, 1973. 20. Hendrickx AG, Newman L: Appendicular skeletal and visceral malformations induced by thalidomide in Bonnet monkeys . Teratology 7:151-160, 1973.Crossref 21. Streeter GL: Developmental horizons in human embryos: Age groups 11 to 23 , in Embryology Reprint . Washington, DC, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1951, vol 2. 22. O'Rahilly R: Developmental Stages in Human Embryos: Part A. Embryos of the First Three Weeks (Stages 1 to 9) . Washington, DC, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1973. 23. O'Rahilly R: Developmental Stages in Human Embryos: Part B. Stages 10 to 23. Washington, DC, Carnegie Institution of Washington, to be published. 24. O'Rahilly R, Gardner E: The timing and sequence of events in the development of the human nervous system during the embryonic period proper . Z Anat Entwicklungsgesch 134:1-12, 1971.Crossref 25. Casaer P, Akiyama Y: The estimation of the postmenstrual age: A comprehensive review . Dev Med Child Neurol 12:697-729, 1970.Crossref 26. di Virgilio G, Lavenda N, Worden JL: Sequence of events in neural tube closure and the formation of neural crest in the chick embryo . Acta Anat 68:127-146, 1967.Crossref 27. Jacobson M: Developmental Neurobiology . New York, Holt Rinehart & Winston, 1970. 28. Källén B: Early embryogenesis of the central nervous system with special reference to closure defects . Dev Med Child Neurol Suppl 16:44-53, 1968. 29. Brown JM: Normal and abnormal changes in cerebrospinal fluid and their relation to morphogenesis of the chick brain . Teratology 3:199, 1970. 30. Corliss CE, Fedinec AA, Robertson GG: The teratogenic effect of tetanus toxin on the central nervous system of the early chick embryo . Anat Rec 154:221-232, 1966.Crossref 31. Grabowski CT: Embryonic oxygen deficiency: A physiological approach to analysis of teratological mechanisms , in Woolam DHM (ed): Advances in Teratology . New York, Academic Press, vol 4, 1970. 32. Burda DJ: Studies on the experimental induction of overgrowth in chick embryos . Anat Rec 161:419-425, 1968.Crossref 33. Wilson DB: Effects of embryonic overgrowth on the avian optic tectum . Am J Anat 135:549-560, 1972.Crossref 34. Wilson DB: The cell cycle of ventricular cells in the overgrown optic tectum . Brain Res 69:41-48, 1974.Crossref 35. Langman J, Welch GW: Effect of vitamin A on development of the central nervous system . J Comp Neurol 128:1-16, 1966.Crossref 36. Morriss GM: Morphogenesis of the malformations induced in rat embryos by maternal hypervitaminosis A . Am J Anat 113:241-250, 1972. 37. Marin-Padilla M: Mesodermal alterations induced by hypervitaminosis A . J Embryol Exp Morphol 15:261-269, 1966. 38. Marin-Padilla M, Ferm V: Somite necrosis and developmental malformations induced by vitamin A in the golden hamster . J Embryol Exp Morphol 13:1-8, 1965. 39. Kalter H: Teratology of the Central Nervous System . Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1968. 40. Bolli P: Sekundäre lumenbildungen im Neuralrohr und Rückenmark menschlichen Embryonen . Acta Anat 64:48-81, 1966.Crossref 41. Kunitomo K: The development and reduction of the tail and of the caudal end of the spinal cord . Contrib Embryol 8:161-198, 1918. 42. Pearson AA, Sauter RW: Observations on the caudal end of the spinal cord . Am J Anat 131:463-470, 1971.Crossref 43. Streeter GL: Factors involved in the formation of the filum terminale . Am J Anat 25:1-11, 1919.Crossref 44. Lemire RJ: Variations in development of the caudal neural tube in human embryos (horizons XIV-XXI) . Teratology 2:361-370, 1969.Crossref 45. James CCM, Lassman LP: Spinal Dysraphism: Spina Bifida Occulta . New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1972. 46. Barson AJ: The vertebral level of termination of the spinal cord during normal and abnormal development . J Anat 106:489-497, 1970. 47. Gardner WJ: Anatomic anomalies common to myelomeningocele of infancy and syringomyelia of adulthood suggest a common origin . Cleve Clin Q 26:118-133, 1959. 48. Gardner WJ: Anatomic features common to the Arnold-Chiari and the Dandy-Walker malformation suggest a common origin . Cleve Clin Q 26:206-222, 1959. 49. Gardner WJ, Smith JL, Padget DH: The relationship of Arnold-Chiari and Dandy-Walker malformations . J Neurosurg 36:481-486, 1972.Crossref 50. Padget DH: Development of so-called dysraphism: With embryologic evidence of clinical Arnold-Chiari and Dandy-Walker malformations . Johns Hopkins Med J 130:127-165, 1972. 51. Padget DH, Lindenberg R: Inverse cerebellum morphogenetically related to Dandy-Walker and Arnold-Chiari syndromes: Bizarre malformed brain with occipital encephalocele . Johns Hopkins Med J 131:228-246, 1972. 52. Gardner WJ: Myelomeningocele: The result of rupture of the embryonic neural tube . Cleve Clin Q 27:88-100, 1960. 53. Gardner WJ: Hydrodynamic mechanism of syringomyelia: Its relationship to myelocele . J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatr 28:247-259, 1965.Crossref 54. Gardner WJ: Myelocele: Rupture of the neural tube? Clin Neurol Proc Congress Neurol Surg SF 15:57-79, 1967. 55. Brocklehurst G: The development of the human cerebrospinal fluid pathway with particular reference to the roof of the fourth ventricle . J Anat 105:467-475, 1969. 56. Hochstetter F: Beiträge zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des menschlichen Gehirns . Vienna, Deuticke, part 1, 1919; part 2, 1929. 57. Wilson JT: On the nature and mode of origin of the foramen of Magendie . J Anat 71:423-428, 1936. 58. Blake JA: The roof and lateral recesses of the fourth ventricle, considered morphologically and embryologically . J Comp Neurol 10:79-108, 1900.Crossref 59. Coben LA: Absence of a foramen of Magendie in the dog, cat, rabbit, and goat . Arch Neurol 16:524-528, 1967.Crossref 60. Cohen H, Davies S: The morphology and permeability of the roof of the fourth ventricle in some mammalian embryos . J Anat 72:430-455, 1938. 61. Weed LH: The development of the cerebro-spinal spaces in pig and man . Contrib Embryol 5:1-133, 1917. 62. Brodal A, Bonnevie K, Harkmark W: Hereditary hydrocephalus in the house mouse: II. The anomalies of the cerebellum: Partial defective development of the vermis . Skr Norske Vidensk-Akad Oslo I Mat-Nat K1 #8, 42 pp. 1944. 63. Bonnevie K, Brodal A: Hereditary hydrocephalus in the house mouse: IV. The development of the cerebellar anomalies during foetal life with notes on the normal development of the mouse cerebellum . Skr Norske Vidensk-Akad Oslo I Mat-Nat NS K1 4:1-60, 1946. 64. Brodal A, Haughlie-Hanssen E: Congenital hydrocephalus with defective development of the cerebellar vermis (Dandy-Walker syndrome) . J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatr 22:99-108, 1959.Crossref 65. Kalter H: Experimental mammalian teratogenesis: A study of galactoflavin-induced hydrocephalus in mice . J Morphol 112:303-317, 1963.Crossref 66. Padget DH: The development of the cranial venous system in man: From the viewpoint of comparative anatomy . Contrib Embryol 36:79-140, 1957. 67. O'Rahilly R, Gray DJ, Gardner E: Chondrification in the hands and feet of staged human embryos . Contrib Embryol 36:183-192, 1957. 68. Padget DH: Spina bifida and embryonic neuroschisis: A causal relationship . Johns Hopkins Med J 123:232-252, 1968. 69. Padget DH: Neuroschisis and human embryonic maldevelopment . J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 29:192-216, 1970.Crossref 70. Schumacher S: Die verschiedenen Arien des Neuroporus . Wien Klin Wochenschr 44:828-832, 1931. 71. Dekaban AS, Bartelmez GW: Complete dysraphism in 14 somite human embryos . Am J Anat 115:27-42, 1964.Crossref 72. Warkany J: Congenital Malformations: Notes and Comments . Chicago, Year Book Medical Publishers Inc, 1971. 73. Cameron AH: The Arnold-Chiari and other neuro-anatomical malformations associated with spina bifida . J Path Bact 73:195-211, 1957.Crossref 74. Cameron AH: Malformations of the neurospinal axis, urogenital tract and foregut in spina bifida attributable to disturbances of the blastopore . J Pathol Bacteriol 73:213-221, 1957.Crossref 75. Daniel PM, Strich SJ: Some observations on the congenital deformity of the central nervous system known as the Arnold-Chiari malformation . J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 17:255-266, 1958.Crossref 76. Lichtenstein BW: Distant neuroanatomic complications of spina bifida (spinal dysraphism) . Arch Neurol Psychiatr 47:195-214, 1942.Crossref 77. Lichtenstein BW: Atresia and stenosis of the aqueduct of Sylvius . J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 18:3-21, 1959.Crossref 78. Penfield W, Cone W: Spina bifida and cranium bifidum . J Am Med Assoc 98:454-461, 1932.Crossref 79. Barry A, Patten BM, Stewart BH: Possible factors in the development of the Arnold-Chiari malformation . J Neurosurg 14:285-301, 1957.Crossref 80. Emery JL, Naik D: Spinal cord segment lengths in children with meningomyelocoele and the "Cleland-Arnold-Chiari" deformity . Br J Radiol 41:287-290, 1968.Crossref 81. Peach B: Arnold-Chiari malformation with normal spine . Arch Neurol 10:497-501, 1964.Crossref 82. Teng P, Papatheodorou C: Arnold-Chiari malformation with normal spine and cranium . Arch Neurol 12:622-624, 1965.Crossref 83. Duckett S: Foetal Arnold-Chiari malformation . Acta Neuropathol 7:175-179, 1966.Crossref 84. van Hoytema GJ, van den Berg R: Embryological studies of the posterior fossa in connection with the Arnold-Chiari malformation . Dev Med Child Neurol , (suppl 11) , pp 61-76, 1966. 85. Peach B: The Arnold-Chiari malformation . Arch Neurol 12:527-535, 1965.Crossref 86. Peach B: Arnold-Chiari malformation . Arch Neurol 12:613-621, 1965.Crossref 87. Jacobs EB, Landing BH, Thomas W: Vernicomyelia: Its bearing on theories of genesis of the Arnold-Chiari complex . Am J Pathol 39:345-353, 1961. 88. Brocklehurst G: A quantitative study of a spina bifida foetus . J Pathol 99:205-211, 1969.Crossref 89. Kapsenberg JG, van Lookeren Campagne JA: A case of spina bifida combined with diastematomyely: The anomaly of Chiari and hydrocephaly . Acta Anat 7:366-388, 1949.Crossref 90. Patten BM: Overgrowth of the neural tube in young human embryos . Anat Rec 113:381-393, 1952.Crossref 91. Patten BM: Embryological stages in the establishing of myeloschisis with spina bifida . Am J Anat 93:365-395, 1953.Crossref 92. Wilson DB: Histochemical features of the notochord after experimental induction of neural overgrowth . Teratology 4:317-326, 1971.Crossref 93. Ariëns Kappers J: Developmental disturbance of the brain induced by German measles in an embryo of the seventh week . Acta Anat 31:1-20, 1957.Crossref 94. Hsu CY, Van Dyke JH: An analysis of growth rates in neural epitehlium of normal and spina bifidous (myeloschisis) mouse embryos . Anat Rec 100:745, 1948.Crossref 95. Russell DS, Donald C: The mechanism of internal hydrocephalus in spina bifida . Brain 58:203-215, 1935.Crossref 96. Emery JL: Kinking of the medulla in children with acute cerebral oedema and hydrocephalus and its relationship to the dentate ligaments . J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatr 30:267-275, 1967.Crossref 97. Emery JL, Kalhan SC: The pathology of exencephalus . Dev Med Child Neurol , (suppl 22) , 12:51-64, 1970.Crossref 98. Timmons GD, Johnson KP: Aqueductal stenosis and hydrocephalus after mumps encephalitis . N Engl J Med 283:1505-1507, 1970.Crossref 99. Emery JL, MacKenzie N: Medullo-cervical dislocation deformity (Chiari II deformity) related to neurospinal dysraphism (meningomyelocele) . Brain 96:155-162, 1973.Crossref 100. Lemire RJ, Shepard TH, Alvord EC Jr. Caudal myeloschisis (lumbosacral spina bifida cystica) in a five millimeter (Horizon XIV) human embryo . Anat Rec 152:9-16, 1965.Crossref 101. Ruano Gil D: Grave malformacion encefalica (encefalosquisis) en un embrion humano de 10.25 mm con un humano gemelo normal . An Desarrollo 13:149-160, 1965. 102. Gardner WJ: The Dysraphic States: From Syringomyelia to Anencephaly . Amsterdam, Excerpta Medica, 1973. 103. Alvord EC Jr: The pathology of hydrocephalus , in Fields WS, Desmond MM (eds): Disorders of the Developing Nervous System . Springfield, Ill, Charles C Thomas Publishers, 1971, pp 343-419. 104. Giroud A: Causes and morphogenesis of anencephaly , in Wolstenholme GEW, O'Connor CM (eds): Ciba Foundation Symposium on Congenital Malformations . London, J & A Churchill Ltd, 1960. 105. Shiota K, Uwabe C, Tanimura T, et al: Nuchal blebs occasionally found in human seven week embryos . Teratology 8:105, 1973. 106. Renwick JH: Hypothesis: Anencephaly and spina bifida are usually preventable by avoidance of a specific but unidentified substance present in certain potato tubers . Br J Prev Soc Med 26:67-88, (errata p 269), 1972. 107. A symposium: Potatoes and birth defects . Teratology 8:317-361, 1973.Crossref 108. Giroud A, Martinet M: Anencéphalie exl'anencéphaliele chez la souris et comparaisons avec 'anencéphalie chez l'homme . Acta Anat 43:358-370, 1960.Crossref 109. Dekaban AS: Anencephaly in early human embryos . J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 22:533-548, 1963.Crossref 110. Marin-Padilla M: Study of the skull in human cranioschisis . Acta Anat 62:1-20, 1965.Crossref 111. Marin-Padilla M: Study of the sphenoid bone in human cranioschisis and craniorhachischisis . Virchows Arch Pathol Anat 339:245-253, 1965.Crossref 112. Marin-Padilla M: Study of the vertebral column in human craniorhachischisis . Acta Anat 63:32-48, 1966.Crossref 113. Geelen JAG: Skullbase malformations in rat fetuses with hypervitaminosis A-induced exencephaly . Teratology 7:49-56, 1973.Crossref 114. Ruano Gil D, Jiménez Collado J: Embrion humano de seis pares de somitos con una grave malformacion encefalica . An Desarrollo 11:101-109, 1963. 115. Rakic P, Yakovlev PI: Development of the corpus callosum and cavum septi in man . J Comp Neurol 132:45-72, 1968.Crossref 116. Loeser JD, Alvord AC: Clinicopathological correlations in agenesis of the corpus callosum . Neurology 18:745-756, 1968.Crossref 117. Bossy J: Morphological study of a case of complete, isolated, and asymptomatic agenesis of the corpus callosum . Arch Anat Histol Embryol 53:289-340, 1970. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Neurology American Medical Association

The Dandy-Walker and Arnold-Chiari Malformations: Clinical, Developmental, and Teratological Considerations

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American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1975 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9942
eISSN
1538-3687
DOI
10.1001/archneur.1975.00490480059007
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Abstract

Abstract Five patients with the Dandy-Walker syndrome had dysgenesis of the cerebellar vermis, cystic dilatation of the fourth ventricle, and a high position of the tentorium cerebelli. When only these features are present, the patient may lead a normal life. Additional defects usually account for the prominent clinical and pathological features of this syndrome. In this series, one patient had aqueductal stenosis, four had agenesis of the corpus callosum, two had hydrocephalus, one had cerebral abiotrophy, and one (a 72-year-old man) had no additional defects and no symptoms from his Dandy-Walker syndrome. An analysis of development and teratological considerations indicates that the Dandy-Walker and Arnold-Chiari malformations are complex disorders that have different causes and mechanisms and begin at different times in the embryonic period. The causes are still unknown. References 1. Benda CE: The Dandy-Walker syndrome or the so-called atresia of the foramen of Magendie . J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 13:14-29, 1954. 2. Dandy WE, Blackfan KD: Internal hydrocephalus: An experimental, clinical, and pathological study . Am J Dis Child 8:406-482, 1914.Crossref 3. Taggart JK, Walker AE: Congenital atresia of the foramens of Luschka and Magendie . Arch Neurol Psychiatr 48:583-612, 1942.Crossref 4. Arnold J: Myelocyste, Transposition von Gewebskeimen und Sympodie . Beitr Pathol Anat 16:1-28, 1894.Crossref 5. Chiari H: Ueber Veränderungen des Kleinhirns infolge von Hydrocephalie des Grosshirns . Dtsch Med Wochenschr 17:1172-1175, 1891.Crossref 6. Chiari H: Uber Veränderungen des Kleinhirns, des Pons und der Medulla Oblongata infolge von Kongenitaler Hydrocephalie des Grosshirns . Denkschr Akad Wiss Wien Math-Naturwiss Klasse 63:71-116, 1896. 7. Cleland J: Contribution to the study of spina bifida, encephalocele, and anencephalus . J Anat Physiol 17:257-292, 1883. 8. Doran PA, Guthkelch AN: Studies in spina bifida cystica . J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatr 24:331-345, 1961.Crossref 9. Strich SJ: Chiari's cerebellar malformations and the spinal cord . Dev Med Child Neurol 8:84-85, 1966.Crossref 10. Benda CE: Dysraphic states . J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 18:56-74, 1959.Crossref 11. Hart MN, Malamud N, Ellis WG: The Dandy-Walker syndrome . Neurology 22:771-780, 1972.Crossref 12. Chun RWM, Wesenberg RL, Annis BL, et al: Dandy-Walker and absence of the corpus callosum: Associated syndromes . Neurology 16:324, 1966. 13. D'Agostino AN, Kernohan JW, Brown JR: The Dandy-Walker syndrome . J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 22:450-470, 1963.Crossref 14. Raimondi AJ, Samuelson G, Yarzagaray L, et al: Atresia of the foramina of Luschka and Magendie: The Dandy-Walker cyst . J Neurosurg 31:202-216, 1969.Crossref 15. Fischer EG: Dandy-Walker syndrome: An evaluation of surgical treatment . J Neurosurg 39:615-621, 1973.Crossref 16. Ingalls NW: Some developmental risks: The dorsal mid-line . Q Rev Biol 7:47-58, 1932.Crossref 17. Kurtzke JF, Goldberg ID, Kurland LT: The distribution of deaths from congenital malformations of the nervous system . Neurology 23:483-496, 1973.Crossref 18. Stevenson AC, Johnston HA, Stewart MIP, et al: Congenital malformations . Bull WHO 34:9-127, 1966. 19. Wilson JB: Environment and Birth Defects . New York, Academic Press, 1973. 20. Hendrickx AG, Newman L: Appendicular skeletal and visceral malformations induced by thalidomide in Bonnet monkeys . Teratology 7:151-160, 1973.Crossref 21. Streeter GL: Developmental horizons in human embryos: Age groups 11 to 23 , in Embryology Reprint . Washington, DC, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1951, vol 2. 22. O'Rahilly R: Developmental Stages in Human Embryos: Part A. Embryos of the First Three Weeks (Stages 1 to 9) . Washington, DC, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1973. 23. O'Rahilly R: Developmental Stages in Human Embryos: Part B. Stages 10 to 23. Washington, DC, Carnegie Institution of Washington, to be published. 24. O'Rahilly R, Gardner E: The timing and sequence of events in the development of the human nervous system during the embryonic period proper . Z Anat Entwicklungsgesch 134:1-12, 1971.Crossref 25. Casaer P, Akiyama Y: The estimation of the postmenstrual age: A comprehensive review . Dev Med Child Neurol 12:697-729, 1970.Crossref 26. di Virgilio G, Lavenda N, Worden JL: Sequence of events in neural tube closure and the formation of neural crest in the chick embryo . Acta Anat 68:127-146, 1967.Crossref 27. Jacobson M: Developmental Neurobiology . New York, Holt Rinehart & Winston, 1970. 28. Källén B: Early embryogenesis of the central nervous system with special reference to closure defects . Dev Med Child Neurol Suppl 16:44-53, 1968. 29. Brown JM: Normal and abnormal changes in cerebrospinal fluid and their relation to morphogenesis of the chick brain . Teratology 3:199, 1970. 30. Corliss CE, Fedinec AA, Robertson GG: The teratogenic effect of tetanus toxin on the central nervous system of the early chick embryo . Anat Rec 154:221-232, 1966.Crossref 31. Grabowski CT: Embryonic oxygen deficiency: A physiological approach to analysis of teratological mechanisms , in Woolam DHM (ed): Advances in Teratology . New York, Academic Press, vol 4, 1970. 32. Burda DJ: Studies on the experimental induction of overgrowth in chick embryos . Anat Rec 161:419-425, 1968.Crossref 33. Wilson DB: Effects of embryonic overgrowth on the avian optic tectum . Am J Anat 135:549-560, 1972.Crossref 34. Wilson DB: The cell cycle of ventricular cells in the overgrown optic tectum . Brain Res 69:41-48, 1974.Crossref 35. Langman J, Welch GW: Effect of vitamin A on development of the central nervous system . J Comp Neurol 128:1-16, 1966.Crossref 36. Morriss GM: Morphogenesis of the malformations induced in rat embryos by maternal hypervitaminosis A . Am J Anat 113:241-250, 1972. 37. Marin-Padilla M: Mesodermal alterations induced by hypervitaminosis A . J Embryol Exp Morphol 15:261-269, 1966. 38. Marin-Padilla M, Ferm V: Somite necrosis and developmental malformations induced by vitamin A in the golden hamster . J Embryol Exp Morphol 13:1-8, 1965. 39. Kalter H: Teratology of the Central Nervous System . Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1968. 40. Bolli P: Sekundäre lumenbildungen im Neuralrohr und Rückenmark menschlichen Embryonen . Acta Anat 64:48-81, 1966.Crossref 41. Kunitomo K: The development and reduction of the tail and of the caudal end of the spinal cord . Contrib Embryol 8:161-198, 1918. 42. Pearson AA, Sauter RW: Observations on the caudal end of the spinal cord . Am J Anat 131:463-470, 1971.Crossref 43. Streeter GL: Factors involved in the formation of the filum terminale . Am J Anat 25:1-11, 1919.Crossref 44. Lemire RJ: Variations in development of the caudal neural tube in human embryos (horizons XIV-XXI) . Teratology 2:361-370, 1969.Crossref 45. James CCM, Lassman LP: Spinal Dysraphism: Spina Bifida Occulta . New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1972. 46. Barson AJ: The vertebral level of termination of the spinal cord during normal and abnormal development . J Anat 106:489-497, 1970. 47. Gardner WJ: Anatomic anomalies common to myelomeningocele of infancy and syringomyelia of adulthood suggest a common origin . Cleve Clin Q 26:118-133, 1959. 48. Gardner WJ: Anatomic features common to the Arnold-Chiari and the Dandy-Walker malformation suggest a common origin . Cleve Clin Q 26:206-222, 1959. 49. Gardner WJ, Smith JL, Padget DH: The relationship of Arnold-Chiari and Dandy-Walker malformations . J Neurosurg 36:481-486, 1972.Crossref 50. Padget DH: Development of so-called dysraphism: With embryologic evidence of clinical Arnold-Chiari and Dandy-Walker malformations . Johns Hopkins Med J 130:127-165, 1972. 51. Padget DH, Lindenberg R: Inverse cerebellum morphogenetically related to Dandy-Walker and Arnold-Chiari syndromes: Bizarre malformed brain with occipital encephalocele . Johns Hopkins Med J 131:228-246, 1972. 52. Gardner WJ: Myelomeningocele: The result of rupture of the embryonic neural tube . Cleve Clin Q 27:88-100, 1960. 53. Gardner WJ: Hydrodynamic mechanism of syringomyelia: Its relationship to myelocele . J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatr 28:247-259, 1965.Crossref 54. Gardner WJ: Myelocele: Rupture of the neural tube? Clin Neurol Proc Congress Neurol Surg SF 15:57-79, 1967. 55. Brocklehurst G: The development of the human cerebrospinal fluid pathway with particular reference to the roof of the fourth ventricle . J Anat 105:467-475, 1969. 56. Hochstetter F: Beiträge zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des menschlichen Gehirns . Vienna, Deuticke, part 1, 1919; part 2, 1929. 57. Wilson JT: On the nature and mode of origin of the foramen of Magendie . J Anat 71:423-428, 1936. 58. Blake JA: The roof and lateral recesses of the fourth ventricle, considered morphologically and embryologically . J Comp Neurol 10:79-108, 1900.Crossref 59. Coben LA: Absence of a foramen of Magendie in the dog, cat, rabbit, and goat . Arch Neurol 16:524-528, 1967.Crossref 60. Cohen H, Davies S: The morphology and permeability of the roof of the fourth ventricle in some mammalian embryos . J Anat 72:430-455, 1938. 61. Weed LH: The development of the cerebro-spinal spaces in pig and man . Contrib Embryol 5:1-133, 1917. 62. Brodal A, Bonnevie K, Harkmark W: Hereditary hydrocephalus in the house mouse: II. The anomalies of the cerebellum: Partial defective development of the vermis . Skr Norske Vidensk-Akad Oslo I Mat-Nat K1 #8, 42 pp. 1944. 63. Bonnevie K, Brodal A: Hereditary hydrocephalus in the house mouse: IV. The development of the cerebellar anomalies during foetal life with notes on the normal development of the mouse cerebellum . 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Journal

Archives of NeurologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jun 1, 1975

References