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The Clinical Linguistic and Auditory Milestone Scale (CLAMS): Identification of Cognitive Defects in Motor-Delayed Children

The Clinical Linguistic and Auditory Milestone Scale (CLAMS): Identification of Cognitive Defects... Abstract • The Clinical Linguistic and Auditory Milestone Scale (CLAMS) and Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID) were independently administered to 43 children with mild-to-moderate motor delay at 15, 21, and 27 months of age. Highly significant correlations were noted for each examination. Sex, race, and age at time of examination did not significantly influence the relationship between a CLAMS quotient and a Bayley ratio quotient (BRQ). On the first examination gestational age exerted an effect that carried over to the total population. The initial CLAMS quotient also correlated with the results of the CLAMS and BSID administered 12 months later. The CLAMS identified children with a delayed BRQ (<70) as follows: sensitivity, 0.66; specificity, 0.79; predictive value of a positive test, 0.80; and predictive value of a negative test, 0.65. The CLAMS provides the pediatrician with a language assessment instrument that adequately detects cognitive deficits in motor-delayed children. (AJDC 1986;140:694-698) References 1. Lock TM, Shapiro BK, Capute AJ: Factors affecting referral of the developmentally disabled , abstracted. Dev Med Child Neurol 1985; 27:119. 2. Capute AJ, Shapiro BK: The motor quotient: A method for the early detection of motor delay . AJDC 1985;139:940-942. 3. Capute AJ, Accardo P, Vining E, et al: Primitive reflex profile: A pilot study . Phys Ther 1978;58:1061-1065. 4. Molnar G, Gordon SU: Cerebral palsy: Predictive value of selected signs for early prognostication of motor function . Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1976;57:153-158. 5. Capute AJ, Accardo PJ: Linguistic and auditory milestones during the first two years of life . Clin Pediatr 1978;17:847-853.Crossref 6. Cattell P: The Measurement of Intelligence of Infants and Young Children . New York, The Psychological Corp, 1940. 7. Egan D, Illingworth RS, MacKeith RC: Developmental Screening, 0 to 5 Years , Clinics in Developmental Medicine, No. (30) . London, Spastics International Medicine Publications in association with Heinemann Medical Books Ltd, 1969. 8. Gesell A, Amatruda C: Developmental Diagnosis . New York, Paul Hoeber Inc, 1941. 9. Illingworth RS: An Introduction to Developmental Assessment in the First Year , Little Club Clinics in Developmental Medicine, No. (3) . London, The National Spastics Society Medical Education and Information Unit in association with Heinemann Medical Books Ltd, 1962. 10. Illingworth RS: Development of Infant and Young Child, Normal and Abnormal . Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1970. 11. Knobloch H, Pasamanack B, Sherard ES Jr: A screening inventory for infants . Pediatrics 1966;38:1095-1108. 12. Lillywhite H: Doctor's manual of speech disorder . JAMA 1958;167:850-858.Crossref 13. Lillywhite HS, Young NB, Olmsted RW: Pediatrician's Handbook of Communication Disorders . Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger, 1970. 14. Mecham MJ: Verbal Language Development Scale . Circle Pines, Minn, American Guidance Service, 1971. 15. Northern J, Downs M: Hearing in Children . Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1974. 16. Sheridan MD: Development of auditory attention and language symbols in young children , in Renfrew C, Murphy K (eds): The Child Who Does Not Talk , Clinics in Developmental Medicine, No. (13) . London, The Spastic Society Medical Education and Information Unit in association with Heinemann Medical Books Ltd, 1964. 17. Sheridan MD: Developmental Progress in Infants and Young Children . London, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1968. 18. Capute AJ, Palmer FB, Shapiro BK, et al: Early language development: Clinical application of the learning and auditory milestones scale , in Reilly A (ed): The Communication Game: Perspectives on the Development of Speech, Language and Nonverbal Communication Skills . Johnson & Johnson Pediatric Roundtable, No. (4) . Skillman, NJ, Johnson & Johnson Child Development, 1980, pp 81-89. 19. Capute AJ, Palmer FB, Shapiro BK: Early language development: Clinical application of the language and auditory milestone scale , in Stark R (ed): Language Behavior in Infancy and Early Childhood . Amsterdam, Elsevier Science Publishers, 1981. 20. Palmer FB, Shapiro BK, Wachtel RC, et al: Infant vocabulary acquisition as a predictor of three-year cognitive level , abstracted. Pediatr Res 1983;17:101.Crossref 21. Capute AJ, Palmer FB, Shapiro BK, et al: The Clinical Linguistic and Auditory Milestone Scale of Infancy (CLAMS): Prediction of cognition in infancy. Dev Med Child Neurol, in press. 22. Palmer FB, Shapiro BK, Wachtel RC, et al: Linguistic development between 12 and 24 months: A cognitive predictor , abstracted. Pediatr Res 1981;15:452. 23. Capute AJ, Palmer FB, Accardo PJ, et al: Early language development: A study of sequential appearance , abstracted. Pediatr Res 1980;14: 431. 24. Johnson OG: Tests and Measurements in Child Development: Handbook II . San Francisco, Jossey-Bass Inc Publishers, 1976. 25. Miller GA, Dubowitz LMS, Palmer P: Follow-up of preterm infants: Is correction of the developmental quotient for prematurity helpful? Early Hum Dev 1984;9:137-144.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png American Journal of Diseases of Children American Medical Association

The Clinical Linguistic and Auditory Milestone Scale (CLAMS): Identification of Cognitive Defects in Motor-Delayed Children

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1986 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0002-922X
DOI
10.1001/archpedi.1986.02140210092033
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract • The Clinical Linguistic and Auditory Milestone Scale (CLAMS) and Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID) were independently administered to 43 children with mild-to-moderate motor delay at 15, 21, and 27 months of age. Highly significant correlations were noted for each examination. Sex, race, and age at time of examination did not significantly influence the relationship between a CLAMS quotient and a Bayley ratio quotient (BRQ). On the first examination gestational age exerted an effect that carried over to the total population. The initial CLAMS quotient also correlated with the results of the CLAMS and BSID administered 12 months later. The CLAMS identified children with a delayed BRQ (<70) as follows: sensitivity, 0.66; specificity, 0.79; predictive value of a positive test, 0.80; and predictive value of a negative test, 0.65. The CLAMS provides the pediatrician with a language assessment instrument that adequately detects cognitive deficits in motor-delayed children. (AJDC 1986;140:694-698) References 1. Lock TM, Shapiro BK, Capute AJ: Factors affecting referral of the developmentally disabled , abstracted. Dev Med Child Neurol 1985; 27:119. 2. Capute AJ, Shapiro BK: The motor quotient: A method for the early detection of motor delay . AJDC 1985;139:940-942. 3. Capute AJ, Accardo P, Vining E, et al: Primitive reflex profile: A pilot study . Phys Ther 1978;58:1061-1065. 4. Molnar G, Gordon SU: Cerebral palsy: Predictive value of selected signs for early prognostication of motor function . Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1976;57:153-158. 5. Capute AJ, Accardo PJ: Linguistic and auditory milestones during the first two years of life . Clin Pediatr 1978;17:847-853.Crossref 6. Cattell P: The Measurement of Intelligence of Infants and Young Children . New York, The Psychological Corp, 1940. 7. Egan D, Illingworth RS, MacKeith RC: Developmental Screening, 0 to 5 Years , Clinics in Developmental Medicine, No. (30) . London, Spastics International Medicine Publications in association with Heinemann Medical Books Ltd, 1969. 8. Gesell A, Amatruda C: Developmental Diagnosis . New York, Paul Hoeber Inc, 1941. 9. Illingworth RS: An Introduction to Developmental Assessment in the First Year , Little Club Clinics in Developmental Medicine, No. (3) . London, The National Spastics Society Medical Education and Information Unit in association with Heinemann Medical Books Ltd, 1962. 10. Illingworth RS: Development of Infant and Young Child, Normal and Abnormal . Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1970. 11. Knobloch H, Pasamanack B, Sherard ES Jr: A screening inventory for infants . Pediatrics 1966;38:1095-1108. 12. Lillywhite H: Doctor's manual of speech disorder . JAMA 1958;167:850-858.Crossref 13. Lillywhite HS, Young NB, Olmsted RW: Pediatrician's Handbook of Communication Disorders . Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger, 1970. 14. Mecham MJ: Verbal Language Development Scale . Circle Pines, Minn, American Guidance Service, 1971. 15. Northern J, Downs M: Hearing in Children . Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1974. 16. Sheridan MD: Development of auditory attention and language symbols in young children , in Renfrew C, Murphy K (eds): The Child Who Does Not Talk , Clinics in Developmental Medicine, No. (13) . London, The Spastic Society Medical Education and Information Unit in association with Heinemann Medical Books Ltd, 1964. 17. Sheridan MD: Developmental Progress in Infants and Young Children . London, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1968. 18. Capute AJ, Palmer FB, Shapiro BK, et al: Early language development: Clinical application of the learning and auditory milestones scale , in Reilly A (ed): The Communication Game: Perspectives on the Development of Speech, Language and Nonverbal Communication Skills . Johnson & Johnson Pediatric Roundtable, No. (4) . Skillman, NJ, Johnson & Johnson Child Development, 1980, pp 81-89. 19. Capute AJ, Palmer FB, Shapiro BK: Early language development: Clinical application of the language and auditory milestone scale , in Stark R (ed): Language Behavior in Infancy and Early Childhood . Amsterdam, Elsevier Science Publishers, 1981. 20. Palmer FB, Shapiro BK, Wachtel RC, et al: Infant vocabulary acquisition as a predictor of three-year cognitive level , abstracted. Pediatr Res 1983;17:101.Crossref 21. Capute AJ, Palmer FB, Shapiro BK, et al: The Clinical Linguistic and Auditory Milestone Scale of Infancy (CLAMS): Prediction of cognition in infancy. Dev Med Child Neurol, in press. 22. Palmer FB, Shapiro BK, Wachtel RC, et al: Linguistic development between 12 and 24 months: A cognitive predictor , abstracted. Pediatr Res 1981;15:452. 23. Capute AJ, Palmer FB, Accardo PJ, et al: Early language development: A study of sequential appearance , abstracted. Pediatr Res 1980;14: 431. 24. Johnson OG: Tests and Measurements in Child Development: Handbook II . San Francisco, Jossey-Bass Inc Publishers, 1976. 25. Miller GA, Dubowitz LMS, Palmer P: Follow-up of preterm infants: Is correction of the developmental quotient for prematurity helpful? Early Hum Dev 1984;9:137-144.Crossref

Journal

American Journal of Diseases of ChildrenAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jul 1, 1986

References