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The Association Between Eye-Tracking Dysfunctions and Thought Disorder in Psychosis

The Association Between Eye-Tracking Dysfunctions and Thought Disorder in Psychosis Abstract • The relationship between the presence of smooth-pursuit eye-movement dysfunctions and degree of thought disorder was assessed in four groups: schizophrenics, manics, atypical psychotic patients, and normal persons. A positive relationship, constant for all groups, was found to be significant but low. Impaired eye tracking accounted for 4.22% of the total variance of thought disorder. Diagnosis accounted for over 10% of the thought-disorder variance. Although there is a tendency for those persons with poor eye tracking to have higher amounts of thought disorder than those with unimpaired eye tracking, all psychotic patients, regardless of diagnostic class, tended to have thought disorder scores in the pathological range, as measured by the Thought Disorder Index. Although the data may be viewed as supporting similar hypothetical processes that underlie pursuit dysfunctions and thought disorder, the greater likelihood exists that the coupling of thought disorder and eye-tracking dysfunctions may be explained differently in the schizophrenias and in the major affective disorders. References 1. Holzman PS, Proctor LR, Levy DL, Yasillo NJ, Meltzer HY, Hurt SW: Eye tracking dysfunctions in schizophrenic patients and their relatives . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1974;31:143-151.Crossref 2. Shagass C, Roemer RA, Amadeo M: Eye tracking performance in psychiatric patients . Biological Psychiatry 1974;9:245-260. 3. Lipton RB, Levin S, Holzman PS: Horizontal and vertical pursuit eye movements, the oculocephalic reflex, and the functional psychoses . Psychiatry Res 1980;3:193-203.Crossref 4. Lindsey DT, Holzman PS, Haberman SS, Yasillo NJ: Smooth pursuit eye movements: A comparison of two measurement techniques . J Abnorm Psychol 1978;87:491-496.Crossref 5. Holzman PS, Levy DL, Proctor LR: The several qualities of attention in schizophrenia . J Psychiatr Res 1978;14:99-110.Crossref 6. Holzman PS, Levy DL, Proctor LR: Smooth pursuit eye movements, attention and schizophrenia . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1976;33:1415-1420.Crossref 7. Kuechenmeister CA, Linton PH, Mueller TV, White HB: Eye tracking in relation to age, sex, and illness . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1977;34:578-579.Crossref 8. Levy DL, Lipton RB, Yasillo NJ, Peterson J, Pandey G, Davis JM: Psychotropic drug effects on smooth pursuit eye movements: A summary of recent findings , in Gale AG, Johnson F (eds): Theoretical and Applied Aspects of Eye Movement Research . Amsterdam, North Holland Publishing Co, 1984, pp 497-505. 9. Holzman PS, Levy DL, Uhlenhuth EH, Proctor LR, Freedman DX: Smooth pursuit eye movements and diazepam, CPZ, and secobarbital . Psychopharmacology 1975;44:111-115.Crossref 10. Levy DL, Lipton RB, Holzman PS, Davis JM: Eye tracking dysfunction unrelated to clinical state and treatment with haloperidol . Biol Psychiatry 1983;18:813-819. 11. Levy DL, Dorus E, Shaughnessy R, Yasillo NJ, Pandey GN, Janicak PG, Gibbons RD, Gaviria M, Davis JM: Pharmacologic evidence for specificity of pursuit dysfunction to schizophrenia: Lithium carbonate associated with abnormal pursuit . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1985;42:335-341.Crossref 12. Levin S, Jones A, Stark L, Merrin EL, Holzman PS: Identification of abnormal patterns in eye movements of schizophrenic patients . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1982;39:1125-1130.Crossref 13. Holzman PS, Solomon CM, Levin S, Waternaux CS: Pursuit eye movement dysfunctions in schizophrenia: Family evidence for specificity . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1984;41:136-139.Crossref 14. Siever LJ, Coursey RD, Alterman IS, Buchsbaum MS, Murphy DL: Impaired smooth pursuit eye movement: Vulnerability marker for schizotypal personality disorder in a normal volunteer population . Am J Psychiatry 1984;141:1560-1565. 15. Simons RF, Katkin W: Smooth pursuit eye movements in subjects reporting physical anhedonia and perceptual aberrations . Psychiatry Res 1985;14:275-289.Crossref 16. Andreasen NC: Thought, language, and communication disorders: II. Diagnostic significance . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1979;36:1325-1330.Crossref 17. Harrow M, Quinlan D: Is disordered thinking unique to schizophrenia? Arch Gen Psychiatry 1977;34:15-21.Crossref 18. Johnston MH, Holzman PS: Assessing Schizophrenic Thinking . San Francisco, Jossey-Bass Inc, 1979. 19. Endicott J, Spitzer RL: A diagnostic interview: The Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1978;35:837-844.Crossref 20. American Psychiatric Association, Committee on Nomenclature and Statistics: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , ed 3. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 1980. 21. Feighner JP, Robins E, Guze SB, Woodruff RA Jr, Winokur G, Munoz R: Diagnostic criteria for use in psychiatric research . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1972;26:57-63.Crossref 22. Benitez JT: Eye tracking optokinetic tests: Diagnostic significance in peripheral and central vestibular disorders . Laryngoscope 1970;80:834-848.Crossref 23. Goodnight JH: The New General Linear Models Procedure: Proceedings of the First International SAS Users' Meeting. Carey, NC, SAS Institute, 1976. 24. Hurt S, Holzman PS, Davis JM: Thought disorder: The measurement of its changes . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1983;40:1281-1285.Crossref 25. Iacono WG, Lykken DT: Two-year retest stability of eye tracking performance and a comparison of electro-oculographic and infra-red recording techniques: Evidence of EEG in the electro-oculogram . Psychophysiology 1981;18:49-55.Crossref 26. Levy DL, Yasillo NJ, Dorus E, Shaughnessy R, Gibbons RD, Peterson J, Janicak PG, Gaviria M, Davis JM: Relatives of unipolar and bipolar patients have normal pursuit . Psychiatry Res 1983;10:285-293.Crossref 27. Holzman PS, Solovay MR, Shenton ME: Thought disorder specificity in functional psychoses , in Alpert M (ed): Controversies in Schizophrenia: Changes and Constancies . New York, Guilford Press, 1985. 28. Matthysse S, Holzman PS, Lange K: The genetic transmission of schizophrenia: Application of mendelian latent structure analysis to eyetracking dysfunctions in schizophrenia and affective disorders . J Psychiatr Res , in press. 29. Goodman LA: The analysis of qualitative variables when some of the variables are unobservable: I. A modified latent structure approach . Am J Sociol 1974;79:1179-1259.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of General Psychiatry American Medical Association

The Association Between Eye-Tracking Dysfunctions and Thought Disorder in Psychosis

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1987 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-990X
eISSN
1598-3636
DOI
10.1001/archpsyc.1987.01800130033005
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract • The relationship between the presence of smooth-pursuit eye-movement dysfunctions and degree of thought disorder was assessed in four groups: schizophrenics, manics, atypical psychotic patients, and normal persons. A positive relationship, constant for all groups, was found to be significant but low. Impaired eye tracking accounted for 4.22% of the total variance of thought disorder. Diagnosis accounted for over 10% of the thought-disorder variance. Although there is a tendency for those persons with poor eye tracking to have higher amounts of thought disorder than those with unimpaired eye tracking, all psychotic patients, regardless of diagnostic class, tended to have thought disorder scores in the pathological range, as measured by the Thought Disorder Index. Although the data may be viewed as supporting similar hypothetical processes that underlie pursuit dysfunctions and thought disorder, the greater likelihood exists that the coupling of thought disorder and eye-tracking dysfunctions may be explained differently in the schizophrenias and in the major affective disorders. References 1. Holzman PS, Proctor LR, Levy DL, Yasillo NJ, Meltzer HY, Hurt SW: Eye tracking dysfunctions in schizophrenic patients and their relatives . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1974;31:143-151.Crossref 2. Shagass C, Roemer RA, Amadeo M: Eye tracking performance in psychiatric patients . Biological Psychiatry 1974;9:245-260. 3. Lipton RB, Levin S, Holzman PS: Horizontal and vertical pursuit eye movements, the oculocephalic reflex, and the functional psychoses . Psychiatry Res 1980;3:193-203.Crossref 4. Lindsey DT, Holzman PS, Haberman SS, Yasillo NJ: Smooth pursuit eye movements: A comparison of two measurement techniques . J Abnorm Psychol 1978;87:491-496.Crossref 5. Holzman PS, Levy DL, Proctor LR: The several qualities of attention in schizophrenia . J Psychiatr Res 1978;14:99-110.Crossref 6. Holzman PS, Levy DL, Proctor LR: Smooth pursuit eye movements, attention and schizophrenia . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1976;33:1415-1420.Crossref 7. Kuechenmeister CA, Linton PH, Mueller TV, White HB: Eye tracking in relation to age, sex, and illness . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1977;34:578-579.Crossref 8. Levy DL, Lipton RB, Yasillo NJ, Peterson J, Pandey G, Davis JM: Psychotropic drug effects on smooth pursuit eye movements: A summary of recent findings , in Gale AG, Johnson F (eds): Theoretical and Applied Aspects of Eye Movement Research . Amsterdam, North Holland Publishing Co, 1984, pp 497-505. 9. Holzman PS, Levy DL, Uhlenhuth EH, Proctor LR, Freedman DX: Smooth pursuit eye movements and diazepam, CPZ, and secobarbital . Psychopharmacology 1975;44:111-115.Crossref 10. Levy DL, Lipton RB, Holzman PS, Davis JM: Eye tracking dysfunction unrelated to clinical state and treatment with haloperidol . Biol Psychiatry 1983;18:813-819. 11. Levy DL, Dorus E, Shaughnessy R, Yasillo NJ, Pandey GN, Janicak PG, Gibbons RD, Gaviria M, Davis JM: Pharmacologic evidence for specificity of pursuit dysfunction to schizophrenia: Lithium carbonate associated with abnormal pursuit . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1985;42:335-341.Crossref 12. Levin S, Jones A, Stark L, Merrin EL, Holzman PS: Identification of abnormal patterns in eye movements of schizophrenic patients . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1982;39:1125-1130.Crossref 13. Holzman PS, Solomon CM, Levin S, Waternaux CS: Pursuit eye movement dysfunctions in schizophrenia: Family evidence for specificity . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1984;41:136-139.Crossref 14. Siever LJ, Coursey RD, Alterman IS, Buchsbaum MS, Murphy DL: Impaired smooth pursuit eye movement: Vulnerability marker for schizotypal personality disorder in a normal volunteer population . Am J Psychiatry 1984;141:1560-1565. 15. Simons RF, Katkin W: Smooth pursuit eye movements in subjects reporting physical anhedonia and perceptual aberrations . Psychiatry Res 1985;14:275-289.Crossref 16. Andreasen NC: Thought, language, and communication disorders: II. Diagnostic significance . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1979;36:1325-1330.Crossref 17. Harrow M, Quinlan D: Is disordered thinking unique to schizophrenia? Arch Gen Psychiatry 1977;34:15-21.Crossref 18. Johnston MH, Holzman PS: Assessing Schizophrenic Thinking . San Francisco, Jossey-Bass Inc, 1979. 19. Endicott J, Spitzer RL: A diagnostic interview: The Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1978;35:837-844.Crossref 20. American Psychiatric Association, Committee on Nomenclature and Statistics: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , ed 3. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 1980. 21. Feighner JP, Robins E, Guze SB, Woodruff RA Jr, Winokur G, Munoz R: Diagnostic criteria for use in psychiatric research . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1972;26:57-63.Crossref 22. Benitez JT: Eye tracking optokinetic tests: Diagnostic significance in peripheral and central vestibular disorders . Laryngoscope 1970;80:834-848.Crossref 23. Goodnight JH: The New General Linear Models Procedure: Proceedings of the First International SAS Users' Meeting. Carey, NC, SAS Institute, 1976. 24. Hurt S, Holzman PS, Davis JM: Thought disorder: The measurement of its changes . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1983;40:1281-1285.Crossref 25. Iacono WG, Lykken DT: Two-year retest stability of eye tracking performance and a comparison of electro-oculographic and infra-red recording techniques: Evidence of EEG in the electro-oculogram . Psychophysiology 1981;18:49-55.Crossref 26. Levy DL, Yasillo NJ, Dorus E, Shaughnessy R, Gibbons RD, Peterson J, Janicak PG, Gaviria M, Davis JM: Relatives of unipolar and bipolar patients have normal pursuit . Psychiatry Res 1983;10:285-293.Crossref 27. Holzman PS, Solovay MR, Shenton ME: Thought disorder specificity in functional psychoses , in Alpert M (ed): Controversies in Schizophrenia: Changes and Constancies . New York, Guilford Press, 1985. 28. Matthysse S, Holzman PS, Lange K: The genetic transmission of schizophrenia: Application of mendelian latent structure analysis to eyetracking dysfunctions in schizophrenia and affective disorders . J Psychiatr Res , in press. 29. Goodman LA: The analysis of qualitative variables when some of the variables are unobservable: I. A modified latent structure approach . Am J Sociol 1974;79:1179-1259.Crossref

Journal

Archives of General PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jan 1, 1987

References