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The Assessment of Social Adjustment: A Review of Techniques

The Assessment of Social Adjustment: A Review of Techniques Abstract Interest in the community adjustment of psychiatric patients has led to the development of rating techniques for its evaluation. Selection of an appropriate scale for the task should include a review of its item content, anchor points, coverage, method of obtaining information, informant, psychometric properties, precision, cost, scoring, and instructional material. While no scale is without limitations, this report describes 15 currently available scales that meet many of the important criteria for assessing social adjustment and are sufficiently developed to be useful in evaluative research. This review also contains a list of pertinent references to the scales and a guide to the literature on behavioral rating scales. References 1. Bonjean CM, Jill RJ, McLemore SD (eds): Sociological Measurement: An Inventory of Scales and Indices . San Francisco, Chandler Publishing Co, 1967. 2. Buros OK (ed): Mental Measurements Yearbook . Highland Park, NJ, Gryphon Press, 1965. 3. Chun KT, Cobb S, French JRP: Measures for Psychological Assessment: A Guide to 3,000 Original Sources and Their Applications . Ann Arbor, Mich, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, 1973. 4. Comrey AL, Backer TE, Glaser E: A Source Book for Mental Health Measures . Los Angeles, Human Interactions Research Institute, 1973. 5. Dent JK (ed): A Bibliographic Index of Evaluation in Mental Health , No. 1545. Washington, DC, National Institutes of Health, Public Health Services, 1966. 6. Hargreaves WA, McIntyre MH, Attkisson CC, et al: Outcome measurement instruments for use in community mental health program evaluation , in Hargreaves WA, Attkisson CC, Siegel LM, et al (eds): Resource Materials for Community Mental Health Program Evaluation: Part IV. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Services . San Francisco, National Institute of Mental Health, 1974. 7. Lyerly SB: Handbook of Psychiatric Rating Scales , ed 2. Rockville, Md, National Institute of Mental Health, 1973. 8. National Institute of Mental Health: Pharmacotherapy of children . Psychopharmacol Bull (special issue) , 1973. 9. Readings: Tests and Reviews—Including a Classified Index of Mental Measurements Yearbook . Highland Park, NJ, Gryphon Press, 1965. 10. Salzman C, Kochansky GE, Shader RI: Rating scales for geriatric psychopharmacology—A review . Psychopharmacol Bull 8:3-50, 1972. 11. Strauss MA (ed): Family Measurement Techniques: Abstracts of Published Instruments 1935-1965 . Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1969. 12. Waskow IE, Parloff MB (eds): Psychotherapy Change Measures: Report of the Clinical Research Branch, N.I.M.H. Outcome Measures Project. Washington, DC, US Government Printing Office, 1974. 13. Prusoff BA, Klerman GL, Paykel ES: Pitfalls in the self report assessment of depression . Can Psychiatr Assoc J 17:101-107, 1972. 14. Spitzer RL, Endicott JE: The value of the interview for the evaluation of psychopathology , in Hammer J, Salzinger K, Sutton S (eds): Psychopathology: Contributions in the Biological, Behavioral and Social Sciences . New York, John Wiley & Sons Inc, 1973, pp 397-408. 15. Hogarty G: Informant rating of community adjustment, in Waskow IE, Parloff MB (eds): Psychotherapy Change Measures: Report of Clinical Research Branch, N.I.M.H. Outcome Measures Project. Washington, DC, US Government Printing Office, 1974. 16. Berger DG, Rice CE, Sewall LG, et al: Factors affecting the adequacy of patients' community adjustment information obtained . Ment Hyg 47:452-460, 1963. 17. Deykin EY, Weissman MM, Klerman GL: Treatment of depressed women: Therapeutic issues with hospitalized patients and outpatients . Br J Soc Work 1:277-291, 1971. 18. Clausen GT: Some problems of design and inference in studies of community tenure . J Nerv Ment Dis 155:22-35, 1972.Crossref 19. Lyerly SB, Abbot PS (eds): Handbook of Psychiatric Rating Scales, 1950-1964 . Bethesda, Md, National Institute of Mental Health, Public Health Services, 1965. 20. Barrabee R, Barrabee EL, Finesinger JEF: A normative social adjustment scale . Am J Psychiatry 112:252-259, 1955. 21. Miles HHW, Barrabee EL, Finesinger JEF: Evaluation of psychotherapy . Psychosom Med 13:83-105, 1951.Crossref 22. Miles HHW, Waldfogel S, Barrabee EL, et al: Psychosomatic study of 46 young men with coronary artery disease . Psychosom Med 16:455-477, 1954.Crossref 23. Frank JD: Problems of controls in psychotherapy as exemplified by the psychotherapy research project of the Phillips Psychiatric Clinic , in Rubenstein E, Parloff ME (eds): Research in Psychotherapy . Washington, DC, American Psychological Association 1958. 24. Frank JD, Gliedman LH, Imber SD, et al: Patients' expectancies and relearning as factors determining improvement in psychotherapy . Am J Psychiatry 115:961-968, 1959. 25. Imber SD, Frank JD, Nash EH, et al: Improvement and amount of therapeutic contact: An alternative to the use of the notreatment controls in psychotherapy . J Consult Psychol 21:309-315, 1957.Crossref 26. Parloff MB, Kelman HC, Frank JD: Comfort, effectiveness and self-awareness as criteria of improvement in psychotherapy . Am J Psychiatry 111:343-351, 1954. 27. Gilberstadt H, Aberwald R, Crosbie S, et al: Effect of surgery on psychological and social functioning in elderly patients . Arch Intern Med 122:109-115, 1968.Crossref 28. Gilberstadt H: Relationships among scores of tests suitable for the assessment of adjustment and intellectual functioning . J Gerontology 23:483-487, 1968.Crossref 29. Mandel NG: Mandel Social Adjustment Scale . Minneapolis, University of Minnesota, 1959. 30. Mandel NG: An Evaluation of the Sociological, Psychological and Physiological Post-Hospital Adjustment of Mental Patients Treated With Intensive Electric Shock Therapy, doctoral dissertation. Minneapolis, University of Minnesota, 1960. 31. Berger DG, Rice CE, Sewall LG, et al: Factors affecting the adequacy of patients' community adjustment information obtained from the community . Ment Hyg 47:452-460, 1963. 32. Berger DG, Rice CE, Sewall LG, et al: The post-hospital evaluation of psychiatric patients: The social adjustment inventory method . Psychiatr Stud Proj 2:1-30, 1964. 33. Berger DG, Rice CE, Sewall LG, et al: The impact of psychiatric hospital experience on the community adjustment of patients . Mental Hyg 49:83-92, 1965. 34. Langsley DG, Pittman FS, Machotka P, et al: Family crisis therapy-Results and implications . Family Proc 7:145-158, 1968.Crossref 35. Rice CE, Berger DG, Sewall LG, et al: Measuring social restoration performance of public psychiatric hospitals . Pub Health Rep 76:437-446, 1961.Crossref 36. Ellsworth RB, Clayton W: Measurement of improvement in mental illness . J Consult Psychol 23:15-20, 1959.Crossref 37. Ellsworth RB, Foster L, Childres B, et al: Hospital and community adjustment as perceived by psychiatric patients, their family and staff . J Consult Clin Psychol 32:( (pt 2) ):1-41, 1968. 38. Ellsworth RB: Evaluating and applying information about treatment outcome . Hosp Comm Psychiatry 21:115-117, 1970. 39. Ellsworth RB: Consumer feedback in measuring the effectiveness of mental health programs , in Guttenlay P, Struening M (eds): Handbook of Evaluation Research , to be published. 40. Hogarty GE, Katz MM, Lowery HA: Identifying candidates from a normal population for a community mental health program , in Monroe RR, Klee GD, Brody EB (eds): Psychiatric Research Report No. 22 . Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 1967, pp 219-234. 41. Hogarty GE, Katz MM: Norms of adjustment and social behavior . Arch Gen Psychiatry 25:470-480, 1971.Crossref 42. Katz MM, Lyerly SB: Methods of measuring adjustment and social behavior in the community: I. Rationale, description, discriminative validity and scale development . Psychol Rep 13:503-535, 1963.Crossref 43. Katz MM: A typological approach to the problem of predicting response to treatment , in Wittenborn JR, May PRA (eds): Prediction of Response to Pharmacotherapy . Springfield, Ill, Charles C Thomas Publisher, 1966, pp 85-101. 44. Katz MM, Lowery HA, Cole JO: Behavior patterns of schizophrenia in the community , in Lorr M (ed): Explorations in Typing Psychotics . New York, Pergamon Press Inc, 1966, pp 209-230. 45. Katz MM, Gudeman H, Sanborn K: Characterizing differences in psychopathology among ethnic groups: A preliminary report on Hawaiian-Japanese and mainland-American schizophrenics , in Caudill W, Lin T (eds): Mental Health Research in Asia and the Pacific . Honolulu, East-West Center Press, 1969, pp 103-115. 46. Clark AW: Conditions influencing patient response to treatment in a therapeutic community . Soc Sci Med 1:309-319, 1967.Crossref 47. Clark AW: The personality and social network adjustment scale . Hum Rel 21:85-96, 1968.Crossref 48. Clark AW, Yeomans NT: Fraser House: Theory, Practice and Evaluation of a Therapeutic Community . New York, Springer Publishing Co, 1969, pp 275-276. 49. Burnes AJ, Rosen SR: Social roles and adaptation to the community . Community Ment Health J 3:153-158, 1967.Crossref 50. Cook P, Josephs P: The community adaptation schedule and the California psychological inventory: A validational study with college students . Community Ment Health J 6:366-370, 1970.Crossref 51. Roen SR, Ottenstein D, Cooper S, et al: Community adaptation as an evaluative concept in community mental health . Arch Gen Psychiatry 15:36-44, 1966.Crossref 52. Roen SR, Burnes AJ: Community Adaptation Schedule Preliminary Manual . New York, Behavioral Publications Inc, 1968. 53. Ruesch J, Brodsky CM: The concept of social disability . Arch Gen Psychiatry 19:394-403, 1968.Crossref 54. Ruesch J: The assessment of social disability . Arch Gen Psychiatry 21:655-664, 1969.Crossref 55. Ruesch J, Sabine J, Peterson HW, et al: The measurement of social disability . Compr Psychiatry 13:507-518, 1972.Crossref 56. Goodman SP, Schulthorpe WB, Evje M, et al: Social dysfunction in psychiatric and medical outpatients . Abstract Gerontol 8:39, 1968. 57. Goodman SP, Schulthorpe WB, Evje M, et al: Social dysfunction among psychiatric and nonpsychiatric outpatients . J Am Geriatr Soc 17:697-700, 1969. 58. Greenwald SR, Carter JS: Differences between the background, mood, attitude and functioning of drug addicts, alcoholics and orthopedic patients. Read before the second International Symposium on Drug Abuse, Jerusalem, Israel, 1972. 59. Linn MW, Schulthorpe WB, Evje M, et al: A social dysfunction rating scale . J Psychiatr Res 6:299-316, 1969.Crossref 60. Linn MW: Perceptions of childhood and social dysfunction in aging. Read before the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, New Orleans, 1972. 61. Spitzer RL, Cohen G, Miller J, et al: The psychiatric status of 100 men on Skid Row . Int J Soc Psychiatry 15:230-234, 1967.Crossref 62. Spitzer RL, Endicott J: DIAGNO: A computer program for psychiatric diagnosis utilizing the differential diagnostic procedure . Arch Gen Psychiatry 18:746-756, 1968.Crossref 63. Spitzer RL, Endicott J, Fleiss JL, et al: The psychiatric status schedule: A technique for evaluating psychopathology and impairment in role functioning . Arch Gen Psychiatry 23:41-55, 1970.Crossref 64. Endicott J, Spitzer RL: What! Another rating scale? The psychiatric evaluation form . J Nerv Ment Dis 154:88-104, 1972.Crossref 65. Endicott J, Spitzer RL: Current and past psychopathology scales (CAPPS): Rationale, reliability and validity . Arch Gen Psychiatry 27:678-687, 1972.Crossref 66. Fleiss JL, Spitzer RL, Burdock EI: Estimating accuracy of judgment using recorded interviews . Arch Gen Psychiatry 12:562-567, 1965.Crossref 67. Melrose JP: Diagnosis of psychopathology using stepwise multiple discriminant analysis: I . Compr Psychiatry 11:43-50, 1970.Crossref 68. Spitzer RL, Fleiss JL, Burdock EI, et al: The mental status schedule: Rationale, reliability, validity . Compr Psychiatry 5:384-395, 1964.Crossref 69. Spitzer RL, Fleiss JL, Endicott J, et al: Mental status schedule: Properties of factor-analytically derived scales . Arch Gen Psychiatry 16:479-493, 1967.Crossref 70. Spitzer RL, Endicott J: DIAGNO II: Further developments in a computer program for psychiatric diagnosis . Am J Psychiatry 125:12-21, 1969. 71. Candy J, Balfour FHG, Cawley RH, et al: A feasibility study for a controlled trial for formal psychotherapy . Psychol Med 2:345-362, 1972.Crossref 72. Gurland BJ, Yorkston NJ, Stone AR, et al: The structured and scaled interview to assess maladjustment (SSIAM): I. Description, rationale, and development . Arch Gen Psychiatry 27:259-264, 1972.Crossref 73. Gurland BJ, Yorkston NJ, Goldberg K, et al: The structured and scaled interview to assess maladjustment (SSIAM): II. Factor analysis, reliability, and validity . Arch Gen Psychiatry 27:264-267, 1972.Crossref 74. Hoehn-Saric R, Liberman B, Imber S, et al: Arousal and attitude change in neurotic patients . Arch Gen Psychiatry 26:51-56, 1972.Crossref 75. Paykel ES, Weissman MM, Prusoff BA, et al: Dimensions of social adjustment . J Nerv Ment Dis 152:158-172, 1971.Crossref 76. Paykel ES, Klerman GL, DiMascio A, et al: Maintenance antidepressants, psychotherapy, symptoms and social function , in Cole JO, Friedhoff A, Freedman A (eds): Psychopathology and Psychopharmacology . Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1973, pp 205-218. 77. Weissman MM, Paykel ES, Siegel R, et al: The social role performance of depressed women: Comparisons with a normal group . Am J Orthopsychiatry 41:390-405, 1971.Crossref 78. Weissman MM, Klerman GL, Paykel ES, et al: Treatment effects on the social adjustment of depressed patients . Arch Gen Psychiatry 30:771-778, 1974.Crossref 79. Weissman MM, Paykel ES: The Depressed Woman: A Study of Social Relationships . Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1974. 80. Cohler BJ, Grunebaum HU, Weiss JL, et al: Social relations, stress and psychiatric hospitalization among mothers of young children . Soc Psychiatry 9:7-12, 1974.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of General Psychiatry American Medical Association

The Assessment of Social Adjustment: A Review of Techniques

Archives of General Psychiatry , Volume 32 (3) – Mar 1, 1975

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American Medical Association
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Copyright © 1975 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
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0003-990X
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1598-3636
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10.1001/archpsyc.1975.01760210091006
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Abstract

Abstract Interest in the community adjustment of psychiatric patients has led to the development of rating techniques for its evaluation. Selection of an appropriate scale for the task should include a review of its item content, anchor points, coverage, method of obtaining information, informant, psychometric properties, precision, cost, scoring, and instructional material. While no scale is without limitations, this report describes 15 currently available scales that meet many of the important criteria for assessing social adjustment and are sufficiently developed to be useful in evaluative research. This review also contains a list of pertinent references to the scales and a guide to the literature on behavioral rating scales. References 1. Bonjean CM, Jill RJ, McLemore SD (eds): Sociological Measurement: An Inventory of Scales and Indices . San Francisco, Chandler Publishing Co, 1967. 2. Buros OK (ed): Mental Measurements Yearbook . Highland Park, NJ, Gryphon Press, 1965. 3. Chun KT, Cobb S, French JRP: Measures for Psychological Assessment: A Guide to 3,000 Original Sources and Their Applications . Ann Arbor, Mich, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, 1973. 4. Comrey AL, Backer TE, Glaser E: A Source Book for Mental Health Measures . Los Angeles, Human Interactions Research Institute, 1973. 5. Dent JK (ed): A Bibliographic Index of Evaluation in Mental Health , No. 1545. Washington, DC, National Institutes of Health, Public Health Services, 1966. 6. Hargreaves WA, McIntyre MH, Attkisson CC, et al: Outcome measurement instruments for use in community mental health program evaluation , in Hargreaves WA, Attkisson CC, Siegel LM, et al (eds): Resource Materials for Community Mental Health Program Evaluation: Part IV. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Services . San Francisco, National Institute of Mental Health, 1974. 7. Lyerly SB: Handbook of Psychiatric Rating Scales , ed 2. Rockville, Md, National Institute of Mental Health, 1973. 8. National Institute of Mental Health: Pharmacotherapy of children . Psychopharmacol Bull (special issue) , 1973. 9. Readings: Tests and Reviews—Including a Classified Index of Mental Measurements Yearbook . Highland Park, NJ, Gryphon Press, 1965. 10. Salzman C, Kochansky GE, Shader RI: Rating scales for geriatric psychopharmacology—A review . Psychopharmacol Bull 8:3-50, 1972. 11. Strauss MA (ed): Family Measurement Techniques: Abstracts of Published Instruments 1935-1965 . Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1969. 12. Waskow IE, Parloff MB (eds): Psychotherapy Change Measures: Report of the Clinical Research Branch, N.I.M.H. Outcome Measures Project. Washington, DC, US Government Printing Office, 1974. 13. Prusoff BA, Klerman GL, Paykel ES: Pitfalls in the self report assessment of depression . Can Psychiatr Assoc J 17:101-107, 1972. 14. Spitzer RL, Endicott JE: The value of the interview for the evaluation of psychopathology , in Hammer J, Salzinger K, Sutton S (eds): Psychopathology: Contributions in the Biological, Behavioral and Social Sciences . New York, John Wiley & Sons Inc, 1973, pp 397-408. 15. Hogarty G: Informant rating of community adjustment, in Waskow IE, Parloff MB (eds): Psychotherapy Change Measures: Report of Clinical Research Branch, N.I.M.H. Outcome Measures Project. Washington, DC, US Government Printing Office, 1974. 16. Berger DG, Rice CE, Sewall LG, et al: Factors affecting the adequacy of patients' community adjustment information obtained . Ment Hyg 47:452-460, 1963. 17. Deykin EY, Weissman MM, Klerman GL: Treatment of depressed women: Therapeutic issues with hospitalized patients and outpatients . Br J Soc Work 1:277-291, 1971. 18. Clausen GT: Some problems of design and inference in studies of community tenure . J Nerv Ment Dis 155:22-35, 1972.Crossref 19. Lyerly SB, Abbot PS (eds): Handbook of Psychiatric Rating Scales, 1950-1964 . Bethesda, Md, National Institute of Mental Health, Public Health Services, 1965. 20. Barrabee R, Barrabee EL, Finesinger JEF: A normative social adjustment scale . Am J Psychiatry 112:252-259, 1955. 21. Miles HHW, Barrabee EL, Finesinger JEF: Evaluation of psychotherapy . Psychosom Med 13:83-105, 1951.Crossref 22. Miles HHW, Waldfogel S, Barrabee EL, et al: Psychosomatic study of 46 young men with coronary artery disease . Psychosom Med 16:455-477, 1954.Crossref 23. Frank JD: Problems of controls in psychotherapy as exemplified by the psychotherapy research project of the Phillips Psychiatric Clinic , in Rubenstein E, Parloff ME (eds): Research in Psychotherapy . Washington, DC, American Psychological Association 1958. 24. Frank JD, Gliedman LH, Imber SD, et al: Patients' expectancies and relearning as factors determining improvement in psychotherapy . Am J Psychiatry 115:961-968, 1959. 25. Imber SD, Frank JD, Nash EH, et al: Improvement and amount of therapeutic contact: An alternative to the use of the notreatment controls in psychotherapy . J Consult Psychol 21:309-315, 1957.Crossref 26. Parloff MB, Kelman HC, Frank JD: Comfort, effectiveness and self-awareness as criteria of improvement in psychotherapy . Am J Psychiatry 111:343-351, 1954. 27. Gilberstadt H, Aberwald R, Crosbie S, et al: Effect of surgery on psychological and social functioning in elderly patients . Arch Intern Med 122:109-115, 1968.Crossref 28. Gilberstadt H: Relationships among scores of tests suitable for the assessment of adjustment and intellectual functioning . J Gerontology 23:483-487, 1968.Crossref 29. Mandel NG: Mandel Social Adjustment Scale . Minneapolis, University of Minnesota, 1959. 30. Mandel NG: An Evaluation of the Sociological, Psychological and Physiological Post-Hospital Adjustment of Mental Patients Treated With Intensive Electric Shock Therapy, doctoral dissertation. Minneapolis, University of Minnesota, 1960. 31. Berger DG, Rice CE, Sewall LG, et al: Factors affecting the adequacy of patients' community adjustment information obtained from the community . Ment Hyg 47:452-460, 1963. 32. Berger DG, Rice CE, Sewall LG, et al: The post-hospital evaluation of psychiatric patients: The social adjustment inventory method . Psychiatr Stud Proj 2:1-30, 1964. 33. Berger DG, Rice CE, Sewall LG, et al: The impact of psychiatric hospital experience on the community adjustment of patients . Mental Hyg 49:83-92, 1965. 34. Langsley DG, Pittman FS, Machotka P, et al: Family crisis therapy-Results and implications . Family Proc 7:145-158, 1968.Crossref 35. Rice CE, Berger DG, Sewall LG, et al: Measuring social restoration performance of public psychiatric hospitals . Pub Health Rep 76:437-446, 1961.Crossref 36. Ellsworth RB, Clayton W: Measurement of improvement in mental illness . J Consult Psychol 23:15-20, 1959.Crossref 37. Ellsworth RB, Foster L, Childres B, et al: Hospital and community adjustment as perceived by psychiatric patients, their family and staff . J Consult Clin Psychol 32:( (pt 2) ):1-41, 1968. 38. Ellsworth RB: Evaluating and applying information about treatment outcome . Hosp Comm Psychiatry 21:115-117, 1970. 39. Ellsworth RB: Consumer feedback in measuring the effectiveness of mental health programs , in Guttenlay P, Struening M (eds): Handbook of Evaluation Research , to be published. 40. Hogarty GE, Katz MM, Lowery HA: Identifying candidates from a normal population for a community mental health program , in Monroe RR, Klee GD, Brody EB (eds): Psychiatric Research Report No. 22 . Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 1967, pp 219-234. 41. Hogarty GE, Katz MM: Norms of adjustment and social behavior . Arch Gen Psychiatry 25:470-480, 1971.Crossref 42. Katz MM, Lyerly SB: Methods of measuring adjustment and social behavior in the community: I. Rationale, description, discriminative validity and scale development . Psychol Rep 13:503-535, 1963.Crossref 43. Katz MM: A typological approach to the problem of predicting response to treatment , in Wittenborn JR, May PRA (eds): Prediction of Response to Pharmacotherapy . Springfield, Ill, Charles C Thomas Publisher, 1966, pp 85-101. 44. Katz MM, Lowery HA, Cole JO: Behavior patterns of schizophrenia in the community , in Lorr M (ed): Explorations in Typing Psychotics . New York, Pergamon Press Inc, 1966, pp 209-230. 45. Katz MM, Gudeman H, Sanborn K: Characterizing differences in psychopathology among ethnic groups: A preliminary report on Hawaiian-Japanese and mainland-American schizophrenics , in Caudill W, Lin T (eds): Mental Health Research in Asia and the Pacific . Honolulu, East-West Center Press, 1969, pp 103-115. 46. Clark AW: Conditions influencing patient response to treatment in a therapeutic community . Soc Sci Med 1:309-319, 1967.Crossref 47. Clark AW: The personality and social network adjustment scale . Hum Rel 21:85-96, 1968.Crossref 48. Clark AW, Yeomans NT: Fraser House: Theory, Practice and Evaluation of a Therapeutic Community . New York, Springer Publishing Co, 1969, pp 275-276. 49. Burnes AJ, Rosen SR: Social roles and adaptation to the community . Community Ment Health J 3:153-158, 1967.Crossref 50. Cook P, Josephs P: The community adaptation schedule and the California psychological inventory: A validational study with college students . Community Ment Health J 6:366-370, 1970.Crossref 51. Roen SR, Ottenstein D, Cooper S, et al: Community adaptation as an evaluative concept in community mental health . Arch Gen Psychiatry 15:36-44, 1966.Crossref 52. Roen SR, Burnes AJ: Community Adaptation Schedule Preliminary Manual . New York, Behavioral Publications Inc, 1968. 53. Ruesch J, Brodsky CM: The concept of social disability . Arch Gen Psychiatry 19:394-403, 1968.Crossref 54. Ruesch J: The assessment of social disability . Arch Gen Psychiatry 21:655-664, 1969.Crossref 55. Ruesch J, Sabine J, Peterson HW, et al: The measurement of social disability . Compr Psychiatry 13:507-518, 1972.Crossref 56. Goodman SP, Schulthorpe WB, Evje M, et al: Social dysfunction in psychiatric and medical outpatients . Abstract Gerontol 8:39, 1968. 57. Goodman SP, Schulthorpe WB, Evje M, et al: Social dysfunction among psychiatric and nonpsychiatric outpatients . J Am Geriatr Soc 17:697-700, 1969. 58. Greenwald SR, Carter JS: Differences between the background, mood, attitude and functioning of drug addicts, alcoholics and orthopedic patients. Read before the second International Symposium on Drug Abuse, Jerusalem, Israel, 1972. 59. Linn MW, Schulthorpe WB, Evje M, et al: A social dysfunction rating scale . J Psychiatr Res 6:299-316, 1969.Crossref 60. Linn MW: Perceptions of childhood and social dysfunction in aging. Read before the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, New Orleans, 1972. 61. Spitzer RL, Cohen G, Miller J, et al: The psychiatric status of 100 men on Skid Row . Int J Soc Psychiatry 15:230-234, 1967.Crossref 62. Spitzer RL, Endicott J: DIAGNO: A computer program for psychiatric diagnosis utilizing the differential diagnostic procedure . Arch Gen Psychiatry 18:746-756, 1968.Crossref 63. Spitzer RL, Endicott J, Fleiss JL, et al: The psychiatric status schedule: A technique for evaluating psychopathology and impairment in role functioning . Arch Gen Psychiatry 23:41-55, 1970.Crossref 64. Endicott J, Spitzer RL: What! Another rating scale? The psychiatric evaluation form . J Nerv Ment Dis 154:88-104, 1972.Crossref 65. Endicott J, Spitzer RL: Current and past psychopathology scales (CAPPS): Rationale, reliability and validity . Arch Gen Psychiatry 27:678-687, 1972.Crossref 66. Fleiss JL, Spitzer RL, Burdock EI: Estimating accuracy of judgment using recorded interviews . Arch Gen Psychiatry 12:562-567, 1965.Crossref 67. Melrose JP: Diagnosis of psychopathology using stepwise multiple discriminant analysis: I . Compr Psychiatry 11:43-50, 1970.Crossref 68. Spitzer RL, Fleiss JL, Burdock EI, et al: The mental status schedule: Rationale, reliability, validity . Compr Psychiatry 5:384-395, 1964.Crossref 69. Spitzer RL, Fleiss JL, Endicott J, et al: Mental status schedule: Properties of factor-analytically derived scales . Arch Gen Psychiatry 16:479-493, 1967.Crossref 70. Spitzer RL, Endicott J: DIAGNO II: Further developments in a computer program for psychiatric diagnosis . Am J Psychiatry 125:12-21, 1969. 71. Candy J, Balfour FHG, Cawley RH, et al: A feasibility study for a controlled trial for formal psychotherapy . Psychol Med 2:345-362, 1972.Crossref 72. Gurland BJ, Yorkston NJ, Stone AR, et al: The structured and scaled interview to assess maladjustment (SSIAM): I. Description, rationale, and development . Arch Gen Psychiatry 27:259-264, 1972.Crossref 73. Gurland BJ, Yorkston NJ, Goldberg K, et al: The structured and scaled interview to assess maladjustment (SSIAM): II. Factor analysis, reliability, and validity . Arch Gen Psychiatry 27:264-267, 1972.Crossref 74. Hoehn-Saric R, Liberman B, Imber S, et al: Arousal and attitude change in neurotic patients . Arch Gen Psychiatry 26:51-56, 1972.Crossref 75. Paykel ES, Weissman MM, Prusoff BA, et al: Dimensions of social adjustment . J Nerv Ment Dis 152:158-172, 1971.Crossref 76. Paykel ES, Klerman GL, DiMascio A, et al: Maintenance antidepressants, psychotherapy, symptoms and social function , in Cole JO, Friedhoff A, Freedman A (eds): Psychopathology and Psychopharmacology . Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1973, pp 205-218. 77. Weissman MM, Paykel ES, Siegel R, et al: The social role performance of depressed women: Comparisons with a normal group . Am J Orthopsychiatry 41:390-405, 1971.Crossref 78. Weissman MM, Klerman GL, Paykel ES, et al: Treatment effects on the social adjustment of depressed patients . Arch Gen Psychiatry 30:771-778, 1974.Crossref 79. Weissman MM, Paykel ES: The Depressed Woman: A Study of Social Relationships . Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1974. 80. Cohler BJ, Grunebaum HU, Weiss JL, et al: Social relations, stress and psychiatric hospitalization among mothers of young children . Soc Psychiatry 9:7-12, 1974.Crossref

Journal

Archives of General PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Mar 1, 1975

References