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The Adrenal Cortex and Hypertensive Disease

The Adrenal Cortex and Hypertensive Disease Abstract A. INTRODUCTION Although great advances continue to be made in many fields of medicine, essential hypertension remains a baffling problem. It is still a leading cause of death, and its origin and cure are still one of the persistent prolems confronting research workers.It is generally accepted that arterial hypertension is produced by narrowing of the peripheral arterioles, at first from vasospasm and after some years from diffuse hyperplastic vascular sclerosis. Most physicians still regard the condition as an "entity," but in a series of papers Hamilton and others (1954) express doubt on this view and suggest that those with essential hypertension represent that section of the population with arterial pressures higher than an arbitrarily selected value and with no disease to which these pressures can be attributed. Two factors concerned in the pathogenesis of so-called hypertension were considered by these investigators, namely, age and inheritance, but, as these did References 1. In Symposium on Hypertension. 2. In Symposium on Hypertension. 3. In Symposium on Hypertension. 4. In Symposium on Hypertension. 5. In Symposium on Hypertension. 6. In Symposium on Hypertension. 7. In Symposium on Hypertension. 8. In Symposium on Hypertension. 9. In Symposium on Hypertension. 10. In Symposium on Hypertension. 11. In Symposium on Hypertension. 12. In Symposium on Hypertension. 13. In Symposium on Hypertension. 14. Assali, N. S., and Hauermesz, J.: Endocrinology 55:561, 1954.Crossref 15. Beck, R. N., and others: Lancet 2:1140, 1954.Crossref 16. Bein, H. J.: Experientia 9:107, 1953.Crossref 17. Bishop, P., and others: Lancet 2:1137, 1954.Crossref 18. Bongiovanni, A. M., and others: Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 87:282, 1954. 19. Bowers, R. F.: J. A. M. A. 154:394, 1954. 20. Braun-Menendez, E., and v. Euler, V. S.: Nature, London 160:905, 1947. 21. Brown, J. H. U.: Fed. Proc. 12:21, 1953. 22. Bryant, J. M., and Blecha, E.: Proc Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 65:227, 1947. 23. Bush, I. E.: J. Endocrinol. 9:95, 1953. 24. Butt, W. R., and others: Lancet 2:894, 1950. 25. Chart, J. J., and others: Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 78:244, 1951. 26. Cope, C. L., and Hurlock, B.: Clin. Sc. 13:69,1954. 27. Daniel, P. M., and others: Clin. Sc. 13:247, 1954. 28. Davis, L., and others: Ann. Surg. 132:394, 1950. 29. Deane, H. W., and Masson, M. C.: J. Clin. Endo-crinol. 11:193, 1951. 30. de Courcy, J. L.: Ann. Surg. 100:310, 1934. 31. Dick, G. F., and Schwartz, W. B.: Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 65:22, 1947. 32. Dieckmann, W.: The Toxaemias of Pregnancy , St. Louis, C. V. Mosby Company, 1952. 33. Dieckmann and others: Am. J. Obst. & Gynee. 61:1100, 1951. 34. Am. J. Obst. & Gynec. 63:783, 1952. 35. Edelmann, A.: Fed. Proc. 12:37, 1953. 36. Farrell, G. L., and others: Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 87:141, 1954. 37. Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 87:587, 1954. 38. Floyer, M. A.: Clin. Sc. 10:405, 1951. 39. Freed, S. C., and others: Circulation Res. 2:494, 1954. 40. Friedman, S. M., and Friedman, C. L.: Canad. M. A. J. 61:596, 1949. 41. J. Exper. Med. 93:361, 1951. 42. Friedman, S. M., and others: Endocrinology 51: 401, 1952. 43. Fritz, I., and Levine, R.: Am. J. Physiol. 165: 456, 1951. 44. Gaunt, R., and others: Physiol. Rev. 29:281, 1949. 45. Gershberg, H., and others: Yale J. Biol. & Med. 23:32, 1950. 46. Goldblatt, H.: Ann. Int. Med. 11:69, 1937. 47. Goldman, M. L., and Schroeder, H. A.: Science 107:272, 1948. 48. Govan, A. D. T., and MacGillivray, I.: Brit. J. Obst. & Gynec. 61:491, 1954. 49. Green, D. M., and others: Am. J. Physiol. 170:94, 1952. 50. Greep, R. O., and Deane, H. W.: Endocrinology 40:417, 1947. 51. Grollman, A., and Konnerth, A.: Endocrinology 48:213, 1951. 52. Haas, E., and others: Arch. Biochem. 42:368 53. 44:63, 1953. 54. Hall, C. E., and Hall, O.: Proc. Soc. Exper. & Med. 71:690, 1949. 55. Hamilton, M., and others: Clin. Sc. 13:11; 37; 273, 1954. 56. Harrison, J. H., and others: J. Urol. 67:405, 1952. 57. Hatch, F. T., and others: Am. J. Med. 17:499. 1934. 58. Hechter, O., and Pincus, G.: Physiol. Rev. 34: 459, 1954. 59. Heptinstall, R. H.: Brit. Heart J. 16:133, 1954.Crossref 60. Hopkin, D. A. B.: Lancet 1:605, 1955.Crossref 61. Hubble, D.: Lancet 1:1, 1955.Crossref 62. Jeffers, W. A., and others: J. A. M. A. 153:15021953.Crossref 63. Jones, I. C., and Wright, A.: J. Endocrinol. 10: 266, 1954.Crossref 64. Kahn, E. A.: New England J. Med. 251:633, 1954.Crossref 65. Knether, C. A., and Haney, M. E.: Science 121: 65, 1955.Crossref 66. Ledingham, J. M.: Clin. Sc. 10:423, 1951. 67. Clin. Sc. 13:535, 1954 68. Clin. Sc. 13:543, 1954 69. Lever, J. D.: Nature, London 171:882, 1953.Crossref 70. Mach, R. S., and others: Schweiz. med. Wchnschr 84:407, 1954 71. abstracted, Year Book of Medicine (1954-1955 Year Book Series) , Chicago, Year Book Publishers, Inc., 1955. 72. Masson, M. C., and others: J. Lab. & Clin. Med 38:213, 1951. 73. Merrill, J. P.: Ann. Int. Med. 37:966, 1952. 74. Perara, G. A.: Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med 68:48, 1948. 75. Bull. New York Acad. Med. 26:75, 1950. 76. J. Clin. Invest. 32:633, 1953. 77. —and Blood, D. W.: Ann. Int. Med. 27:401, 1947.Crossref 78. Peschel, E., and Race, G. J.: Am. J. Med. 17:355, 1954.Crossref 79. Pickering, G. W., and others: Lancet 2:952, 1952Crossref 80. Quart. J. Med. 22:1, 1953. 81. Pines, K. L., and Perara, G. A.: Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 81:149, 1952. 82. Prunty, F. T. G., and others: Lancet 2:620, 1954. 83. Raab, W.: J. Mt. Sinai Hosp. 19:233, 1952. 84. Raab and others: J. Clin. Invest. 29:1397, 1950. 85. Renzi, A. A., and others: Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 87:144, 1954. 86. Robinson, F. B., and Yoffey, J. M.: J. Anat. 84: 32, 1950. 87. Roemmelt, J. C., and others: Am. J. Physiol. 159: 124, 1949. 88. Rosenheim, M. L.: Brit. M. J. 2:1181, 1954. 89. Rosenman, R. H., and others: J. Clin. Endocrinol. 14:661, 1954 90. Am. J. Physiol. 177:325, 1954 91. Sala, G., and Leutscher, J. A.: Endocrinology 55: 516, 1954. 92. Salassa, R. M., and others: J. A. M. A. 152:1509, 1953. 93. Salgado, E.: Endocrinology 55:377, 1954. 94. Sapeika, N.: Arch. Int. Med. 82:263, 1948. 95. Sayers, G.: Physiol. Rev. 30:241, 1950. 96. Schroeder, H. A.: Am. J. Med. 17:540, 1954. 97. Selye, H.: Brit. M. J. 1:1383, 1950.Crossref 98. Brit. M. J. 1:263, 1951.Crossref 99. J. Clin. Endocrinol. 15:384, 1955.Crossref 100. — others: J. Pharmacol. 85:1, 1945. 101. Shorr, E., and others, in Liver Injury Symposium , New York, Josiah Macy, Jr., Foundation, 1948. 102. Circulation 3:42, 1951.Crossref 103. Simpson, S. A., and others: Lancet 2:226, 1952.Crossref 104. Singer, B., and Stack-Dunne, M. P.: Nature, London 174:790, 1954.Crossref 105. Stafford, R. O., and others: Endocrinology 52: 292, 1953.Crossref 106. Stoner, H. B., and Whiteley, H. J.: Lancet 2: 992, 1954.Crossref 107. Swingle, W. W., and others: Endocrinology 55: 813, 1954.Crossref 108. Symington, T., and Goodall, A. L.: Glasgow M. J. 30:107, 1949. 109. Symposium: Colloquia on Endocrinology, Ciba Foundation, London, J. & A. Churchill, Ltd., 1952, Vol. 4. 110. Symposium on Humoral and Neurogenic Factors in Hypertension, Ciba Foundation, London, J. & A. Churchill, Ltd., 1954. 111. Tait, J. F., and others: Lancet 1:122, 1952.Crossref 112. Teng, H. G., and others: Metabolism 3:405, 1954. 113. Thorn, G. W., and others: Ann. Int. Med. 37:972, 1952.Crossref 114. Tobian, L., and Binion, J. T.: Circulation 5:754, 1952.Crossref 115. J. Clin. Invest. 33:1407, 1954.Crossref 116. Venning, E. H., and others: Am. J. Obst. & Gynec. 67:542, 1954. 117. Vogt, M.: Quart. J. Exper. Physiol. 39:245, 1954. 118. Wakerlin, G. E.: A. M. A. Arch. Int. Med. 92: 889, 1953. 119. Ward, L. E., and others: J. Lab. & Clin. Med. 44:948, 1954. 120. Wilkins, L., and others: J. Clin. Endocrinol. 12: 1015, 1952.Crossref 121. Williams, R.: Practitioner 173:84, 1954. 122. Wolferth, C. C., and others: Ann. Int. Med. 35: 8, 1951.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png A.M.A. Archives of Internal Medicine American Medical Association

The Adrenal Cortex and Hypertensive Disease

A.M.A. Archives of Internal Medicine , Volume 96 (5) – Nov 1, 1955

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Copyright © 1955 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
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0888-2479
DOI
10.1001/archinte.1955.00250160096007
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Abstract

Abstract A. INTRODUCTION Although great advances continue to be made in many fields of medicine, essential hypertension remains a baffling problem. It is still a leading cause of death, and its origin and cure are still one of the persistent prolems confronting research workers.It is generally accepted that arterial hypertension is produced by narrowing of the peripheral arterioles, at first from vasospasm and after some years from diffuse hyperplastic vascular sclerosis. Most physicians still regard the condition as an "entity," but in a series of papers Hamilton and others (1954) express doubt on this view and suggest that those with essential hypertension represent that section of the population with arterial pressures higher than an arbitrarily selected value and with no disease to which these pressures can be attributed. Two factors concerned in the pathogenesis of so-called hypertension were considered by these investigators, namely, age and inheritance, but, as these did References 1. In Symposium on Hypertension. 2. In Symposium on Hypertension. 3. In Symposium on Hypertension. 4. In Symposium on Hypertension. 5. In Symposium on Hypertension. 6. In Symposium on Hypertension. 7. In Symposium on Hypertension. 8. In Symposium on Hypertension. 9. In Symposium on Hypertension. 10. In Symposium on Hypertension. 11. In Symposium on Hypertension. 12. In Symposium on Hypertension. 13. In Symposium on Hypertension. 14. Assali, N. S., and Hauermesz, J.: Endocrinology 55:561, 1954.Crossref 15. Beck, R. N., and others: Lancet 2:1140, 1954.Crossref 16. Bein, H. J.: Experientia 9:107, 1953.Crossref 17. Bishop, P., and others: Lancet 2:1137, 1954.Crossref 18. Bongiovanni, A. M., and others: Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 87:282, 1954. 19. Bowers, R. F.: J. A. M. A. 154:394, 1954. 20. Braun-Menendez, E., and v. Euler, V. S.: Nature, London 160:905, 1947. 21. Brown, J. H. U.: Fed. Proc. 12:21, 1953. 22. Bryant, J. M., and Blecha, E.: Proc Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 65:227, 1947. 23. Bush, I. E.: J. Endocrinol. 9:95, 1953. 24. Butt, W. R., and others: Lancet 2:894, 1950. 25. Chart, J. J., and others: Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 78:244, 1951. 26. Cope, C. L., and Hurlock, B.: Clin. Sc. 13:69,1954. 27. Daniel, P. M., and others: Clin. Sc. 13:247, 1954. 28. Davis, L., and others: Ann. Surg. 132:394, 1950. 29. Deane, H. W., and Masson, M. C.: J. Clin. Endo-crinol. 11:193, 1951. 30. de Courcy, J. L.: Ann. Surg. 100:310, 1934. 31. Dick, G. F., and Schwartz, W. B.: Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 65:22, 1947. 32. Dieckmann, W.: The Toxaemias of Pregnancy , St. Louis, C. V. Mosby Company, 1952. 33. Dieckmann and others: Am. J. Obst. & Gynee. 61:1100, 1951. 34. Am. J. Obst. & Gynec. 63:783, 1952. 35. Edelmann, A.: Fed. Proc. 12:37, 1953. 36. Farrell, G. L., and others: Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 87:141, 1954. 37. Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 87:587, 1954. 38. Floyer, M. A.: Clin. Sc. 10:405, 1951. 39. Freed, S. C., and others: Circulation Res. 2:494, 1954. 40. Friedman, S. M., and Friedman, C. L.: Canad. M. A. J. 61:596, 1949. 41. J. Exper. Med. 93:361, 1951. 42. Friedman, S. M., and others: Endocrinology 51: 401, 1952. 43. Fritz, I., and Levine, R.: Am. J. Physiol. 165: 456, 1951. 44. Gaunt, R., and others: Physiol. Rev. 29:281, 1949. 45. Gershberg, H., and others: Yale J. Biol. & Med. 23:32, 1950. 46. Goldblatt, H.: Ann. Int. Med. 11:69, 1937. 47. Goldman, M. L., and Schroeder, H. A.: Science 107:272, 1948. 48. Govan, A. D. T., and MacGillivray, I.: Brit. J. Obst. & Gynec. 61:491, 1954. 49. Green, D. M., and others: Am. J. Physiol. 170:94, 1952. 50. Greep, R. O., and Deane, H. W.: Endocrinology 40:417, 1947. 51. Grollman, A., and Konnerth, A.: Endocrinology 48:213, 1951. 52. Haas, E., and others: Arch. Biochem. 42:368 53. 44:63, 1953. 54. Hall, C. E., and Hall, O.: Proc. Soc. Exper. & Med. 71:690, 1949. 55. Hamilton, M., and others: Clin. Sc. 13:11; 37; 273, 1954. 56. Harrison, J. H., and others: J. Urol. 67:405, 1952. 57. Hatch, F. T., and others: Am. J. Med. 17:499. 1934. 58. Hechter, O., and Pincus, G.: Physiol. Rev. 34: 459, 1954. 59. Heptinstall, R. H.: Brit. Heart J. 16:133, 1954.Crossref 60. Hopkin, D. A. B.: Lancet 1:605, 1955.Crossref 61. Hubble, D.: Lancet 1:1, 1955.Crossref 62. Jeffers, W. A., and others: J. A. M. A. 153:15021953.Crossref 63. Jones, I. C., and Wright, A.: J. Endocrinol. 10: 266, 1954.Crossref 64. Kahn, E. A.: New England J. Med. 251:633, 1954.Crossref 65. Knether, C. A., and Haney, M. E.: Science 121: 65, 1955.Crossref 66. Ledingham, J. M.: Clin. Sc. 10:423, 1951. 67. Clin. Sc. 13:535, 1954 68. Clin. Sc. 13:543, 1954 69. Lever, J. D.: Nature, London 171:882, 1953.Crossref 70. Mach, R. S., and others: Schweiz. med. Wchnschr 84:407, 1954 71. abstracted, Year Book of Medicine (1954-1955 Year Book Series) , Chicago, Year Book Publishers, Inc., 1955. 72. Masson, M. C., and others: J. Lab. & Clin. Med 38:213, 1951. 73. Merrill, J. P.: Ann. Int. Med. 37:966, 1952. 74. Perara, G. A.: Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med 68:48, 1948. 75. Bull. New York Acad. Med. 26:75, 1950. 76. J. Clin. Invest. 32:633, 1953. 77. —and Blood, D. W.: Ann. Int. Med. 27:401, 1947.Crossref 78. Peschel, E., and Race, G. J.: Am. J. Med. 17:355, 1954.Crossref 79. Pickering, G. W., and others: Lancet 2:952, 1952Crossref 80. Quart. J. Med. 22:1, 1953. 81. Pines, K. L., and Perara, G. A.: Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 81:149, 1952. 82. Prunty, F. T. G., and others: Lancet 2:620, 1954. 83. Raab, W.: J. Mt. Sinai Hosp. 19:233, 1952. 84. Raab and others: J. Clin. Invest. 29:1397, 1950. 85. Renzi, A. A., and others: Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 87:144, 1954. 86. Robinson, F. B., and Yoffey, J. M.: J. Anat. 84: 32, 1950. 87. Roemmelt, J. C., and others: Am. J. Physiol. 159: 124, 1949. 88. Rosenheim, M. L.: Brit. M. J. 2:1181, 1954. 89. Rosenman, R. H., and others: J. Clin. Endocrinol. 14:661, 1954 90. Am. J. Physiol. 177:325, 1954 91. Sala, G., and Leutscher, J. A.: Endocrinology 55: 516, 1954. 92. Salassa, R. M., and others: J. A. M. A. 152:1509, 1953. 93. Salgado, E.: Endocrinology 55:377, 1954. 94. Sapeika, N.: Arch. Int. Med. 82:263, 1948. 95. Sayers, G.: Physiol. Rev. 30:241, 1950. 96. Schroeder, H. A.: Am. J. Med. 17:540, 1954. 97. Selye, H.: Brit. M. J. 1:1383, 1950.Crossref 98. Brit. M. J. 1:263, 1951.Crossref 99. J. Clin. Endocrinol. 15:384, 1955.Crossref 100. — others: J. Pharmacol. 85:1, 1945. 101. Shorr, E., and others, in Liver Injury Symposium , New York, Josiah Macy, Jr., Foundation, 1948. 102. Circulation 3:42, 1951.Crossref 103. Simpson, S. A., and others: Lancet 2:226, 1952.Crossref 104. Singer, B., and Stack-Dunne, M. P.: Nature, London 174:790, 1954.Crossref 105. Stafford, R. O., and others: Endocrinology 52: 292, 1953.Crossref 106. Stoner, H. B., and Whiteley, H. J.: Lancet 2: 992, 1954.Crossref 107. Swingle, W. W., and others: Endocrinology 55: 813, 1954.Crossref 108. Symington, T., and Goodall, A. L.: Glasgow M. J. 30:107, 1949. 109. Symposium: Colloquia on Endocrinology, Ciba Foundation, London, J. & A. Churchill, Ltd., 1952, Vol. 4. 110. Symposium on Humoral and Neurogenic Factors in Hypertension, Ciba Foundation, London, J. & A. Churchill, Ltd., 1954. 111. Tait, J. F., and others: Lancet 1:122, 1952.Crossref 112. Teng, H. G., and others: Metabolism 3:405, 1954. 113. Thorn, G. W., and others: Ann. Int. Med. 37:972, 1952.Crossref 114. Tobian, L., and Binion, J. T.: Circulation 5:754, 1952.Crossref 115. J. Clin. Invest. 33:1407, 1954.Crossref 116. Venning, E. H., and others: Am. J. Obst. & Gynec. 67:542, 1954. 117. Vogt, M.: Quart. J. Exper. Physiol. 39:245, 1954. 118. Wakerlin, G. E.: A. M. A. Arch. Int. Med. 92: 889, 1953. 119. Ward, L. E., and others: J. Lab. & Clin. Med. 44:948, 1954. 120. Wilkins, L., and others: J. Clin. Endocrinol. 12: 1015, 1952.Crossref 121. Williams, R.: Practitioner 173:84, 1954. 122. Wolferth, C. C., and others: Ann. Int. Med. 35: 8, 1951.Crossref

Journal

A.M.A. Archives of Internal MedicineAmerican Medical Association

Published: Nov 1, 1955

References