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Temporal Course of the Relaxation of Binocular Duction (Fusion) Movements

Temporal Course of the Relaxation of Binocular Duction (Fusion) Movements Abstract Introduction Perhaps the most commonly employed test of binocular muscle balance involves transferring an occluder from one eye to its fellow and then either noting the resulting movement of the eyes or asking the patient to report on the direction of the "jump." We do not know what the nature of the movement of the covered eye is in the first few seconds after it is covered. Yet it is just this movement which determines the result of the test. The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss the results of an investigation of the temporal course of this very simple type of eye movement, the relaxation of a horizontal duction.*The statement that the relaxation of a duction constitutes a simple type of eye movement requires a comparison with other types of eye movement which are uncomplicated by accommodation or pupillary contraction. Saccadic movements of the eye References 1. A duction movement as here defined corresponds to what Duke-Elder1 calls a "corrective fusion movement," Adler,2 a "duction" movement, Kramer,3 "prism" vergence, "fusional" vergence, and "relative" vergence, Ogle,4 "forced" vergence, and v.Kries,5 a "fusion movement." Such movements are to be distinguished from conjugate movements and vergence movements accompanied by changes in accommodation and pupil size. 2. Adler, F. H.,2 p 346. 3. Adler, F. H.,2 p 346. 4. Ludvigh, E.,8 p 444. 5. Since the stimulus distance is unchanged, the movement is one of pure adduction uncomplicated by convergence, accommodation, or miosis. The right eye also "shows very little net motion" during an asymmetrical convergence movement.18 6. This situation is to be distinguished from those in which varying amounts of disparateness, including zero disparateness, may be present as could occur in experiments with a stabilized retinal image. 7. Torok, N.; Guillemin, V.; and Barnothy, J. M.: Ann Otol Rhin Laryng 60:917, 1951. 8. Smith, W. M., and Warter, P. J.: J Opt Soc Amer 50:245, 1960.Crossref 9. The refractive errors of the three subjects are: subject 3, OD +0.25 D cx. 80°, OS +0.25 D cx. 10°; subject 1, OD—0.25 D sph.—0.12 D cx. 15°, OS—0.5° OD sph.—0.25 D cx. 0°; subject 2, OD—2.00 D sph.—1.00 D cx. 73°, OS—1.63 D sph.—.87 D cx. 100°. The average values of the lateral phorias at one meter distance as determined by repeated measurements with the Maddox rod are: subject 3, 6.1Δeso; subject 1, 5.8Δexo; subject 2, 3.6Δexo. 10. Duke-Elder, W. S.: Textbook of Ophthalmology , St. Louis: C. V. Mosby Company, 1934, vol 1, p 613. 11. Adler, F. H.: Physiology of the Eye , ed. 3, St. Louis: C. V. Mosby Company, 1959, p 443. 12. Kramer, M. E.: Clinical Orthoptics , edited by Ernest A. W. Sheppard, St. Louis: C. V. Mosby Company, 1949, p 288. 13. Ogle, K. N.: Researches in Binocular Vision , Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company, 1950, p 76. 14. v. Kries, J.: On the Origin of the Laws of the Ocular Movements , in Helmholtz's Treatise on Physiological Optics , edited by James P. C. Southall, translation from the German, ed. 3, Menasha: George Banta Publishing Company, 1925, vol 3, p 629. 15. Dodge, R.: Five Types of Eye Movements in the Horizontal Plane of the Field of Regard , Amer J Physiol 8:307, 1903. 16. Westheimer, G.: Eye Movement Responses to a Horizontally Moving Visual Stimulus , Arch Ophthal 52:932, 1954.Crossref 17. Ludvigh, E.: Control of Ocular Movements and Visual Interpretation of Environment , Arch Ophthal 48:442, 1952.Crossref 18. Miller, J. W., and Ludvigh, E.: The Effect of Relative Motion on Visual Acuity , Survey Ophthal 7:108, 1962. 19. Ludvigh, E.: Visual and Stereoscopic Acuity for Moving Objects, Symposium on Physiological Psychology, Office of Naval Research, Department of the Navy, Report ACR-1, 1955, p 130. 20. Sobczyk, A.: Aided Tracking, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Radiation Laboratory Report No. 430, 1943. 21. Phillips, R. S.: " Applications of the New Design Method ," in Theory of Servomechanisms , edited by H. M. James, N. B. Nichols, R. S. Phillips, ed. 1, New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1947, p 364. 22. van Heuven, J. A.: La vision binoculaire , Arch Néerl Physiol 11:83, 1926. 23. Alpern, M., and Wolter, J.: The Relation of Horizontal Saccadic and Vergence Movements , Arch Ophthal 56:685, 1956.Crossref 24. Cogan, D. G.: Neurology of the Ocular Muscles , ed. 1, Springfield, Ill: Charles C Thomas, Publisher, 1948, p 93. 25. Troland, L. T.: Principles of Psychophysiology , New York: D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., 1932, vol 3, pp 362-364. 26. Tani, T. T.; Ogle, K. N.; Weaver, R. W.; and Martens, T. G.: On the Precise Objective Determination of Eye Movements , Arch Ophthal 55:174, 1956.Crossref 27. Riggs, L. A., and Niehl, E. W.: Eye Movements Recorded During Convergence and Divergence , J Opt Soc Amer , 1960, vol 50, p 918.Crossref 28. Hyde, J. E.: Some Characteristics of Voluntary Human Ocular Movements in the Horizontal Plane , Amer J Ophthal 48:85, 1959. 29. Wallis, W. A., and Roberts, H. V.: Statistics a New Approach , New York: The Free Press, 1956, p 594. 30. James, M. M., and Weiss, P. R.: " Mathematical Background ," in Theory of Servomechanisms , edited by H. M. James, N. B. Nichols, R. S. Phillips, ed. 1, New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1947, p 62. 31. Bielschowsky, A.: Lectures on Motor Anomalies: I. The Physiology of Ocular Movements , Amer J Ophthal 21:843, 1938. 32. Bielschowsky, A.: Functional Disturbances of the Eyes , Arch Ophthal 15:589, 1936.Crossref 33. Verhoeff, F. H.: Hyperphoria Test Based on a New Principle , Arch Ophthal 22:743, 1939.Crossref 34. Irvine, S. R.: Histology of the Extra-Ocular Muscles , Arch Ophthal 15:847, 1936.Crossref 35. Ludvigh, E.: Possible Role of Proprioception in the Extraocular Muscles , Arch Ophthal 48:436, 1952.Crossref 36. Trimmer, J. D.: Response of Physical Systems , New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1950, p 200. 37. Gellhorn, E.: Proprioception and the Motor Cortex , Brain 72:56, 1949.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Ophthalmology American Medical Association

Temporal Course of the Relaxation of Binocular Duction (Fusion) Movements

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American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1964 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9950
eISSN
1538-3687
DOI
10.1001/archopht.1964.00970010405018
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Abstract

Abstract Introduction Perhaps the most commonly employed test of binocular muscle balance involves transferring an occluder from one eye to its fellow and then either noting the resulting movement of the eyes or asking the patient to report on the direction of the "jump." We do not know what the nature of the movement of the covered eye is in the first few seconds after it is covered. Yet it is just this movement which determines the result of the test. The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss the results of an investigation of the temporal course of this very simple type of eye movement, the relaxation of a horizontal duction.*The statement that the relaxation of a duction constitutes a simple type of eye movement requires a comparison with other types of eye movement which are uncomplicated by accommodation or pupillary contraction. Saccadic movements of the eye References 1. A duction movement as here defined corresponds to what Duke-Elder1 calls a "corrective fusion movement," Adler,2 a "duction" movement, Kramer,3 "prism" vergence, "fusional" vergence, and "relative" vergence, Ogle,4 "forced" vergence, and v.Kries,5 a "fusion movement." Such movements are to be distinguished from conjugate movements and vergence movements accompanied by changes in accommodation and pupil size. 2. Adler, F. H.,2 p 346. 3. Adler, F. H.,2 p 346. 4. Ludvigh, E.,8 p 444. 5. Since the stimulus distance is unchanged, the movement is one of pure adduction uncomplicated by convergence, accommodation, or miosis. The right eye also "shows very little net motion" during an asymmetrical convergence movement.18 6. This situation is to be distinguished from those in which varying amounts of disparateness, including zero disparateness, may be present as could occur in experiments with a stabilized retinal image. 7. Torok, N.; Guillemin, V.; and Barnothy, J. M.: Ann Otol Rhin Laryng 60:917, 1951. 8. Smith, W. M., and Warter, P. J.: J Opt Soc Amer 50:245, 1960.Crossref 9. The refractive errors of the three subjects are: subject 3, OD +0.25 D cx. 80°, OS +0.25 D cx. 10°; subject 1, OD—0.25 D sph.—0.12 D cx. 15°, OS—0.5° OD sph.—0.25 D cx. 0°; subject 2, OD—2.00 D sph.—1.00 D cx. 73°, OS—1.63 D sph.—.87 D cx. 100°. The average values of the lateral phorias at one meter distance as determined by repeated measurements with the Maddox rod are: subject 3, 6.1Δeso; subject 1, 5.8Δexo; subject 2, 3.6Δexo. 10. Duke-Elder, W. S.: Textbook of Ophthalmology , St. Louis: C. V. Mosby Company, 1934, vol 1, p 613. 11. Adler, F. H.: Physiology of the Eye , ed. 3, St. Louis: C. V. Mosby Company, 1959, p 443. 12. Kramer, M. E.: Clinical Orthoptics , edited by Ernest A. W. Sheppard, St. Louis: C. V. Mosby Company, 1949, p 288. 13. Ogle, K. N.: Researches in Binocular Vision , Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company, 1950, p 76. 14. v. Kries, J.: On the Origin of the Laws of the Ocular Movements , in Helmholtz's Treatise on Physiological Optics , edited by James P. C. Southall, translation from the German, ed. 3, Menasha: George Banta Publishing Company, 1925, vol 3, p 629. 15. Dodge, R.: Five Types of Eye Movements in the Horizontal Plane of the Field of Regard , Amer J Physiol 8:307, 1903. 16. Westheimer, G.: Eye Movement Responses to a Horizontally Moving Visual Stimulus , Arch Ophthal 52:932, 1954.Crossref 17. Ludvigh, E.: Control of Ocular Movements and Visual Interpretation of Environment , Arch Ophthal 48:442, 1952.Crossref 18. Miller, J. W., and Ludvigh, E.: The Effect of Relative Motion on Visual Acuity , Survey Ophthal 7:108, 1962. 19. Ludvigh, E.: Visual and Stereoscopic Acuity for Moving Objects, Symposium on Physiological Psychology, Office of Naval Research, Department of the Navy, Report ACR-1, 1955, p 130. 20. Sobczyk, A.: Aided Tracking, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Radiation Laboratory Report No. 430, 1943. 21. Phillips, R. S.: " Applications of the New Design Method ," in Theory of Servomechanisms , edited by H. M. James, N. B. Nichols, R. S. Phillips, ed. 1, New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1947, p 364. 22. van Heuven, J. A.: La vision binoculaire , Arch Néerl Physiol 11:83, 1926. 23. Alpern, M., and Wolter, J.: The Relation of Horizontal Saccadic and Vergence Movements , Arch Ophthal 56:685, 1956.Crossref 24. Cogan, D. G.: Neurology of the Ocular Muscles , ed. 1, Springfield, Ill: Charles C Thomas, Publisher, 1948, p 93. 25. Troland, L. T.: Principles of Psychophysiology , New York: D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., 1932, vol 3, pp 362-364. 26. Tani, T. T.; Ogle, K. N.; Weaver, R. W.; and Martens, T. G.: On the Precise Objective Determination of Eye Movements , Arch Ophthal 55:174, 1956.Crossref 27. Riggs, L. A., and Niehl, E. W.: Eye Movements Recorded During Convergence and Divergence , J Opt Soc Amer , 1960, vol 50, p 918.Crossref 28. Hyde, J. E.: Some Characteristics of Voluntary Human Ocular Movements in the Horizontal Plane , Amer J Ophthal 48:85, 1959. 29. Wallis, W. A., and Roberts, H. V.: Statistics a New Approach , New York: The Free Press, 1956, p 594. 30. James, M. M., and Weiss, P. R.: " Mathematical Background ," in Theory of Servomechanisms , edited by H. M. James, N. B. Nichols, R. S. Phillips, ed. 1, New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1947, p 62. 31. Bielschowsky, A.: Lectures on Motor Anomalies: I. The Physiology of Ocular Movements , Amer J Ophthal 21:843, 1938. 32. Bielschowsky, A.: Functional Disturbances of the Eyes , Arch Ophthal 15:589, 1936.Crossref 33. Verhoeff, F. H.: Hyperphoria Test Based on a New Principle , Arch Ophthal 22:743, 1939.Crossref 34. Irvine, S. R.: Histology of the Extra-Ocular Muscles , Arch Ophthal 15:847, 1936.Crossref 35. Ludvigh, E.: Possible Role of Proprioception in the Extraocular Muscles , Arch Ophthal 48:436, 1952.Crossref 36. Trimmer, J. D.: Response of Physical Systems , New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1950, p 200. 37. Gellhorn, E.: Proprioception and the Motor Cortex , Brain 72:56, 1949.Crossref

Journal

Archives of OphthalmologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Mar 1, 1964

References