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Synergistic Effects of Maternal Malnutrition and Infection on the Infant: Recommendations for Prospective Studies in Man

Synergistic Effects of Maternal Malnutrition and Infection on the Infant: Recommendations for... Abstract Certain infections in the pregnant woman may be accompanied by deleterious effects on the fetus, regardless of the presence of fetal infection. Severe maternal infection can lead to fetal death in utero or to premature labor; less severe infections in the mother seem to be involved in the pathogenesis of fetal growth retardation. The Figure is a set-theory diagram to illustrate a basic mechanistic concept, that various normal nutritional, biochemical, metabolic, or endocrine processes in the mother may be altered during states of infection or pregnancy. Individual maternal processes (illustrated by capital letters in the several sets) may be enhanced or suppressed as a typical physiologic response to pregnancy (lower middle set) or may remain unaltered. Infection (top middle set) initiates many specific responses in the host. In a pregnant woman, individual maternal processes may remain unchanged or may exhibit synergistic, antagonistic, or noncorrelating responses to the combination of both References 1. Charles D: Infection and the obstetric patient . Mod Treat 7:789-817, 1970. 2. Klein JO, Marcy SM: Infection in the newborn . Clin Obstet Gynecol 13:321-347, 1970.Crossref 3. Davies PA: Bacterial infection in the fetus and newborn . Arch Dis Child 46:1-27, 1971.Crossref 4. Roeder LM: Long-term effects of maternal and infant feeding . Am J Clin Nutr 26:1120-1123, 1973. 5. Bergner L, Susser MW: Low birth weight and prenatal nutrition: An interpretative review . Pediatrics 46:946-966, 1970. 6. Lechtig A, Mata LJ: Levels of IgG, IgA and IgM in cord blood of Latin American newborns from different exosystems . Rev Lat Am Microbiol 13:173-179, 1971. 7. Lechtig A, Mata LJ: IgM and C3 in serum of Peruvian mothers and cord blood of their infants . Arch Latinoam Nutr 22:309-313, 1972. 8. Lechtig A, Mata LJ: Cord IgM levels in Latin American neonates . J Pediatr 78:909-910, 1971. 9. Wagner M, Wagner G, Mathis RK: Measurements of nutritional status of newborn infants . Biol Neonate 11:106-114, 1967.Crossref 10. Felig P: Maternal and fetal fuel homeostasis in human pregnancy . Am J Clin Nutr 26:998-1005, 1973. 11. Winick M: Fetal malnutrition . Clin Obstet Gynecol 13:526-541, 1970.Crossref 12. Metcoff J, Wikman-Coffelt J, Yoshida T: Energy metabolism and protein synthesis in human leukocytes during pregnancy and in placenta related to fetal growth . Pediatrics 51:866-877, 1973. 13. Beisel WR: Nutrient wastage during infection , in Proceedings of the Ninth International Congress of Nutrition . Basel, Switzerland, S Karger, 1975, pp 153-160. 14. Pekarek RS, Beisel WR: Redistribution and sequestering of essential trace elements during acute infection , in Proceedings of the Ninth International Congress of Nutrition . Basel, Switzerland, S Karger, 1975, pp 183-188. 15. Wannemacher RW Jr, Pekarek RS, Bartelloni PJ, et al: Changes in individual plasma amino acids following experimentally induced sand fly fever virus infection . Metabolism 21:67-76, 1972.Crossref 16. Wannemacher RW Jr, DuPont HL, Pekarek RS, et al: An endogenous mediator of depression of amino acids and trace metals in serum during typhoid fever . J Infect Dis 126:77-86, 1972.Crossref 17. Dutt AR: Enterotoxic activity in cholera stool . Indian J Med Res 53:605-609, 1965. 18. Lechtig A, Habicht JP, De Leon E, et al: Influencia de la nutrición materna sobre el crecimiento fetal en poblaciones rurales de Guatemala: II. Suplementación alimentaria . Arch Latinoam Nutr 22:117-131, 1972. 19. Gruenwald P, Funakawa H, Mitani S, et al: Influence of environmental factors on faetal growth in man . Lancet 1:1026-1028, 1967.Crossref 20. Mata LJ, Urrutia JJ, García B: Effect of infection and diet on child growth: Experience in a Guatemalan village , in Wolstenholme GEW, O'Connor M (eds): Nutrition and Infection: Ciba Foundation Study Group No. 31 . Boston, Little Brown & Co, 1967, pp 112-134. 21. Mata LJ, Urrutia JJ, Lechtig A: Infection and nutrition of children of a low socioeconomic rural community . Am J Clin Nutr 24:249-259, 1971. 22. Berg A, Muscat R: Nutrition and development: The view of the planner . Am J Clin Nutr 25:186-209, 1972. 23. Lechtig A, Habicht JP, De Leon E, et al: Influencia de la nutrición materna sobre el crecimiento fetal en poblaciones rurales de Guatemala: I. Aspectos dietéticos . Arch Latinoam Nutr 22:101-115, 1972. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png American Journal of Diseases of Children American Medical Association

Synergistic Effects of Maternal Malnutrition and Infection on the Infant: Recommendations for Prospective Studies in Man

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1975 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0002-922X
DOI
10.1001/archpedi.1975.02120420027009
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract Certain infections in the pregnant woman may be accompanied by deleterious effects on the fetus, regardless of the presence of fetal infection. Severe maternal infection can lead to fetal death in utero or to premature labor; less severe infections in the mother seem to be involved in the pathogenesis of fetal growth retardation. The Figure is a set-theory diagram to illustrate a basic mechanistic concept, that various normal nutritional, biochemical, metabolic, or endocrine processes in the mother may be altered during states of infection or pregnancy. Individual maternal processes (illustrated by capital letters in the several sets) may be enhanced or suppressed as a typical physiologic response to pregnancy (lower middle set) or may remain unaltered. Infection (top middle set) initiates many specific responses in the host. In a pregnant woman, individual maternal processes may remain unchanged or may exhibit synergistic, antagonistic, or noncorrelating responses to the combination of both References 1. Charles D: Infection and the obstetric patient . Mod Treat 7:789-817, 1970. 2. Klein JO, Marcy SM: Infection in the newborn . Clin Obstet Gynecol 13:321-347, 1970.Crossref 3. Davies PA: Bacterial infection in the fetus and newborn . Arch Dis Child 46:1-27, 1971.Crossref 4. Roeder LM: Long-term effects of maternal and infant feeding . Am J Clin Nutr 26:1120-1123, 1973. 5. Bergner L, Susser MW: Low birth weight and prenatal nutrition: An interpretative review . Pediatrics 46:946-966, 1970. 6. Lechtig A, Mata LJ: Levels of IgG, IgA and IgM in cord blood of Latin American newborns from different exosystems . Rev Lat Am Microbiol 13:173-179, 1971. 7. Lechtig A, Mata LJ: IgM and C3 in serum of Peruvian mothers and cord blood of their infants . Arch Latinoam Nutr 22:309-313, 1972. 8. Lechtig A, Mata LJ: Cord IgM levels in Latin American neonates . J Pediatr 78:909-910, 1971. 9. Wagner M, Wagner G, Mathis RK: Measurements of nutritional status of newborn infants . Biol Neonate 11:106-114, 1967.Crossref 10. Felig P: Maternal and fetal fuel homeostasis in human pregnancy . Am J Clin Nutr 26:998-1005, 1973. 11. Winick M: Fetal malnutrition . Clin Obstet Gynecol 13:526-541, 1970.Crossref 12. Metcoff J, Wikman-Coffelt J, Yoshida T: Energy metabolism and protein synthesis in human leukocytes during pregnancy and in placenta related to fetal growth . Pediatrics 51:866-877, 1973. 13. Beisel WR: Nutrient wastage during infection , in Proceedings of the Ninth International Congress of Nutrition . Basel, Switzerland, S Karger, 1975, pp 153-160. 14. Pekarek RS, Beisel WR: Redistribution and sequestering of essential trace elements during acute infection , in Proceedings of the Ninth International Congress of Nutrition . Basel, Switzerland, S Karger, 1975, pp 183-188. 15. Wannemacher RW Jr, Pekarek RS, Bartelloni PJ, et al: Changes in individual plasma amino acids following experimentally induced sand fly fever virus infection . Metabolism 21:67-76, 1972.Crossref 16. Wannemacher RW Jr, DuPont HL, Pekarek RS, et al: An endogenous mediator of depression of amino acids and trace metals in serum during typhoid fever . J Infect Dis 126:77-86, 1972.Crossref 17. Dutt AR: Enterotoxic activity in cholera stool . Indian J Med Res 53:605-609, 1965. 18. Lechtig A, Habicht JP, De Leon E, et al: Influencia de la nutrición materna sobre el crecimiento fetal en poblaciones rurales de Guatemala: II. Suplementación alimentaria . Arch Latinoam Nutr 22:117-131, 1972. 19. Gruenwald P, Funakawa H, Mitani S, et al: Influence of environmental factors on faetal growth in man . Lancet 1:1026-1028, 1967.Crossref 20. Mata LJ, Urrutia JJ, García B: Effect of infection and diet on child growth: Experience in a Guatemalan village , in Wolstenholme GEW, O'Connor M (eds): Nutrition and Infection: Ciba Foundation Study Group No. 31 . Boston, Little Brown & Co, 1967, pp 112-134. 21. Mata LJ, Urrutia JJ, Lechtig A: Infection and nutrition of children of a low socioeconomic rural community . Am J Clin Nutr 24:249-259, 1971. 22. Berg A, Muscat R: Nutrition and development: The view of the planner . Am J Clin Nutr 25:186-209, 1972. 23. Lechtig A, Habicht JP, De Leon E, et al: Influencia de la nutrición materna sobre el crecimiento fetal en poblaciones rurales de Guatemala: I. Aspectos dietéticos . Arch Latinoam Nutr 22:101-115, 1972.

Journal

American Journal of Diseases of ChildrenAmerican Medical Association

Published: May 1, 1975

References