Abstract THE NEED for a substitute for blood has been recognized for some time. Many substitutes for whole blood have been proposed for use in the treatment of shock, nephrosis and other diseases for which transfusions are indicated. Early experience with whole blood revealed that it was necessary to cross match the blood of the donor with that of the recipient. This inconvenience, together with that of finding suitable donors at the time of the emergency requiring the need of a transfusion, led to the search for substitutes or a method for storing typed blood. A further point in favor of substitutes for blood is the high cost of treatment with blood or plasma as well as the frequent incidence of jaundice noted after the use of plasma during the war. Citrated whole blood has been used widely for many years and still remains a desirable means of transfusion in certain References 1. (a) Hartman, F. W.; Schelling, V.; Harkins, H. N., and Bush, B.: Pectin Solution As a Blood Substitute , Ann. Surg. 114:212-225 ( (Aug.) ) 1941.Crossref 2. (b) Hartman, F. W.; Schelling, V.; Bush, B., and Warren, K. W.: The Relative Value of Pectin Solution in Shock , J. A. M. A. 121:1337-1341 ( (April 24) ) 1943.Crossref 3. (c) Hueper, W. C.: Experimental Studies in Cardiovascular Pathology; VI. Pectin Atheromatosis and Thesaurosis in Rabbits and in Dogs , Arch. Path. 34:883-901 ( (Nov.) ) 1942. 4. (d) Kozoll, D. D.; Steigmann, F., and Popper, H.: Studies of Pectin Administration to Patients Not in Shock , Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 53:66-67 ( (May) ) 1943. 5. (e) Kozoll, D. D.; Volk, B. W.; Steigmann, F., and Popper, H.: Pectin Excretion Studies in the Human Being , J. Lab. & Clin. Med. 31:30-39 ( (Jan.) ) 1946. 6. (f) Meyer, K.; Kozoll, D. D.; Popper, H., and Steigmann, F.: Pectin Solutions in the Treatment of Shock , Surg., Gynec. & Obst. 78:327-332 ( (March) ) 1944. 7. (g) Popper, H.; Volk, B. W.; Meyer, K. A.; Kozoll, D. D., and Steigmann, F.: Evaluation of Gelatin and Pectin Solutions as Substitutes for Plasma in the Treatment of Shock , Arch. Surg. 50:34-45 ( (Jan.) ) 1945. 8. (h) Figueroa, L., and Lavieri, F. J.: The Use of Pectin and Other Agents to Prevent Shock , Surg., Gynec. & Obst. 78:600-605 ( (June) ) 1944. 9. (i) Jacobson, S. D., and Smyth, C. J.: Plasma Volume Changes Following the Intravenous Injection of Pectin and Physiologic Saline in Man , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 50:218-220 ( (June) ) 1942. 10. (i) Bryant, E. F.; Palmer, G. H., and Joseph, G. H.: Non-Accumulation of Pectin Intravenously Injected into Rabbits , Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 49:279-282 ( (Feb.) ) 1942. 11. (k) Middleton, S., and Wigger, C. J.: Some Effects of Pectin Solutions During Post-Hemorrhagic Hypotension , Am. J. Physiol. 140:326-333, 1943. 12. The phosphate buffer is a 5 or 10 per cent solution of disodium acid phosphate. The lactate buffer consists of a mixture of glycine, sodium lactate and sodium hydroxide. 13. Hartman and others,1a,b Kozoll and others.1d,6 Meyer and others.1f Popper and others.1g Figueroa and Lavieri.1h 14. Branfoot, M. H.: A Critical and Historical Study of Pectic Substances of Plants , Food Investigation, Special Report Series, no. 33, London, His Majesty's Stationary Office, 1929. 15. Norman, A. G.: The Biochemistry of Cellulose, Polyuronides, Lignin, etc. , Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1937. 16. Detailed tables describing the microscopic examination of these tissues have been omitted from this manuscript because of their space requirement. Investigators interested may secure copies of these tables from the authors.
Archives of Surgery – American Medical Association
Published: Mar 1, 1950