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STUDIES IN DISEASES OF MUSCLE: I. METABOLISM OF CREATINE AND CREATININE IN PROGRESSIVE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY

STUDIES IN DISEASES OF MUSCLE: I. METABOLISM OF CREATINE AND CREATININE IN PROGRESSIVE MUSCULAR... Abstract Although patients with muscular disease commonly show some abnormality in the metabolism of creatine and creatinine, the significance of this finding is still obscure. In the present investigations the factors influencing the excretion of creatine and creatinine in various types of muscular disease were studied. In addition, an attempt was made to correlate the results with the pathologic processes in these conditions. The present report gives the findings in twenty patients with progressive muscular dystrophy, representing all stages of the disease. In addition, observations were made on ten other patients with this condition. However, for the sake of brevity, the data on the second series are not presented, as the findings were similar to those reported here. In formulating the conclusions on the significance of the changes in the metabolism of creatine and creatinine in progressive muscular dystrophy, the data on both series have been used, as well as those References 1. Milhorat, A. T.: Ueber die Behandlung der progressiven Muskeldystrophie, und ähnlicher Muskelerkrankungen mit Glykokoll , Deutsches Arch. f. klin. Med. 174:487, 1933. 2. Folin, O.: Laws Governing the Chemical Composition of Urine , Am. J. Physiol. 13:66, 1905. 3. Deuel, H. J., Jr.; Sandiford, I.; Sandiford, K., and Boothby, W. M.: A Study of Nitrogen Minimum: The Effect of Sixty-Three Days of Protein-Free Diet on the Nitrogen Partition Products in the Urine and on the Heat Production , J. Biol. Chem. 76:391, 1928. 4. Shaffer, P. A.: The Excretion of Kreatinin and Kreatin in Health and Disease , Am. J. Physiol. 23:1, 1908. 5. Chanutin, A., and Kinard, F. W.: The Relationship Between Muscle Creatine and Creatinine Coefficient , J. Biol. Chem. 99:125, 1933. 6. Rosenthal, M.: Handbuch der Diagnostik und Therapie der Nervenkrankheiten , Erlangen, F. Enke, 1870, p. 220. 7. Weiss, N.: Ueber einen Fall von progressiver Muskelatrophie , Wien. med. Wchnschr. 27:702, 1877. 8. Langer, L.: Ein Fall von ausgebreiteter progressiver Muskelatrophie mit paralytischer Lendenlordose , Deutsches Arch. f. klin. Med. 32:395, 1883. 9. Folin, O.: Beitrag zur Chemie des Kreatinins und Kreatins im Harne , Ztschr. f. physiol. Chem. 41:223, 1904.Crossref 10. Spriggs, E. I.: On the Excretion of Creatinin and Uric Acid in Some Diseases Involving the Muscles , Quart. J. Med. 1:63, 1907-1908Crossref 11. The Excretion of Creatinin in a Case of Pseudo-Hypertrophic Muscular Dystrophy , Biochem. J. 2:206, 1907. 12. Levene, P. A., and Kristeller, L.: Factors Regulating the Creatinin Output in Man , Am. J. Physiol. 24:45, 1909. 13. McCrudden, R. H., and Sargent, C. S.: Hypoglycemia and Progressive Muscular Dystrophy , Arch. Int. Med. 17:465 ( (April) ) 1916Crossref 14. Chemical Changes in the Blood and Urine in Progressive Muscular Dystrophy, Progressive Muscular Atrophy and Myasthenia Gravis , McCrudden Arch. Int. Med. 21:252 ( (Feb.) ) 1918.Crossref 15. McCrudden, F. H.: The Nature of the Pathologic Process in Progressive Muscular Dystrophy , Arch. Int. Med. 21:256 ( (Feb.) ) 1918.Crossref 16. Janney, N. W.; Goodhart, S. P., and Isaacson, V. I.: The Endocrine Origin of Muscular Dystrophy , Arch. Int. Med. 21:188 ( (Feb.) ) 1918.Crossref 17. Bürger, M.: Beiträge zum Kreatininstoffwechsel: II. Die Kreatin- und Kreatininausscheidung bei Störungne des Muskelstoffwechsels , Ztschr. f. d. ges. exper. Med. 9:361, 1919.Crossref 18. Meyer, E. C.: Ueber Kreatin- und Kreatininausscheidung bei Krankheiten , Deutsches Arch. f. klin. Med. 134:219, 1920. 19. Gibson, R. B., and Martin, F. T.: Some Observations on Creatine Formation in a Case of Progressive Pseudohypertrophic Muscular Dystrophy , J. Biol. Chem. 49:319, 1921. 20. Harris, M. M., and Brand, E.: Metabolic and Therapeutic Studies in the Myopathies, with Special Reference to Glycine Administration , J. A. M. A. 101: 1047 ( (Sept. 30) ) 1933.Crossref 21. Thomas, K.; Milhorat, A. T., and Techner, F.: Untersuchungen über die Herkunft des Kreatins. Ein Beitrag zur Behandlung progressiver Muskelatrophien mit Glykokoll , Ztschr. f. physiol. Chem. 205:93, 1932Crossref 22. Weitere Untersuchungen über die Herkunft des Kreatins: VII. Mitteilung , Thomas Ztschr. f. physiol. Chem. 214:121, 1933.Crossref 23. Milhorat, A. T.; Techner, F., and Thomas, K.: Significance of Creatine in Progressive Muscular Dystrophy, and Treatment of This Disease with Glycine , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 29:609, 1932. 24. Magee, M. C.: Creatine and Creatinine Metabolism in Progressive Muscular Dystrophy: Report of Two Cases and Controls , Am. J. Dis. Child. 43:19 ( (Jan.) ) 1932. 25. Adams, M., and Power, M. H.: Chemical Studies in Patients with Myasthenia Gravis and Progressive Muscular Dystrophy , Proc. Staff Meet., Mayo Clin. 9:598 ( (Oct. 3) ) 1934. 26. Kostakow, S., and Slauck, A.: Die Glykokollbehandung der progressiven Muskeldystrophie , Deutsche med. Wchnschr. 59:169 ( (Feb. 3) ) 1933 27. Die Glykokollbehandlung der progressiven Muskeldystrophie , Deutsches Arch. f. klin. Med. 175:25. 1933 28. Ueber weitere Stoffwechsel-Untersuchungen mit Glykokoll bei progressiver Muskeldystrophie , Deutsches Arch. f. klin. Med. 175:302, 1933. 29. Mettel, H. B., and Slocum, Y. K.: Pseudohypertrophic Muscular Dystrophy: Preliminary Report on the Treatment of Three Cases with Glycine , J. Pediat. 3:352, 1933. 30. Reinhold, J. G.; Clark, J. H.; Kingsley, G. R.; Custer, R. P., and McConnell, J. W.: The Effects of Glycine (Glycocoll) in Muscular Dystrophy, with Especial Reference to Changes in Structure and Imposition of Voluntary Muscle , J. A. M. A. 102:261 ( (Jan. 27) ) 1934. 31. Tripoli, C. J., and Beard, H. H.: Muscular Dystrophy and Atrophy: Clinical and Biochemical Results Following the Oral Administration of Amino-Acids , Arch. Int. Med. 53:435 ( (March) ) 1934. 32. Cuthbertson, D. P., and Maclachlan, T. K.: The Treatment of Muscular Dystrophy with Glycine , Quart. J. Med. 3:411, 1934. 33. Borst, W., and Möbius, W.: Zur Glykokollbehandlung der progressiven Muskeldystrophie , Ztschr. f. klin. Med. 129:499, 1936. 34. Brand, E.; Harris, M. M.; Sandberg, M., and Ringer, A. I.: Studies on the Origin of Creatin , Am. J. Physiol. 90:296, 1929. 35. Chanutin, A.; Butt, H. R., and Royster, L. I.: A Study of Progressive Pseudohypertrophic Muscular Dystrophy in Children After the Administration of Glycine and Creatin , J. Biol. Chem. 100:xxvi, 1933. 36. Nedelmann, E.: Ueber den Kreatininstoffwechsel bei Muskelatrophie , München. med. Wchnschr. 70:800 ( (June 22) ) 1923. 37. Thomas, K.: Glykokoll in der Therapie , Deutsche med. Wchnschr. 60: 558 ( (April 30) ) 1934. 38. Harding, V. J., and Gaebler, O. H.: The Constancy of the Creatine-Creatinine Excretion in Children on a High Protein Diet , J. Biol. Chem. 54:579, 1922. 39. The ability of the body to retain ingested creatine is referred to in this report as the "creatine tolerance." 40. Folin, O.: The Chemistry and Bio-Chemistry of Kreatin and Kreatinin, Festkrift tillegnad Olof Hammersten , Upsala, C. J. Lundström, 1906, pt. 3, p. 1. 41. af Klercker, K. O.: Zur Frage der Kreatin- und der Kreatininausscheidung beim Menschen , Beitr. z. chem. Phys. u. Path. 8:59, 1906 42. Beitrag zur Kenntnis des Kreatins und Kreatinins im Stoffwechsel des Menschen , Biochem. Ztschr. 3: 45, 1907. 43. Rose, W. C., and Dimmitt, F. W.: Experimental Studies on Creatine and Creatinine: VII. The Fate of Creatine and Creatinine When Administered to Man , J. Biol. Chem. 26:345, 1916. 44. Benedict, S. R., and Osterberg, E.: Studies in Creatine and Creatinine Metabolism: V. The Metabolism of Creatine , J. Biol. Chem. 56:229, 1923. 45. Chanutin, A.: The Fate of Creatine When Administered to Man , J. Biol. Chem. 67:29, 1926. 46. Bollman, J. L.: The Influence of Protein Metabolism on the Conversion of Creatine to Creatinine , J. Biol. Chem. 85:169, 1929. 47. Chanutin, A.: Studies on the Creatine and Nitrogen Content of the White Rat After Feeding of a Variety of Diets and After Nephrectomy , J. Biol. Chem. 89:765, 1930. 48. Chanutin, A., and Shearer, L. D.: The Effect of Fasting on the Creatine and Nitrogen Content of the Body and Muscle of the White Rat , J. Biol. Chem. 91:475, 1931. 49. Liebig, J.: Recherches de chimie animale , Compt. rend. Acad. d. Sc. 24: 69 and 195, 1847 50. Ueber die Bestandtheile der Flüssigkeiten des Fleisches , Ann. d. Chem. u. Pharm. 62:257, 1847.Crossref 51. Bürger, M.: Beiträge zum Kreatininstoffwechsel: I. Die Bedeutung des Kreatininkoefficienten für die quantitative Bewertung der Muskelatur als Körpergewichtskomponente , Ztschr. f. d. ges. exper. Med. 9:262, 1919.Crossref 52. Eggleton, P., and Eggleton, G. P.: The Inorganic Phosphate and a Labile Form of Organic Phosphate in the Gastrocnemius of the Frog , Biochem. J. 21: 190, 1927. 53. Fiske, C. H., and Subbarow, Y.: The Nature of the "Inorganic Phosphate" in Voluntary Muscle , Science 65:401 ( (April 22) ) 1927Crossref 54. Phosphocreatine , J. Biol. Chem. 81:629, 1929. 55. Hahn, A., and Meyer, G.: Ueber die gegenseitige Umwandlung von Kreatin und Kreatinin: IV. Die Entstehung von Kreatinin im Organismus , Ztschr. f. Biol. 78:91, 1923. 56. Hahn, A., and Fasold, H.: Ueber die gegenseitige Umwandlung von Kreatin und Kreatinin , Ztschr. f. Biol. 83:283, 1925. 57. Gibson, R. B.; Martin, F. T., and Buell, M. V. R.: A Metabolic Study of Progressive Pseudohypertrophic Muscular Dystrophy and Other Muscular Atrophies , Arch. Int. Med. 29:82 ( (Jan.) ) 1922.Crossref 58. Adams, M.; Power, M. H., and Boothby, W. M.: The Influence of Glycine on the Excretion of Creatine and Creatinine , Am. J. Physiol. 111:596, 1935. 59. Kostakow, S.: (a) Beitrag zur Glykokollbehandlung der neuralen Muskelatrophie und dystrophischen Myotonie , Med. Klin. 30:1127 ( (Aug. 24) ) 1934 60. Ueber Spontankreatinurie bei Nervenerkrankungen , Deutsches Arch. f. klin. Med. 178:387, 1936. 61. T. Espersen and A. Thomsen ( A Study of the Creatine and Creatinine Metabolism in Patients with Progressive Muscular Dystrophy During Treatment with Glycine (Glycocol) , Acta med. Scandinav. 92:39, 1937)Crossref 62. Lewinski, J.: Ueber die Grenzen der Hippursäurebildung beim Menschen , Arch. f. exper. Path. u. Pharmakol. 58:397, 1908.Crossref 63. McCollum, E. V., and Hoagland, D. R.: Studies on the Endogenous Metabolism of the Pig as Modified by Various Factors: III. The Influence of Benzoic Acid on the Endogenous Nitrogen Metabolism , J. Biol. Chem. 16:321, 1913. 64. Brand, E.; Harris, M. M.; Sandberg, M., and Lasker, M. M.: Further Studies on the Origin of Creatine , J. Biol. Chem. 87:ix, 1930. 65. Brand and others.27 66. Harris and Brand.17 67. Weber, C. J.: Isolation of Glycocyamine from Urine , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 32:172, 1934. 68. Beard and Barnes ( The Influence of Feeding Proteins, Amino Acids, and Related Substances upon Creatine-Creatinine Metabolism , J. Biol. Chem. 94: 49, 1931) 69. Bodansky ( Comparison of Glycine and Guanido-Acetic Acid as Precursors of Creatine , J. Biol. Chem. 115:641, 1936) 70. Denis, W., and Kramer, J. G.: The Influence of Protein Intake on Creatine Excretion in Children , J. Biol. Chem. 30:189, 1917. 71. Rose, W. C.; Dimmitt, J. S., and Bartlett, H. L.: Experimental Studies on Creatine and Creatinine: VIII. The Alleged Exogenous Origin of Urinary Creatine in the Protein of the Diet , J. Biol. Chem. 34:601, 1918. 72. Mettel, H. B.: Pseudohypertrophic Muscular Dystrophy , J. Pediat. 5: 359, 1934. 73. Beard, H. H.; Tripoli, C. J., and Andes, J. E.: The Diagnostic and Prognostic Significance of the Creatin-Creatinin Metabolism in Various Myopathies Before and After Amino-Acid Therapy , Am. J. M. Sc. 188:706, 1934. 74. Myers, V. C., and Fine, M. S.: The Metabolism of Creatine and Creatinine: VII. The Fate of Creatine When Administered to Man , J. Biol. Chem. 21:377, 1915 75. The Influence of the Administration of Creatine and Creatinine on the Creatine Content of the Muscle , Myers J. Biol. Chem. 16:169, 1913. 76. Lyman, J. F., and Trimby, J. C.: The Excretion of Creatine and Creatinine Parenterally Introduced , J. Biol. Chem. 29:1, 1917. 77. Aring, C. D., and Cobb, S.: The Muscular Atrophies and Allied Disorders , Medicine 14:77, 1935. 78. In the neurologic service of Dr. Foster Kennedy, who has allowed us to publish the notes on these cases. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry American Medical Association

STUDIES IN DISEASES OF MUSCLE: I. METABOLISM OF CREATINE AND CREATININE IN PROGRESSIVE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY

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American Medical Association
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Copyright © 1937 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
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0096-6754
DOI
10.1001/archneurpsyc.1937.02260230090006
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Abstract

Abstract Although patients with muscular disease commonly show some abnormality in the metabolism of creatine and creatinine, the significance of this finding is still obscure. In the present investigations the factors influencing the excretion of creatine and creatinine in various types of muscular disease were studied. In addition, an attempt was made to correlate the results with the pathologic processes in these conditions. The present report gives the findings in twenty patients with progressive muscular dystrophy, representing all stages of the disease. In addition, observations were made on ten other patients with this condition. However, for the sake of brevity, the data on the second series are not presented, as the findings were similar to those reported here. In formulating the conclusions on the significance of the changes in the metabolism of creatine and creatinine in progressive muscular dystrophy, the data on both series have been used, as well as those References 1. Milhorat, A. T.: Ueber die Behandlung der progressiven Muskeldystrophie, und ähnlicher Muskelerkrankungen mit Glykokoll , Deutsches Arch. f. klin. Med. 174:487, 1933. 2. Folin, O.: Laws Governing the Chemical Composition of Urine , Am. J. Physiol. 13:66, 1905. 3. Deuel, H. J., Jr.; Sandiford, I.; Sandiford, K., and Boothby, W. M.: A Study of Nitrogen Minimum: The Effect of Sixty-Three Days of Protein-Free Diet on the Nitrogen Partition Products in the Urine and on the Heat Production , J. Biol. Chem. 76:391, 1928. 4. Shaffer, P. A.: The Excretion of Kreatinin and Kreatin in Health and Disease , Am. J. Physiol. 23:1, 1908. 5. Chanutin, A., and Kinard, F. W.: The Relationship Between Muscle Creatine and Creatinine Coefficient , J. Biol. Chem. 99:125, 1933. 6. Rosenthal, M.: Handbuch der Diagnostik und Therapie der Nervenkrankheiten , Erlangen, F. Enke, 1870, p. 220. 7. Weiss, N.: Ueber einen Fall von progressiver Muskelatrophie , Wien. med. Wchnschr. 27:702, 1877. 8. Langer, L.: Ein Fall von ausgebreiteter progressiver Muskelatrophie mit paralytischer Lendenlordose , Deutsches Arch. f. klin. Med. 32:395, 1883. 9. Folin, O.: Beitrag zur Chemie des Kreatinins und Kreatins im Harne , Ztschr. f. physiol. Chem. 41:223, 1904.Crossref 10. Spriggs, E. I.: On the Excretion of Creatinin and Uric Acid in Some Diseases Involving the Muscles , Quart. J. Med. 1:63, 1907-1908Crossref 11. The Excretion of Creatinin in a Case of Pseudo-Hypertrophic Muscular Dystrophy , Biochem. J. 2:206, 1907. 12. Levene, P. A., and Kristeller, L.: Factors Regulating the Creatinin Output in Man , Am. J. Physiol. 24:45, 1909. 13. McCrudden, R. H., and Sargent, C. S.: Hypoglycemia and Progressive Muscular Dystrophy , Arch. Int. Med. 17:465 ( (April) ) 1916Crossref 14. Chemical Changes in the Blood and Urine in Progressive Muscular Dystrophy, Progressive Muscular Atrophy and Myasthenia Gravis , McCrudden Arch. Int. Med. 21:252 ( (Feb.) ) 1918.Crossref 15. McCrudden, F. H.: The Nature of the Pathologic Process in Progressive Muscular Dystrophy , Arch. Int. Med. 21:256 ( (Feb.) ) 1918.Crossref 16. Janney, N. W.; Goodhart, S. P., and Isaacson, V. I.: The Endocrine Origin of Muscular Dystrophy , Arch. Int. Med. 21:188 ( (Feb.) ) 1918.Crossref 17. Bürger, M.: Beiträge zum Kreatininstoffwechsel: II. Die Kreatin- und Kreatininausscheidung bei Störungne des Muskelstoffwechsels , Ztschr. f. d. ges. exper. Med. 9:361, 1919.Crossref 18. Meyer, E. C.: Ueber Kreatin- und Kreatininausscheidung bei Krankheiten , Deutsches Arch. f. klin. Med. 134:219, 1920. 19. Gibson, R. B., and Martin, F. T.: Some Observations on Creatine Formation in a Case of Progressive Pseudohypertrophic Muscular Dystrophy , J. Biol. Chem. 49:319, 1921. 20. Harris, M. M., and Brand, E.: Metabolic and Therapeutic Studies in the Myopathies, with Special Reference to Glycine Administration , J. A. M. A. 101: 1047 ( (Sept. 30) ) 1933.Crossref 21. Thomas, K.; Milhorat, A. T., and Techner, F.: Untersuchungen über die Herkunft des Kreatins. Ein Beitrag zur Behandlung progressiver Muskelatrophien mit Glykokoll , Ztschr. f. physiol. Chem. 205:93, 1932Crossref 22. Weitere Untersuchungen über die Herkunft des Kreatins: VII. Mitteilung , Thomas Ztschr. f. physiol. Chem. 214:121, 1933.Crossref 23. Milhorat, A. T.; Techner, F., and Thomas, K.: Significance of Creatine in Progressive Muscular Dystrophy, and Treatment of This Disease with Glycine , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 29:609, 1932. 24. Magee, M. C.: Creatine and Creatinine Metabolism in Progressive Muscular Dystrophy: Report of Two Cases and Controls , Am. J. Dis. Child. 43:19 ( (Jan.) ) 1932. 25. Adams, M., and Power, M. H.: Chemical Studies in Patients with Myasthenia Gravis and Progressive Muscular Dystrophy , Proc. Staff Meet., Mayo Clin. 9:598 ( (Oct. 3) ) 1934. 26. Kostakow, S., and Slauck, A.: Die Glykokollbehandung der progressiven Muskeldystrophie , Deutsche med. Wchnschr. 59:169 ( (Feb. 3) ) 1933 27. Die Glykokollbehandlung der progressiven Muskeldystrophie , Deutsches Arch. f. klin. Med. 175:25. 1933 28. Ueber weitere Stoffwechsel-Untersuchungen mit Glykokoll bei progressiver Muskeldystrophie , Deutsches Arch. f. klin. Med. 175:302, 1933. 29. Mettel, H. B., and Slocum, Y. K.: Pseudohypertrophic Muscular Dystrophy: Preliminary Report on the Treatment of Three Cases with Glycine , J. Pediat. 3:352, 1933. 30. Reinhold, J. G.; Clark, J. H.; Kingsley, G. R.; Custer, R. P., and McConnell, J. W.: The Effects of Glycine (Glycocoll) in Muscular Dystrophy, with Especial Reference to Changes in Structure and Imposition of Voluntary Muscle , J. A. M. A. 102:261 ( (Jan. 27) ) 1934. 31. Tripoli, C. J., and Beard, H. H.: Muscular Dystrophy and Atrophy: Clinical and Biochemical Results Following the Oral Administration of Amino-Acids , Arch. Int. Med. 53:435 ( (March) ) 1934. 32. Cuthbertson, D. P., and Maclachlan, T. K.: The Treatment of Muscular Dystrophy with Glycine , Quart. J. Med. 3:411, 1934. 33. Borst, W., and Möbius, W.: Zur Glykokollbehandlung der progressiven Muskeldystrophie , Ztschr. f. klin. Med. 129:499, 1936. 34. Brand, E.; Harris, M. M.; Sandberg, M., and Ringer, A. I.: Studies on the Origin of Creatin , Am. J. Physiol. 90:296, 1929. 35. Chanutin, A.; Butt, H. R., and Royster, L. I.: A Study of Progressive Pseudohypertrophic Muscular Dystrophy in Children After the Administration of Glycine and Creatin , J. Biol. Chem. 100:xxvi, 1933. 36. Nedelmann, E.: Ueber den Kreatininstoffwechsel bei Muskelatrophie , München. med. Wchnschr. 70:800 ( (June 22) ) 1923. 37. Thomas, K.: Glykokoll in der Therapie , Deutsche med. Wchnschr. 60: 558 ( (April 30) ) 1934. 38. Harding, V. J., and Gaebler, O. H.: The Constancy of the Creatine-Creatinine Excretion in Children on a High Protein Diet , J. Biol. Chem. 54:579, 1922. 39. The ability of the body to retain ingested creatine is referred to in this report as the "creatine tolerance." 40. Folin, O.: The Chemistry and Bio-Chemistry of Kreatin and Kreatinin, Festkrift tillegnad Olof Hammersten , Upsala, C. J. Lundström, 1906, pt. 3, p. 1. 41. af Klercker, K. O.: Zur Frage der Kreatin- und der Kreatininausscheidung beim Menschen , Beitr. z. chem. Phys. u. Path. 8:59, 1906 42. Beitrag zur Kenntnis des Kreatins und Kreatinins im Stoffwechsel des Menschen , Biochem. Ztschr. 3: 45, 1907. 43. Rose, W. C., and Dimmitt, F. W.: Experimental Studies on Creatine and Creatinine: VII. The Fate of Creatine and Creatinine When Administered to Man , J. Biol. Chem. 26:345, 1916. 44. Benedict, S. R., and Osterberg, E.: Studies in Creatine and Creatinine Metabolism: V. The Metabolism of Creatine , J. Biol. Chem. 56:229, 1923. 45. Chanutin, A.: The Fate of Creatine When Administered to Man , J. Biol. Chem. 67:29, 1926. 46. Bollman, J. L.: The Influence of Protein Metabolism on the Conversion of Creatine to Creatinine , J. Biol. Chem. 85:169, 1929. 47. Chanutin, A.: Studies on the Creatine and Nitrogen Content of the White Rat After Feeding of a Variety of Diets and After Nephrectomy , J. Biol. Chem. 89:765, 1930. 48. Chanutin, A., and Shearer, L. D.: The Effect of Fasting on the Creatine and Nitrogen Content of the Body and Muscle of the White Rat , J. Biol. Chem. 91:475, 1931. 49. Liebig, J.: Recherches de chimie animale , Compt. rend. Acad. d. Sc. 24: 69 and 195, 1847 50. Ueber die Bestandtheile der Flüssigkeiten des Fleisches , Ann. d. Chem. u. Pharm. 62:257, 1847.Crossref 51. Bürger, M.: Beiträge zum Kreatininstoffwechsel: I. Die Bedeutung des Kreatininkoefficienten für die quantitative Bewertung der Muskelatur als Körpergewichtskomponente , Ztschr. f. d. ges. exper. Med. 9:262, 1919.Crossref 52. Eggleton, P., and Eggleton, G. P.: The Inorganic Phosphate and a Labile Form of Organic Phosphate in the Gastrocnemius of the Frog , Biochem. J. 21: 190, 1927. 53. Fiske, C. H., and Subbarow, Y.: The Nature of the "Inorganic Phosphate" in Voluntary Muscle , Science 65:401 ( (April 22) ) 1927Crossref 54. Phosphocreatine , J. Biol. Chem. 81:629, 1929. 55. Hahn, A., and Meyer, G.: Ueber die gegenseitige Umwandlung von Kreatin und Kreatinin: IV. Die Entstehung von Kreatinin im Organismus , Ztschr. f. Biol. 78:91, 1923. 56. Hahn, A., and Fasold, H.: Ueber die gegenseitige Umwandlung von Kreatin und Kreatinin , Ztschr. f. Biol. 83:283, 1925. 57. Gibson, R. B.; Martin, F. T., and Buell, M. V. R.: A Metabolic Study of Progressive Pseudohypertrophic Muscular Dystrophy and Other Muscular Atrophies , Arch. Int. Med. 29:82 ( (Jan.) ) 1922.Crossref 58. Adams, M.; Power, M. H., and Boothby, W. M.: The Influence of Glycine on the Excretion of Creatine and Creatinine , Am. J. Physiol. 111:596, 1935. 59. Kostakow, S.: (a) Beitrag zur Glykokollbehandlung der neuralen Muskelatrophie und dystrophischen Myotonie , Med. Klin. 30:1127 ( (Aug. 24) ) 1934 60. Ueber Spontankreatinurie bei Nervenerkrankungen , Deutsches Arch. f. klin. Med. 178:387, 1936. 61. T. Espersen and A. Thomsen ( A Study of the Creatine and Creatinine Metabolism in Patients with Progressive Muscular Dystrophy During Treatment with Glycine (Glycocol) , Acta med. Scandinav. 92:39, 1937)Crossref 62. Lewinski, J.: Ueber die Grenzen der Hippursäurebildung beim Menschen , Arch. f. exper. Path. u. Pharmakol. 58:397, 1908.Crossref 63. McCollum, E. V., and Hoagland, D. R.: Studies on the Endogenous Metabolism of the Pig as Modified by Various Factors: III. The Influence of Benzoic Acid on the Endogenous Nitrogen Metabolism , J. Biol. Chem. 16:321, 1913. 64. Brand, E.; Harris, M. M.; Sandberg, M., and Lasker, M. M.: Further Studies on the Origin of Creatine , J. Biol. Chem. 87:ix, 1930. 65. Brand and others.27 66. Harris and Brand.17 67. Weber, C. J.: Isolation of Glycocyamine from Urine , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 32:172, 1934. 68. Beard and Barnes ( The Influence of Feeding Proteins, Amino Acids, and Related Substances upon Creatine-Creatinine Metabolism , J. Biol. Chem. 94: 49, 1931) 69. Bodansky ( Comparison of Glycine and Guanido-Acetic Acid as Precursors of Creatine , J. Biol. Chem. 115:641, 1936) 70. Denis, W., and Kramer, J. G.: The Influence of Protein Intake on Creatine Excretion in Children , J. Biol. Chem. 30:189, 1917. 71. Rose, W. C.; Dimmitt, J. S., and Bartlett, H. L.: Experimental Studies on Creatine and Creatinine: VIII. The Alleged Exogenous Origin of Urinary Creatine in the Protein of the Diet , J. Biol. Chem. 34:601, 1918. 72. Mettel, H. B.: Pseudohypertrophic Muscular Dystrophy , J. Pediat. 5: 359, 1934. 73. Beard, H. H.; Tripoli, C. J., and Andes, J. E.: The Diagnostic and Prognostic Significance of the Creatin-Creatinin Metabolism in Various Myopathies Before and After Amino-Acid Therapy , Am. J. M. Sc. 188:706, 1934. 74. Myers, V. C., and Fine, M. S.: The Metabolism of Creatine and Creatinine: VII. The Fate of Creatine When Administered to Man , J. Biol. Chem. 21:377, 1915 75. The Influence of the Administration of Creatine and Creatinine on the Creatine Content of the Muscle , Myers J. Biol. Chem. 16:169, 1913. 76. Lyman, J. F., and Trimby, J. C.: The Excretion of Creatine and Creatinine Parenterally Introduced , J. Biol. Chem. 29:1, 1917. 77. Aring, C. D., and Cobb, S.: The Muscular Atrophies and Allied Disorders , Medicine 14:77, 1935. 78. In the neurologic service of Dr. Foster Kennedy, who has allowed us to publish the notes on these cases.

Journal

Archives of Neurology & PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Nov 1, 1937

References