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STRUCTURE OF THE NERVE ROOT: II. DIFFERENTIATION OF SENSORY FROM MOTOR ROOTS; OBSERVATIONS ON IDENTIFICATION OF FUNCTION IN ROOTS OF MIXED CRANIAL NERVES

STRUCTURE OF THE NERVE ROOT: II. DIFFERENTIATION OF SENSORY FROM MOTOR ROOTS; OBSERVATIONS ON... Abstract In a previous study1 the structure of a typical cerebrospinal nerve root was investigated. The present study is concerned with the difference in structure of the various cerebrospinal nerve roots. Such a study has enabled the formulation of criteria for differentiating sensory and motor nerve roots. As a result, it has been possible to establish some degree of correlation between the structure and the function of certain roots of the mixed cranial nerves. HISTORICAL REVIEW That nerve roots vary with respect to the length of their glial segments has been recognized since the discovery of neuroglia. Virchow2 called attention to the occurrence of neuroglia along the acoustic nerve. Henneberg and Koch3 demonstrated a neuroglial extension constituting the central part of all nerve roots except the olfactory and the optic. It will be seen later that, like subsequent investigators, Henneberg and Koch were in error in their conception References 1. Tarlov, I. M.: Structure of the Nerve Root: I. Nature of the Junction Between the Central and the Peripheral Nervous System , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 37:555 ( (Feb.) ) 1937. 2. Virchow, R.: Cellular Pathology , translated by F. Chance, London, J. & A. Churchill, Ltd., 1860. 3. Henneberg and Koch, M.: Ueber centrale Neurofibromatose und die Geschwülste des Kleinhirnbrückenwinkels (Acusticusneurome) , Arch. f. Psychiat. 36:251, 1902. 4. Henschen, F.: Zur Histologie und Pathogenese der Kleinhirnbrückenwinkeltumoren , Arch. f. Psychiat. 56:20, 1915. 5. Lhermitte, J., and Klarfeld, B.: Gliome pré-protubérantiel avec métastases: Hémiplégie sans dégéneration du faisceau pyramidal , Rev. neurol. 21:392, 1911. 6. Alexander, G., and Obersteiner, H.: Das verhaltendes normalen Nervus cochlearis im Meatus auditorius internus , Ztschr. f. Ohrenh. 55:78, 1908. 7. Skinner, H.: Some Histologic Features of the Cranial Nerves , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 25:356 ( (Feb.) ) 1931. 8. The brains of over fifty adults were examined in the course of this investigation, but complete sets of cranial nerves were not obtained in each instance. The number of nerves of different subjects on which the average measurement of the length of the glial segment is based is not less than ten in any case. 9. This measurement represents the distance from the olfactory bulb to the point along the nerve at which its reticulin assumes more or less the pattern of well defined endoneurial compartments. It is in this region approximately that the neuroglia has been observed to disappear, Schwann cells and other peripheral ensheathing cells covering the nerve fibers. 10. The cranial nerves differ from the usual spinal nerves in lacking a pial constriction in the region of their emergence from the central axis. The cranial nerves may, however, present a slight bulging beyond the point of superficial origin, usually in the zone of transition. 11. An intraspinal transition occurs less commonly in the case of the posterior than in that of the anterior roots. 12. Obersteiner, H., and Redlich, E.: Ueber Wesen und Pathogenese der tabischen Hinterstrangsdegeneration , Arb. a. d. Inst. f. Anat. u. Physiol. d. Centralnervensyst. an d. Wien. Univ. , no. (2) , 1894, p. 158. 13. Levi, E.: Studien zur normalen und pathologischen Anatomie der hinteren Rückenmarkswurzeln , Arb. a. d. neurol. Inst. a. d. Wien. Univ. 13:62, 1906. 14. The olfactory nerve is frequently an exception in presenting a shorter glial segment than many motor nerves. It differs from other cerebrospinal nerves in being more primitive in the organization of its nerve fibers and interstitial substance. 15. The fact that one encounters among the spinal portion of the eleventh nerve roots which resemble grossly and microscopically the posterior cervical roots makes it likely that this nerve may contain a sensory component. The predominating pattern of the spinal portion of the eleventh nerve roots, however, conforms to that of the motor roots. 16. Neal, H.: Morphology of the Eye Muscle Nerves , J. Morphol. 25:1, 1914. 17. Carpenter, F., and Main, R.: Migration of Medullary Cells into the Ventral Nerve Roots of Pig Embryo , Anat. Rec. 1:63, 1906-1907. 18. Harrison, R. G.: Neuroblast Versus Sheath Cell in the Development of Peripheral Nerves , J. Comp. Neurol. 37:123, 1924-1925. 19. Van Campenhout, E.: Contribution to the Problem of the Development of the Sympathetic Nervous System , J. Exper. Zoöl. 56:295, 1930. 20. Streeter, G.: The Peripheral Nervous System in the Human Embryo at the End of the First Month , Am. J. Anat. 8:225, 1908. 21. Chase, M., and Ranson, S.: The Structure of the Roots, Trunk and Branches of the Vagus Nerve , J. Comp. Neurol. 24:31, 1914. 22. Foley, J., and DuBois, F.: Experimental and Anatomical Studies on Vagus Nerve of Cat , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 30:571, 1933 23. An Experimental Study of the Rootlets of the Vagus Nerve in the Cat , J. Comp. Neurol. 60:137, 1934. 24. van Gehuchten, A., and Molhant, M.: Contribution a l'étude anatomique du nerf pneumogastrique chez l'homme , Névraxe 13:55, 1912-1913. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry American Medical Association

STRUCTURE OF THE NERVE ROOT: II. DIFFERENTIATION OF SENSORY FROM MOTOR ROOTS; OBSERVATIONS ON IDENTIFICATION OF FUNCTION IN ROOTS OF MIXED CRANIAL NERVES

Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry , Volume 37 (6) – Jun 1, 1937

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1937 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0096-6754
DOI
10.1001/archneurpsyc.1937.02260180118008
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Abstract

Abstract In a previous study1 the structure of a typical cerebrospinal nerve root was investigated. The present study is concerned with the difference in structure of the various cerebrospinal nerve roots. Such a study has enabled the formulation of criteria for differentiating sensory and motor nerve roots. As a result, it has been possible to establish some degree of correlation between the structure and the function of certain roots of the mixed cranial nerves. HISTORICAL REVIEW That nerve roots vary with respect to the length of their glial segments has been recognized since the discovery of neuroglia. Virchow2 called attention to the occurrence of neuroglia along the acoustic nerve. Henneberg and Koch3 demonstrated a neuroglial extension constituting the central part of all nerve roots except the olfactory and the optic. It will be seen later that, like subsequent investigators, Henneberg and Koch were in error in their conception References 1. Tarlov, I. M.: Structure of the Nerve Root: I. Nature of the Junction Between the Central and the Peripheral Nervous System , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 37:555 ( (Feb.) ) 1937. 2. Virchow, R.: Cellular Pathology , translated by F. Chance, London, J. & A. Churchill, Ltd., 1860. 3. Henneberg and Koch, M.: Ueber centrale Neurofibromatose und die Geschwülste des Kleinhirnbrückenwinkels (Acusticusneurome) , Arch. f. Psychiat. 36:251, 1902. 4. Henschen, F.: Zur Histologie und Pathogenese der Kleinhirnbrückenwinkeltumoren , Arch. f. Psychiat. 56:20, 1915. 5. Lhermitte, J., and Klarfeld, B.: Gliome pré-protubérantiel avec métastases: Hémiplégie sans dégéneration du faisceau pyramidal , Rev. neurol. 21:392, 1911. 6. Alexander, G., and Obersteiner, H.: Das verhaltendes normalen Nervus cochlearis im Meatus auditorius internus , Ztschr. f. Ohrenh. 55:78, 1908. 7. Skinner, H.: Some Histologic Features of the Cranial Nerves , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 25:356 ( (Feb.) ) 1931. 8. The brains of over fifty adults were examined in the course of this investigation, but complete sets of cranial nerves were not obtained in each instance. The number of nerves of different subjects on which the average measurement of the length of the glial segment is based is not less than ten in any case. 9. This measurement represents the distance from the olfactory bulb to the point along the nerve at which its reticulin assumes more or less the pattern of well defined endoneurial compartments. It is in this region approximately that the neuroglia has been observed to disappear, Schwann cells and other peripheral ensheathing cells covering the nerve fibers. 10. The cranial nerves differ from the usual spinal nerves in lacking a pial constriction in the region of their emergence from the central axis. The cranial nerves may, however, present a slight bulging beyond the point of superficial origin, usually in the zone of transition. 11. An intraspinal transition occurs less commonly in the case of the posterior than in that of the anterior roots. 12. Obersteiner, H., and Redlich, E.: Ueber Wesen und Pathogenese der tabischen Hinterstrangsdegeneration , Arb. a. d. Inst. f. Anat. u. Physiol. d. Centralnervensyst. an d. Wien. Univ. , no. (2) , 1894, p. 158. 13. Levi, E.: Studien zur normalen und pathologischen Anatomie der hinteren Rückenmarkswurzeln , Arb. a. d. neurol. Inst. a. d. Wien. Univ. 13:62, 1906. 14. The olfactory nerve is frequently an exception in presenting a shorter glial segment than many motor nerves. It differs from other cerebrospinal nerves in being more primitive in the organization of its nerve fibers and interstitial substance. 15. The fact that one encounters among the spinal portion of the eleventh nerve roots which resemble grossly and microscopically the posterior cervical roots makes it likely that this nerve may contain a sensory component. The predominating pattern of the spinal portion of the eleventh nerve roots, however, conforms to that of the motor roots. 16. Neal, H.: Morphology of the Eye Muscle Nerves , J. Morphol. 25:1, 1914. 17. Carpenter, F., and Main, R.: Migration of Medullary Cells into the Ventral Nerve Roots of Pig Embryo , Anat. Rec. 1:63, 1906-1907. 18. Harrison, R. G.: Neuroblast Versus Sheath Cell in the Development of Peripheral Nerves , J. Comp. Neurol. 37:123, 1924-1925. 19. Van Campenhout, E.: Contribution to the Problem of the Development of the Sympathetic Nervous System , J. Exper. Zoöl. 56:295, 1930. 20. Streeter, G.: The Peripheral Nervous System in the Human Embryo at the End of the First Month , Am. J. Anat. 8:225, 1908. 21. Chase, M., and Ranson, S.: The Structure of the Roots, Trunk and Branches of the Vagus Nerve , J. Comp. Neurol. 24:31, 1914. 22. Foley, J., and DuBois, F.: Experimental and Anatomical Studies on Vagus Nerve of Cat , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 30:571, 1933 23. An Experimental Study of the Rootlets of the Vagus Nerve in the Cat , J. Comp. Neurol. 60:137, 1934. 24. van Gehuchten, A., and Molhant, M.: Contribution a l'étude anatomique du nerf pneumogastrique chez l'homme , Névraxe 13:55, 1912-1913.

Journal

Archives of Neurology & PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jun 1, 1937

References