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STREAK RETINOSCOPY

STREAK RETINOSCOPY Abstract Refraction is a procedure of major importance in the practice of ophthalmology. The majority of all patients who consult the ophthalmologist do so because of refractive errors the proper correction of which relieves them of symptoms of ocular distress. It is well known, too, that refractive errors may be etiologically important when symptoms seem to indicate extraocular or intraocular disease. Thus in numerous instances symptoms of apparent muscle imbalance, psychogenic disorder or involvement of the central nervous system can be correctly evaluated only after existing refractive conditions have been thoroughly considered. The numerous and diverse methods used for refraction may be divided into two general groups: the subjective and the objective. The first involves the use of visual acuity charts, trial lenses etc., and depends on the patient's judgment of his visual capacity with different lens combinations. Objective methods of refraction employ such instruments as the retinoscope and the ophthalmometer References 1. Jackson, E.: Skiascopy , in de Schweinitz, G. E.: Diseases of the Eye , ed. 10, Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Company, 1924, p. 120. 2. Reid streak retinoscope, J. E. Reid Instrument Co., Philadelphia. 3. Wolff, H.: Ueber die Skiaskopietheorie, skiaskopische Refractionsbestimmung und über mein elektrisches Skiaskopophthalmometer nebst Bemerkung über die Akkomodationslinie und die sphärische Abberation des Auges , Berlin, S. Karger, 1903. 4. Wolff, H.: Skiaskopietheorie vom Standpunkt der geometrischen Optik, der Ophthalmoskopie und entoptischen Wahrnehmung (entoptische Skiaskopietheorie) , Berlin, S. Karger, 1905. 5. Wolff, H.: Ueber die Skiaskopietheorie und über mein elektrisches Skiaskopophthalmometer , Wien. med Wchnschr. 54:2311-2315, 1904 6. De la théorie skiascopique et de mon skiascopophtalmomètre électrique , Arch. d'opht. 24:213-219, 1904 7. Noch einmal meine Skiaskopietheorie , Arch. f. Augenh. 53:135-148, 1905 8. Neue Beiträge zur Skiaskopietheorie , Wien. klin. Rundschau 20:41-44 and 61-64, 1906 9. Das System der Skiaskopie und Ophthalmoskopie vom Standpunkt der physischen, physiologischen und geometrischen Optik , Ztschr. f. Augenh. 16: 91-195, 1906 10. Ueber Schattendrehung und Schattenlauf sowie über das astigmatische Gesichtsfeld in der Skiaskopie , Arch. f. Augenh. 60:210-254, 1908 11. Vereinfachte Erörterung über Skiaskopie, nebst einer Uebersicht über 393 Untersuchungen , Ztschr. f. Augenh. 38:318-359, 1917. 12. Elliot, R. H.: Errors of Refraction , Brit. J. Ophth. 2:313-322, 1918Crossref 13. Copeland, J. C.: Personal communication to the author. 14. Copeland Refractoscope Acceptable, report of the Council on Physical Therapy , J. A. M. A. 105:1982-1983 ( (Dec. 14) ) 1935. 15. Maxwell, J. T.: Outline of Ocular Refraction , Omaha, Medical Publishing Company, 1937. 16. Clapp, C. A.: Accuracy of Skiascopy as Based upon a Study of Fifteen Thousand Eyes , Am. J. Ophth. 7:523-526, 1924. 17. Thorington, J. : Refraction of the Human Eye , ed. 2, Philadelphia, P. Blakiston's Son & Co., 1930. 18. Duke-Elder, W. S. : The Practice of Refraction , ed. 2, Philadelphia, P. Blakiston's Son & Co., 1935. 19. de Schweinitz, G. E. : Diseases of the Eye , ed. 10, Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Company, 1924. 20. Berens, C.: The Eye and Its Diseases , Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Company, 1936. 21. Pascal, J. I.: Modern Retinoscopy, Including the Principles and Practice of Velonoskiascopy , London, Hatton Press, Ltd., 1930. 22. Lindner, K.: Die Bestimmung des Astigmatismus durch Schattenprobe mit Cylindergläsern , Berlin, S. Karger, 1927. 23. Jackson, E.: Accuracy in the Measurement of Refraction , Ann. Ophth. 18:703-712, 1909. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Ophthalmology American Medical Association

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1939 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9950
eISSN
1538-3687
DOI
10.1001/archopht.1939.00860050117010
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract Refraction is a procedure of major importance in the practice of ophthalmology. The majority of all patients who consult the ophthalmologist do so because of refractive errors the proper correction of which relieves them of symptoms of ocular distress. It is well known, too, that refractive errors may be etiologically important when symptoms seem to indicate extraocular or intraocular disease. Thus in numerous instances symptoms of apparent muscle imbalance, psychogenic disorder or involvement of the central nervous system can be correctly evaluated only after existing refractive conditions have been thoroughly considered. The numerous and diverse methods used for refraction may be divided into two general groups: the subjective and the objective. The first involves the use of visual acuity charts, trial lenses etc., and depends on the patient's judgment of his visual capacity with different lens combinations. Objective methods of refraction employ such instruments as the retinoscope and the ophthalmometer References 1. Jackson, E.: Skiascopy , in de Schweinitz, G. E.: Diseases of the Eye , ed. 10, Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Company, 1924, p. 120. 2. Reid streak retinoscope, J. E. Reid Instrument Co., Philadelphia. 3. Wolff, H.: Ueber die Skiaskopietheorie, skiaskopische Refractionsbestimmung und über mein elektrisches Skiaskopophthalmometer nebst Bemerkung über die Akkomodationslinie und die sphärische Abberation des Auges , Berlin, S. Karger, 1903. 4. Wolff, H.: Skiaskopietheorie vom Standpunkt der geometrischen Optik, der Ophthalmoskopie und entoptischen Wahrnehmung (entoptische Skiaskopietheorie) , Berlin, S. Karger, 1905. 5. Wolff, H.: Ueber die Skiaskopietheorie und über mein elektrisches Skiaskopophthalmometer , Wien. med Wchnschr. 54:2311-2315, 1904 6. De la théorie skiascopique et de mon skiascopophtalmomètre électrique , Arch. d'opht. 24:213-219, 1904 7. Noch einmal meine Skiaskopietheorie , Arch. f. Augenh. 53:135-148, 1905 8. Neue Beiträge zur Skiaskopietheorie , Wien. klin. Rundschau 20:41-44 and 61-64, 1906 9. Das System der Skiaskopie und Ophthalmoskopie vom Standpunkt der physischen, physiologischen und geometrischen Optik , Ztschr. f. Augenh. 16: 91-195, 1906 10. Ueber Schattendrehung und Schattenlauf sowie über das astigmatische Gesichtsfeld in der Skiaskopie , Arch. f. Augenh. 60:210-254, 1908 11. Vereinfachte Erörterung über Skiaskopie, nebst einer Uebersicht über 393 Untersuchungen , Ztschr. f. Augenh. 38:318-359, 1917. 12. Elliot, R. H.: Errors of Refraction , Brit. J. Ophth. 2:313-322, 1918Crossref 13. Copeland, J. C.: Personal communication to the author. 14. Copeland Refractoscope Acceptable, report of the Council on Physical Therapy , J. A. M. A. 105:1982-1983 ( (Dec. 14) ) 1935. 15. Maxwell, J. T.: Outline of Ocular Refraction , Omaha, Medical Publishing Company, 1937. 16. Clapp, C. A.: Accuracy of Skiascopy as Based upon a Study of Fifteen Thousand Eyes , Am. J. Ophth. 7:523-526, 1924. 17. Thorington, J. : Refraction of the Human Eye , ed. 2, Philadelphia, P. Blakiston's Son & Co., 1930. 18. Duke-Elder, W. S. : The Practice of Refraction , ed. 2, Philadelphia, P. Blakiston's Son & Co., 1935. 19. de Schweinitz, G. E. : Diseases of the Eye , ed. 10, Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Company, 1924. 20. Berens, C.: The Eye and Its Diseases , Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Company, 1936. 21. Pascal, J. I.: Modern Retinoscopy, Including the Principles and Practice of Velonoskiascopy , London, Hatton Press, Ltd., 1930. 22. Lindner, K.: Die Bestimmung des Astigmatismus durch Schattenprobe mit Cylindergläsern , Berlin, S. Karger, 1927. 23. Jackson, E.: Accuracy in the Measurement of Refraction , Ann. Ophth. 18:703-712, 1909.

Journal

Archives of OphthalmologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: May 1, 1939

References