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Stimulation of Suprabulbar Reticular Formation: Effect on Elements of Spinal Reflex Pathways

Stimulation of Suprabulbar Reticular Formation: Effect on Elements of Spinal Reflex Pathways Abstract The effects of stimulating the suprabulbar or bulbar reticular formation on reflex activity of the spinal cord have been studied by Lloyd* (1941, 1944), Magoun † (1944, 1950), Rhines and Magoun26 (1946 ), Bach2 (1950), Austin1 (1952), Lindsley14 (1952), and numerous others. The parameters of bulbar and suprabulbar facilitatory and inhibitory areas have been well worked out (Lindsley,14 1952; Lindsley, Schreiner, and Magoun,15 1949; Magoun and Rhines,23 1946; Niemer and Magoun,25 1947; Rhines and Magoun,26 1946), and the descending pathways from these centers are likewise known (Lloyd,16 1941; McCulloch, Graf, and Magoun,24 1946; Niemer and Magoun,25 1947; Thulin,28 1953). Less information is available, however, concerning the site and mode of action of the reticular formation on spinal reflex pathways. The purpose of the experiments to be reported here was that of studying the mode of the facilitatory action References 1. References 16 and 18. 2. References 21 and 22. 3. Brooks, C. McC., and Koizumi, K.: Origin of the Dorsal Root Reflex , J. Neurophysiol. , to be published. 4. Austin, G. M.: Suprabulbar Mechanisms of Facilitation and Inhibition of Cord Reflexes , A. Res. Nerv. & Ment. Dis., Proc. 30:196-222, 1952. 5. Bach, L. M. N.: Effect of Bulbar Facilitation and Inhibition on Peripheral Reflex Inhibition , J. Neurophysiol. 13:259-264, 1950. 6. Brooks, C. McC.; Downman, C. B. B., and Eccles, J. C.: After-Potentials and Excitability of Spinal Motoneurones Following Antidromic Activation , J. Neurophysiol. 13:9-38, 1950. 7. Brooks, C. McC., and Eccles, J. C.: Electrical Investigation of the Monosynaptic Pathway Through the Spinal Cord , J. Neurophysiol. 10: 251-273, 1947. 8. Brooks, C. McC.; Koizumi, K., and Malcolm, J. L.: Effects of Changes in Temperature on Reactions of the Spinal Cord , J. Neurophysiol , to be published. 9. Chang, H-T.: Similarity in Action Between Curare and Strychnine on Cortical Neurons , J. Neurophysiol. 16:221-233, 1953. 10. Eccles, J. C., and Rail, W.: Effects Induced in a Monosynaptic Reflex Path by Its Activation , J. Neurophysiol. 14:353-376, 1951. 11. Granit, R.: Reflex Self-Regulation of Muscle Contraction and Autogenic Inhibition , J. Neurophysiol. 13:351-372, 1950. 12. Gualtierotti, T.: Potential Level of the Spinal Roots During Central Inhibition and Excitation , J. Physiol. 118:361-372, 1952. 13. Hagbarth, K. E., and Kerr, D. I. B.: Central Influences on Spinal Afferent Conduction , J. Neurophysiol. 17:295-307, 1954. 14. Ingram, W. R.; Ranson, S. W.; Hannett, R. I.; Zeiss, F. R., and Terwilliger, E. H.: Results of Stimulation of the Tegmentum with the Horsley-Clarke Stereotaxic Apparatus , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 28:513-541, 1932. 15. Jenkner, F. L., and Ward, A., Jr.: Bulbar Reticular Formation and Tremor , A. M. A. Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 70:489-502, 1953. 16. Kleyntjens, F.; Koizumi, K., and Brooks, C. McC.: Changes Produced in Spinal Reflexes by Stimulation of Reticular Formation , Fed. Proc. 13:79-80, 1954. 17. Lindsley, D. B.: Brain Stem Influences on Spinal Motor Activity , A. Res. Nerv. & Ment. Dis., Proc. 30:174-195, 1952. 18. Lindsley, D. B.; Schreiner, L. H., and Magoun, H. W.: An Electromyographic Study of Spasticity , J. Neurophysiol. 12:197-205, 1949. 19. Lloyd, D. P. C.: Activity in Neurons of the Bulbospinal Correlation System , J. Neurophysiol. 4:115-134, 1941. 20. Lloyd, D. P. C.: Spinal Mechanism of the Pyramidal System in Cats , J. Neurophysiol. 4:525-546, 1941. 21. Lloyd, D. P. C.: Functional Organization in the Spinal Cord , Physiol. Rev. 24:1-17, 1944. 22. Lloyd, D. P. C.: Post-Tetanic Potentiation of Response in Monosynaptic Reflex Pathways of the Spinal Cord , J. Gen. Physiol. 33:147-170, 1949. 23. Lloyd, D. P. C., and McIntyre, A. K.: On the Origins of Dorsal Root Potentials , J. Gen. Physiol. 32:409-443, 1949. 24. Magoun, H. W.: Bulbar Inhibition and Facilitation of Motor Activity , Science 100:549-550, 1944. 25. Magoun, H. W.: Caudal and Cephalic Influences of the Brain Stem Reticular Formation , Physiol. Rev. 30:459-474, 1950. 26. Magoun, H. W., and Rhines, R.: An Inhibitory Mechanism in the Bulbar Reticular Formation , J. Neurophysiol. 9:165-171, 1946. 27. McCulloch, W. S.; Graf, C., and Magoun, H. W.: A Cortico-Bulbo-Reticular Pathway from Area 4-s , J. Neurophysiol. 9:127-132, 1946. 28. Niemer, W. T., and Magoun, H. W.: Reticulo-Spinal Tracts Influencing Motor Activity , J. Comp. Neurol. 86-87: 367-379, 1947.Crossref 29. Rhines, R., and Magoun, H. W.: Brain Stem Facilitation of Cortical Motor Response , J. Neurophysiol. 9:219-229, 1946. 30. Sprague, J. M.; Schreiner, L. H.; Lindsley, D. B., and Magoun, H. W.: Reticulo-Spinal Influences on Stretch Reflexes , J. Neurophysiol. 11: 501-507, 1948. 31. Thulin, C.-A.: Motor Effects from Stimulation of the Vestibular Nuclei and the Reticular Formation , Acta physiol. scandinav. , (Supp.) 103, 28:5-61, 1953. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png A.M.A. Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry American Medical Association

Stimulation of Suprabulbar Reticular Formation: Effect on Elements of Spinal Reflex Pathways

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1955 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0096-6886
DOI
10.1001/archneurpsyc.1955.02330100057010
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Abstract

Abstract The effects of stimulating the suprabulbar or bulbar reticular formation on reflex activity of the spinal cord have been studied by Lloyd* (1941, 1944), Magoun † (1944, 1950), Rhines and Magoun26 (1946 ), Bach2 (1950), Austin1 (1952), Lindsley14 (1952), and numerous others. The parameters of bulbar and suprabulbar facilitatory and inhibitory areas have been well worked out (Lindsley,14 1952; Lindsley, Schreiner, and Magoun,15 1949; Magoun and Rhines,23 1946; Niemer and Magoun,25 1947; Rhines and Magoun,26 1946), and the descending pathways from these centers are likewise known (Lloyd,16 1941; McCulloch, Graf, and Magoun,24 1946; Niemer and Magoun,25 1947; Thulin,28 1953). Less information is available, however, concerning the site and mode of action of the reticular formation on spinal reflex pathways. The purpose of the experiments to be reported here was that of studying the mode of the facilitatory action References 1. References 16 and 18. 2. References 21 and 22. 3. Brooks, C. McC., and Koizumi, K.: Origin of the Dorsal Root Reflex , J. Neurophysiol. , to be published. 4. Austin, G. M.: Suprabulbar Mechanisms of Facilitation and Inhibition of Cord Reflexes , A. Res. Nerv. & Ment. Dis., Proc. 30:196-222, 1952. 5. Bach, L. M. N.: Effect of Bulbar Facilitation and Inhibition on Peripheral Reflex Inhibition , J. Neurophysiol. 13:259-264, 1950. 6. Brooks, C. McC.; Downman, C. B. B., and Eccles, J. C.: After-Potentials and Excitability of Spinal Motoneurones Following Antidromic Activation , J. Neurophysiol. 13:9-38, 1950. 7. Brooks, C. McC., and Eccles, J. C.: Electrical Investigation of the Monosynaptic Pathway Through the Spinal Cord , J. Neurophysiol. 10: 251-273, 1947. 8. Brooks, C. McC.; Koizumi, K., and Malcolm, J. L.: Effects of Changes in Temperature on Reactions of the Spinal Cord , J. Neurophysiol , to be published. 9. Chang, H-T.: Similarity in Action Between Curare and Strychnine on Cortical Neurons , J. Neurophysiol. 16:221-233, 1953. 10. Eccles, J. C., and Rail, W.: Effects Induced in a Monosynaptic Reflex Path by Its Activation , J. Neurophysiol. 14:353-376, 1951. 11. Granit, R.: Reflex Self-Regulation of Muscle Contraction and Autogenic Inhibition , J. Neurophysiol. 13:351-372, 1950. 12. Gualtierotti, T.: Potential Level of the Spinal Roots During Central Inhibition and Excitation , J. Physiol. 118:361-372, 1952. 13. Hagbarth, K. E., and Kerr, D. I. B.: Central Influences on Spinal Afferent Conduction , J. Neurophysiol. 17:295-307, 1954. 14. Ingram, W. R.; Ranson, S. W.; Hannett, R. I.; Zeiss, F. R., and Terwilliger, E. H.: Results of Stimulation of the Tegmentum with the Horsley-Clarke Stereotaxic Apparatus , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 28:513-541, 1932. 15. Jenkner, F. L., and Ward, A., Jr.: Bulbar Reticular Formation and Tremor , A. M. A. Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 70:489-502, 1953. 16. Kleyntjens, F.; Koizumi, K., and Brooks, C. McC.: Changes Produced in Spinal Reflexes by Stimulation of Reticular Formation , Fed. Proc. 13:79-80, 1954. 17. Lindsley, D. B.: Brain Stem Influences on Spinal Motor Activity , A. Res. Nerv. & Ment. Dis., Proc. 30:174-195, 1952. 18. Lindsley, D. B.; Schreiner, L. H., and Magoun, H. W.: An Electromyographic Study of Spasticity , J. Neurophysiol. 12:197-205, 1949. 19. Lloyd, D. P. C.: Activity in Neurons of the Bulbospinal Correlation System , J. Neurophysiol. 4:115-134, 1941. 20. Lloyd, D. P. C.: Spinal Mechanism of the Pyramidal System in Cats , J. Neurophysiol. 4:525-546, 1941. 21. Lloyd, D. P. C.: Functional Organization in the Spinal Cord , Physiol. Rev. 24:1-17, 1944. 22. Lloyd, D. P. C.: Post-Tetanic Potentiation of Response in Monosynaptic Reflex Pathways of the Spinal Cord , J. Gen. Physiol. 33:147-170, 1949. 23. Lloyd, D. P. C., and McIntyre, A. K.: On the Origins of Dorsal Root Potentials , J. Gen. Physiol. 32:409-443, 1949. 24. Magoun, H. W.: Bulbar Inhibition and Facilitation of Motor Activity , Science 100:549-550, 1944. 25. Magoun, H. W.: Caudal and Cephalic Influences of the Brain Stem Reticular Formation , Physiol. Rev. 30:459-474, 1950. 26. Magoun, H. W., and Rhines, R.: An Inhibitory Mechanism in the Bulbar Reticular Formation , J. Neurophysiol. 9:165-171, 1946. 27. McCulloch, W. S.; Graf, C., and Magoun, H. W.: A Cortico-Bulbo-Reticular Pathway from Area 4-s , J. Neurophysiol. 9:127-132, 1946. 28. Niemer, W. T., and Magoun, H. W.: Reticulo-Spinal Tracts Influencing Motor Activity , J. Comp. Neurol. 86-87: 367-379, 1947.Crossref 29. Rhines, R., and Magoun, H. W.: Brain Stem Facilitation of Cortical Motor Response , J. Neurophysiol. 9:219-229, 1946. 30. Sprague, J. M.; Schreiner, L. H.; Lindsley, D. B., and Magoun, H. W.: Reticulo-Spinal Influences on Stretch Reflexes , J. Neurophysiol. 11: 501-507, 1948. 31. Thulin, C.-A.: Motor Effects from Stimulation of the Vestibular Nuclei and the Reticular Formation , Acta physiol. scandinav. , (Supp.) 103, 28:5-61, 1953.

Journal

A.M.A. Archives of Neurology & PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Apr 1, 1955

References