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Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Ocular Infections

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Ocular Infections Abstract Objectives: To determine if the number of ocular infections associated with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is increasing, to identify predisposing factors, and to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility. Methods: Retrospective review of ocular microbiology laboratory records from January 1, 1972, through December 31, 1995. Results: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was recovered from 15 cases of ocular infection, at a rate of one in every 1339 ocular specimens in the 1970s, one in 413 in the 1980s, and one in 363 in the 1990s through 1995. The organism was the predominant isolate in five cases and was part of a polybacterial infection in the remaining 10 cases. Eight of the 15 cases had bacterial keratitis, including one with infectious crystalline keratopathy. Of the remaining seven infections, S maltophilia was recovered from two cases of acute conjunctivitis, two infected scleral buckles (one with orbital cellulitis), two cases of infantile dacryocystitis, and one case of preseptal cellulitis. Ocular isolates of S maltophilia were resistant to the aminoglycosides and most β-lactams, and showed variable susceptibility to the fluoroquinolones. Conclusions: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is emerging as an important opportunistic ocular pathogen. Most infections by this organism occur in patients with ocular compromise, and the characteristically resistant antibiogram of S maltophilia limits the therapeutic options. References 1. Palleroni NJ, Bradbury JF. Stenotrophomonas, a new bacterial genus for Xanthomonas maltophilia (Hugh 1980) Swings et al. 1983 . Int J Syst Bacteriol . 1993;43:606-609.Crossref 2. Gilardi GL. Pseudomonas and related genera . In: Balows A, Hausler WJ Jr, Herrmann KL, senberg HD, Shadomy HJ, eds. Manual of Clinical Microbiology . 5th ed. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology; 1991:429-441. 3. Schoch PE, Cunha BA. Pseudomonas maltophilia . Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol . 1987;8:169-172. 4. Holmes B, Lapage SP, Easterling BG. Distribution in clinical material and identification of Pseudomonas maltophilia . J Clin Pathol . 1979;32:66-72.Crossref 5. Visser MR, Bogaards L, Rozenberg-Arska M, Verhoef J. Comparison of the autoSCAN-W/A and Vitek Automicrobic systems for identification and susceptibility testing of bacteria . Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis . 1992;11:979-984.Crossref 6. Holmes B, Costas M, Thaker T, Stevens M. Evaluation of two BBL crystal systems for identification of some clinically important gram-negative bacteria . J Clin Microbiol . 1994;32:2221-2224. 7. Laing FPY, Ramotar K, Read RR, et al. Molecular epidemiology of Xanthomonas maltophilia colonization and infection in the hospital environment . J Clin Microbiol . 1995;33:513-518. 8. Marshall WF, Keating MR, Anhalt JP, Steckelberg JM. Xanthomonas maltophilia: an emerging nosocomial pathogen . Mayo Clin Proc . 1989;64:1097-1104.Crossref 9. Bottone EJ, Madayag RM, Qureshi MN. Acanthamoeba keratitis: synergy between amebic and bacterial cocontaminants in contact lens care systems as a prelude to infection . J Clin Microbiol . 1992;30:2447-2450. 10. Clark BJ, Harkins LS, Munro FA, Devonshire P. Microbial contamination of cases used for storing contact lenses . J Infect . 1994;28:293-304.Crossref 11. Donzis PB, Mondino BJ, Weissman BA, Bruckner DA. Microbial contamination of contact lens care systems . Am J Ophthalmol . 1987;104:325-333. 12. Donzis PB, Mondino BJ, Weissman BA, Bruckner DA. Microbial analysis of contact lens care systems contaminated with Acanthamoeba . Am J Ophthalmol . 1989;108:53-56. 13. Sutter VL. Identification of Pseudomonas species isolated from hospital environment and human sources . Appl Environ Microbiol . 1968;16:1532-1538. 14. Ben-Tovim T, Eylan E, Romans A, Stein R. Gram-negative bacteria isolated from external eye infections . Infection . 1974;2:162-165.Crossref 15. Sarvamangala Devi JN. Venkatesh A, Shivananda PG. Neonatal infections due to Pseudomonas maltophilia . Indian Pediatr . 1984;21:72-74. 16. Snyder ME, Katz HR. Ciprofloxacin-resistant bacterial keratitis . Am J Ophthalmol . 1992;114:336-338. 17. Chen S, Stroh EM. Wald K, Jalkh A. Xanthomonas maltophilia endophthalmitis after implantation of sustained-release ganciclovir . Am J Ophthalmol . 1992;114:772-773. 18. Gilardi GL. Glucose Nonfermenting Gram-negative Bacteria in Clinical Microbiology . West Palm Beach, Fla: CRC Press Inc; 1978:25-27. 19. Koneman EW, Allen SD, Janda WM, Schrenkenberger PC, Winn WC Jr. The nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli . In: Color Atlas and Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiology . 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: JB Lippincott; 1992:185-242. 20. Bottone EJ, Perez AA, Gordon RE, Qureshi MN. Differential binding capacity and internalisation of bacterial substrates as factors in growth rate of Acanthamoeba spp . J Med Microbiol . 1994;40:148-154.Crossref 21. O'Brien M, Davis GHG. Enzymatic profile of Pseudomonas maltophilia . J Clin Microbiol . 1982;16:417-421. 22. Gilardi GL. Infrequently encountered Pseudomonas species causing infection in humans . Ann Intern Med . 1972;77:211-215.Crossref 23. Mett H. Rosta S, Schacher B, Frei R. Outer membrane permeability and β-lactamase content in Pseudomonas maltophilia clinical isolates and laboratory mutants . Rev Infect Dis . 1988;10:765-769.Crossref 24. Vartivarian S, Anaissie E, Bodey G, Sprigg H, Rolston K. A changing pattern of susceptibility of Xanthomonas maltophilia to antimicrobial agents: implications for therapy . Antimicrob Agents Chemother . 1994;38:624-627.Crossref 25. Pankuch GA, Jacobs MR, Rittenhouse SF, Appelbaum PC. Susceptibilities of 123 strains of Xanthomonas maltophilia to eight β-lactams (including β-lactamβ-lactamase inhibitor combinations) and ciprofloxacin tested by five methods . Antimicrob Agents Chemother . 1994;38:2317-2322.Crossref 26. Yao JDC. Louie M, Louie L, Goodfellow J, Simor AE. Comparison of E test and agar dilution for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Stenotrophomonas (Xanthomonas) maltophilia . J Clin Microbiol . 1995;33:1428-1430. 27. Krčméry V, Antal M, Langšádl L, Knothe H. Transferable amikacin resistance in Pseudomonas maltophilia and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus . Infection . 1985;13:89-90.Crossref 28. Hawkey PM, Birkenhead D, Kerr KG, Newton KE, Hyde WA. Effect of divalent cations in bacteriological media on the susceptibility of Xanthomonas maltophilia to imipenem, with special reference to zinc ions . J Antimicrob Chemother . 1993;31:47-55.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Ophthalmology American Medical Association

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Ocular Infections

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1996 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9950
eISSN
1538-3687
DOI
10.1001/archopht.1996.01100130429013
Publisher site
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Abstract

Abstract Objectives: To determine if the number of ocular infections associated with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is increasing, to identify predisposing factors, and to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility. Methods: Retrospective review of ocular microbiology laboratory records from January 1, 1972, through December 31, 1995. Results: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was recovered from 15 cases of ocular infection, at a rate of one in every 1339 ocular specimens in the 1970s, one in 413 in the 1980s, and one in 363 in the 1990s through 1995. The organism was the predominant isolate in five cases and was part of a polybacterial infection in the remaining 10 cases. Eight of the 15 cases had bacterial keratitis, including one with infectious crystalline keratopathy. Of the remaining seven infections, S maltophilia was recovered from two cases of acute conjunctivitis, two infected scleral buckles (one with orbital cellulitis), two cases of infantile dacryocystitis, and one case of preseptal cellulitis. Ocular isolates of S maltophilia were resistant to the aminoglycosides and most β-lactams, and showed variable susceptibility to the fluoroquinolones. Conclusions: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is emerging as an important opportunistic ocular pathogen. Most infections by this organism occur in patients with ocular compromise, and the characteristically resistant antibiogram of S maltophilia limits the therapeutic options. References 1. Palleroni NJ, Bradbury JF. Stenotrophomonas, a new bacterial genus for Xanthomonas maltophilia (Hugh 1980) Swings et al. 1983 . Int J Syst Bacteriol . 1993;43:606-609.Crossref 2. Gilardi GL. Pseudomonas and related genera . In: Balows A, Hausler WJ Jr, Herrmann KL, senberg HD, Shadomy HJ, eds. Manual of Clinical Microbiology . 5th ed. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology; 1991:429-441. 3. Schoch PE, Cunha BA. Pseudomonas maltophilia . Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol . 1987;8:169-172. 4. Holmes B, Lapage SP, Easterling BG. Distribution in clinical material and identification of Pseudomonas maltophilia . J Clin Pathol . 1979;32:66-72.Crossref 5. Visser MR, Bogaards L, Rozenberg-Arska M, Verhoef J. Comparison of the autoSCAN-W/A and Vitek Automicrobic systems for identification and susceptibility testing of bacteria . Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis . 1992;11:979-984.Crossref 6. Holmes B, Costas M, Thaker T, Stevens M. Evaluation of two BBL crystal systems for identification of some clinically important gram-negative bacteria . J Clin Microbiol . 1994;32:2221-2224. 7. Laing FPY, Ramotar K, Read RR, et al. Molecular epidemiology of Xanthomonas maltophilia colonization and infection in the hospital environment . J Clin Microbiol . 1995;33:513-518. 8. Marshall WF, Keating MR, Anhalt JP, Steckelberg JM. Xanthomonas maltophilia: an emerging nosocomial pathogen . Mayo Clin Proc . 1989;64:1097-1104.Crossref 9. Bottone EJ, Madayag RM, Qureshi MN. Acanthamoeba keratitis: synergy between amebic and bacterial cocontaminants in contact lens care systems as a prelude to infection . J Clin Microbiol . 1992;30:2447-2450. 10. Clark BJ, Harkins LS, Munro FA, Devonshire P. Microbial contamination of cases used for storing contact lenses . J Infect . 1994;28:293-304.Crossref 11. Donzis PB, Mondino BJ, Weissman BA, Bruckner DA. Microbial contamination of contact lens care systems . Am J Ophthalmol . 1987;104:325-333. 12. Donzis PB, Mondino BJ, Weissman BA, Bruckner DA. Microbial analysis of contact lens care systems contaminated with Acanthamoeba . Am J Ophthalmol . 1989;108:53-56. 13. Sutter VL. Identification of Pseudomonas species isolated from hospital environment and human sources . Appl Environ Microbiol . 1968;16:1532-1538. 14. Ben-Tovim T, Eylan E, Romans A, Stein R. Gram-negative bacteria isolated from external eye infections . Infection . 1974;2:162-165.Crossref 15. Sarvamangala Devi JN. Venkatesh A, Shivananda PG. Neonatal infections due to Pseudomonas maltophilia . Indian Pediatr . 1984;21:72-74. 16. Snyder ME, Katz HR. Ciprofloxacin-resistant bacterial keratitis . Am J Ophthalmol . 1992;114:336-338. 17. Chen S, Stroh EM. Wald K, Jalkh A. Xanthomonas maltophilia endophthalmitis after implantation of sustained-release ganciclovir . Am J Ophthalmol . 1992;114:772-773. 18. Gilardi GL. Glucose Nonfermenting Gram-negative Bacteria in Clinical Microbiology . West Palm Beach, Fla: CRC Press Inc; 1978:25-27. 19. Koneman EW, Allen SD, Janda WM, Schrenkenberger PC, Winn WC Jr. The nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli . In: Color Atlas and Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiology . 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: JB Lippincott; 1992:185-242. 20. Bottone EJ, Perez AA, Gordon RE, Qureshi MN. Differential binding capacity and internalisation of bacterial substrates as factors in growth rate of Acanthamoeba spp . J Med Microbiol . 1994;40:148-154.Crossref 21. O'Brien M, Davis GHG. Enzymatic profile of Pseudomonas maltophilia . J Clin Microbiol . 1982;16:417-421. 22. Gilardi GL. Infrequently encountered Pseudomonas species causing infection in humans . Ann Intern Med . 1972;77:211-215.Crossref 23. Mett H. Rosta S, Schacher B, Frei R. Outer membrane permeability and β-lactamase content in Pseudomonas maltophilia clinical isolates and laboratory mutants . Rev Infect Dis . 1988;10:765-769.Crossref 24. Vartivarian S, Anaissie E, Bodey G, Sprigg H, Rolston K. A changing pattern of susceptibility of Xanthomonas maltophilia to antimicrobial agents: implications for therapy . Antimicrob Agents Chemother . 1994;38:624-627.Crossref 25. Pankuch GA, Jacobs MR, Rittenhouse SF, Appelbaum PC. Susceptibilities of 123 strains of Xanthomonas maltophilia to eight β-lactams (including β-lactamβ-lactamase inhibitor combinations) and ciprofloxacin tested by five methods . Antimicrob Agents Chemother . 1994;38:2317-2322.Crossref 26. Yao JDC. Louie M, Louie L, Goodfellow J, Simor AE. Comparison of E test and agar dilution for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Stenotrophomonas (Xanthomonas) maltophilia . J Clin Microbiol . 1995;33:1428-1430. 27. Krčméry V, Antal M, Langšádl L, Knothe H. Transferable amikacin resistance in Pseudomonas maltophilia and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus . Infection . 1985;13:89-90.Crossref 28. Hawkey PM, Birkenhead D, Kerr KG, Newton KE, Hyde WA. Effect of divalent cations in bacteriological media on the susceptibility of Xanthomonas maltophilia to imipenem, with special reference to zinc ions . J Antimicrob Chemother . 1993;31:47-55.Crossref

Journal

Archives of OphthalmologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Apr 1, 1996

References