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Staphylococcal Keratitis: Experimental Model in Guinea Pigs

Staphylococcal Keratitis: Experimental Model in Guinea Pigs Abstract • An experimental model of staphylococcal keratitis in guinea pigs was devised that is suitable for quantitative evaluation of therapy. The growth curve in the cornea of a virulent strain of Staphylococcus aureus was determined. The organism multiplied rapidly, reached a peak in about 12 hours, and began to decline in numbers after three days. Infections were relatively resistant to therapy begun 24 hours after infection was established. Treatment started earlier when fewer bacteria were present was more effective than treatment begun later. Treatment begun at the time of infection, which might be considered prophylaxis, was highly effective. When treatment was begun eight hours after infection, tobramycin sulfate and gentamicin sulfate solutions administered topically in doses of 20 mg/ml were more effective than topical bacitracin, erythromycin, clindamycin phosphate, or a solution containing polymyxin B sulfate, neomycin sulfate, and gramicidin. Bacitracin and erythromycin ointments were ineffective. References 1. Jones DB: A plan for antimicrobial therapy in bacterial keratitis . Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol 79:95-103, 1975. 2. Kupferman A, Leibowitz HM: Quantitation of bacterial infection and antibiotic effect in the cornea . Arch Ophthalmol 94:1981-1984, 1976.Crossref 3. Kupferman A, Leibowitz HM: Topical antibiotic therapy of staphylococcal keratitis . Arch Ophthalmol 95:1634-1637, 1977.Crossref 4. Davis SD, Chandler JW: Experimental keratitis due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Antimicrob Agent Chemother 8:350-355, 1975.Crossref 5. Davis SD, Sarff LD, Hyndiuk RA: Antibiotic therapy of experimental Pseudomonas keratitis in guinea pigs . Arch Ophthalmol 95:1638-1643, 1977.Crossref 6. Davis SD, Sarff LD, Hyndiuk RA: Topical tobramycin therapy of experimental Pseudomonas keratitis: An evaluation of some factors that potentially enhance efficacy . Arch Ophthalmol 96:123-125, 1978.Crossref 7. Davis SD, Sarff LD, Hyndiuk RA: Corticosteroid in experimentally induced Pseudomonas keratitis: Failure of prednisolone to impair the efficacy of tobramycin and carbenicillin therapy . Arch Ophthalmol 96:126-128, 1978.Crossref 8. Lennette EH, Spaulding EH, Truant JP (eds): Manual of Clinical Microbiology , ed 2. Washington, DC, American Society for Microbiology, 1974. 9. Smith MR, Wood WB Jr: An experimental analysis of the curative action of penicillin in acute bacterial infections: I. The relationship of the antimicrobial effect of penicillin . J Exp Med 103:487-498, 1956.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Ophthalmology American Medical Association

Staphylococcal Keratitis: Experimental Model in Guinea Pigs

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1978 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9950
eISSN
1538-3687
DOI
10.1001/archopht.1978.03910060494023
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract • An experimental model of staphylococcal keratitis in guinea pigs was devised that is suitable for quantitative evaluation of therapy. The growth curve in the cornea of a virulent strain of Staphylococcus aureus was determined. The organism multiplied rapidly, reached a peak in about 12 hours, and began to decline in numbers after three days. Infections were relatively resistant to therapy begun 24 hours after infection was established. Treatment started earlier when fewer bacteria were present was more effective than treatment begun later. Treatment begun at the time of infection, which might be considered prophylaxis, was highly effective. When treatment was begun eight hours after infection, tobramycin sulfate and gentamicin sulfate solutions administered topically in doses of 20 mg/ml were more effective than topical bacitracin, erythromycin, clindamycin phosphate, or a solution containing polymyxin B sulfate, neomycin sulfate, and gramicidin. Bacitracin and erythromycin ointments were ineffective. References 1. Jones DB: A plan for antimicrobial therapy in bacterial keratitis . Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol 79:95-103, 1975. 2. Kupferman A, Leibowitz HM: Quantitation of bacterial infection and antibiotic effect in the cornea . Arch Ophthalmol 94:1981-1984, 1976.Crossref 3. Kupferman A, Leibowitz HM: Topical antibiotic therapy of staphylococcal keratitis . Arch Ophthalmol 95:1634-1637, 1977.Crossref 4. Davis SD, Chandler JW: Experimental keratitis due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Antimicrob Agent Chemother 8:350-355, 1975.Crossref 5. Davis SD, Sarff LD, Hyndiuk RA: Antibiotic therapy of experimental Pseudomonas keratitis in guinea pigs . Arch Ophthalmol 95:1638-1643, 1977.Crossref 6. Davis SD, Sarff LD, Hyndiuk RA: Topical tobramycin therapy of experimental Pseudomonas keratitis: An evaluation of some factors that potentially enhance efficacy . Arch Ophthalmol 96:123-125, 1978.Crossref 7. Davis SD, Sarff LD, Hyndiuk RA: Corticosteroid in experimentally induced Pseudomonas keratitis: Failure of prednisolone to impair the efficacy of tobramycin and carbenicillin therapy . Arch Ophthalmol 96:126-128, 1978.Crossref 8. Lennette EH, Spaulding EH, Truant JP (eds): Manual of Clinical Microbiology , ed 2. Washington, DC, American Society for Microbiology, 1974. 9. Smith MR, Wood WB Jr: An experimental analysis of the curative action of penicillin in acute bacterial infections: I. The relationship of the antimicrobial effect of penicillin . J Exp Med 103:487-498, 1956.Crossref

Journal

Archives of OphthalmologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Nov 1, 1978

References