Abstract Every ophthalmologist has at one time or another doubted the reliability of his tonometer. It is obvious that any measuring device must be based on a standard. Even the length of a yardstick is determined by the Bureau of Standards. Yet there exists the anomalous situation that each ophthalmologist must establish the norms for his own instrument, which may not correspond to any other instrument. EARLY CHECKING STATIONS The Schiøtz tonometer, since its introduction in 1905, has gained universal recognition and is accepted as the standard. Since Schiøtz did not patent his tonometer, numerous competitive imitations came on the market, mainly of German manufacture. With them arose the necessity for checking the accuracy of tonometers. Checking stations were organized in Germany by Arnold and Karpow in 19231 and by Comberg in 1928.2 In 1925 Schiøtz3 announced a checking station at Oslo, Norway, under his own supervision. In References 1. Arnold, H., and Karpow, C.: Ueber die Eichungsverfahren für das Tonometer von Schiötz , Klin. Monatsbl. f. Augenh. 71:603, 1923. 2. Comberg, W.: Ueber die Kontrolle des Schiötz-Tonometers , Klin. Monatsbl. f. Augenh. 81:289, 1928. 3. Schiøtz, H.: Tonometry , Brit. J. Ophth. 9:145, 1925.Crossref 4. Posner, A.: A Checking Station for Tonometers , Arch. Ophth. 14:453 ( (Sept.) ) 1935.Crossref 5. Harrington, D. O., and Parsons, A. H.: Tonometric Standardization , Arch. Ophth. 26:859 ( (Nov.) ) 1941.Crossref 6. Reese, A. B.: Standardizing and Checking Tonometers , Am. J. Ophth. 25:478, 1942. 7. Schiøtz, H.: Ein neuer Tonometer , Arch. f. Augenh. 52:401, 1905. 8. Lloyd, R. I.: Tonometry and Various Instruments Employed in Its Practice , Am. J. Ophth. 13:396 and 496, 1930. 9. Schiøtz, H.: Tonometrie , Arch. f. Augenh. 62:317, 1909. 10. Schiøtz, H.: Tonometry , Brit. J. Ophth. 4:201 and 249, 1920.Crossref 11. Friedenwald, J. S.: Contribution to the Theory and Practice of Tonometry , Am. J. Ophth. 20:985, 1937. 12. Smith, P.: Limitations of the Tonometer , Ophth. Rev. 34:65, 1915. 13. McLean, W.: Further Experimental Studies in Intraocular Pressure and Tonometry , Brit. J. Ophth. 3:385, 1919.Crossref 14. Schiøtz, H.: Tonometrie: Tonometer mit konvexem Zapfen , Acta ophth. 4:1, 1926Crossref 15. Tonometry: Tonometer with Convex Plunger , Brit. J. Ophth. 11:116, 1927.Crossref 16. Duke-Elder, W. S.: Text-Book of Ophthalmology , St. Louis, C. V. Mosby Company, 1938, vol. 2, p. 1191. 17. Friedenwald, J. S., in discussion on Harrington and Parsons.5
Archives of Ophthalmology – American Medical Association
Published: Jul 1, 1943
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